Results for '��liane Escoubas'

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  1. Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex Increases Utilitarian Moral Judgements.Michael Koenigs, Liane Young, Ralph Adolphs, Daniel Tranel, Fiery Cushman, Marc Hauser & Antonio Damasio - 2007 - Nature 446 (7138):908-911.
    The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of many recent empirical studies1–11. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion-related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. Here we show that six patients with focal bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region necessary for the normal generation of emotions and, in particular, social emotions12–14, produce an abnor- mally ‘utilitarian’ pattern of (...)
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  2.  25
    Dyscalculia From a Developmental and Differential Perspective.Liane Kaufmann, Michèle M. Mazzocco, Ann Dowker, Michael von Aster, Silke M. Göbel, Roland H. Grabner, Avishai Henik, Nancy C. Jordan, Annette D. Karmiloff-Smith, Karin Kucian, Orly Rubinsten, Denes Szucs, Ruth Shalev & Hans-Christoph Nuerk - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
  3.  13
    Arte y productos culturales. Conversación con Éliane Escoubas.Éliane Escoubas, Kathia Hanza & José Carlos Gutiérrez - 2007 - Estudios de Filosofía: Revista del Seminaro de Filosofia del instituto Riva-Aguero 6:101-109.
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  4. Arte y productos culturales. Conversación con Éliane Escoubas.Éliane Escoubas, Kathia Hanza & José Carlos Gutiérrez - 2007 - Estudios de Filosofía 6:101-109.
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  5.  82
    Mind Perception is the Essence of Morality.Kurt Gray, Liane Young & Adam Waytz - 2012 - Psychological Inquiry 23 (2):101-124.
    Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds—a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions (...)
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  6. When Ignorance is No Excuse: Different Roles for Intent Across Moral Domains.Liane Young & Rebecca Saxe - 2011 - Cognition 120 (2):202-214.
  7.  18
    Disruption of the Right Temporoparietal Junction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Reduces the Role of Beliefs in Moral Judgments.Liane Young, Joan Albert Camprodon, Marc Hauser, Alvaro Pascual-Leone & Rebecca Saxe - 2010 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
    When we judge an action as morally right or wrong, we rely on our capacity to infer the actor's mental states. Here, we test the hypothesis that the right temporoparietal junction, an area involved in mental state reasoning, is necessary for making moral judgments. In two experiments, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to disrupt neural activity in the RTPJ transiently before moral judgment and during moral judgment. In both experiments, TMS to the RTPJ led participants to rely less on the (...)
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  8. Does Emotion Mediate the Relationship Between an Action's Moral Status and its Intentional Status? Neuropsychological Evidence.Liane Young, Daniel Tranel, Ralph Adolphs, Marc Hauser & Fiery Cushman - 2006 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 6 (1-2):291-304.
    Studies of normal individuals reveal an asymmetry in the folk concept of intentional action: an action is more likely to be thought of as intentional when it is morally bad than when it is morally good. One interpretation of these results comes from the hypothesis that emotion plays a critical mediating role in the relationship between an action’s moral status and its intentional status. According to this hypothesis, the negative emotional response triggered by a morally bad action drives the attribution (...)
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  9. The Neural Basis of the Interaction Between Theory of Mind and Moral Judgment.Liane Young, Fiery Cushman, Marc Hauser & and Rebecca Saxe - 2007 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (20):8235-8240.
    Is the basis of criminality an act that causes harm, or an act undertaken with the belief that one will cause harm? The present study takes a cognitive neuroscience approach to investigating how information about an agent’s beliefs and an action’s conse- quences contribute to moral judgment. We build on prior devel- opmental evidence showing that these factors contribute differ- entially to the young child’s moral judgments coupled with neurobiological evidence suggesting a role for the right tem- poroparietal junction (RTPJ) (...)
     
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  10.  45
    Meme and Variations.Liane M. Gabora - unknown
    American Political Science Association Meeting, New Orleans, 1985. Belew, R. K. "E,volut,ioi1. Leariiing, and Culture: Computational Metaphors for Adaptive Algorithms? Complex Systems 4 (1990}: 11-49. Banner, J. T. The Evolution of Culture in Animals. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univcrsitv Press. 1980.
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  11. The Paradox of Moral Focus.Liane Young & Jonathan Phillips - 2011 - Cognition 119 (2):166-178.
    When we evaluate moral agents, we consider many factors, including whether the agent acted freely, or under duress or coercion. In turn, moral evaluations have been shown to influence our (non-moral) evaluations of these same factors. For example, when we judge an agent to have acted immorally, we are subsequently more likely to judge the agent to have acted freely, not under force. Here, we investigate the cognitive signatures of this effect in interpersonal situations, in which one agent (“forcer”) forces (...)
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  12. Investigating the Neural and Cognitive Basis of Moral Luck: It’s Not What You Do but What You Know. [REVIEW]Liane Young, Shaun Nichols & Rebecca Saxe - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (3):333-349.
    Moral judgments, we expect, ought not to depend on luck. A person should be blamed only for actions and outcomes that were under the person’s control. Yet often, moral judgments appear to be influenced by luck. A father who leaves his child by the bath, after telling his child to stay put and believing that he will stay put, is judged to be morally blameworthy if the child drowns (an unlucky outcome), but not if his child stays put and doesn’t (...)
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  13.  15
    Classification of Structural Complexity for Mine Ventilation Networks.Lian-Jiang Wei, Fu-Bao Zhou, Jian-Wei Cheng, Xin-Rong Luo & Xiao-Lin Li - 2016 - Complexity 21 (1):21-34.
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  14.  31
    Moral Realism as Moral Motivation: The Impact of Meta-Ethics on Everyday Decision-Making.Liane Young & A. J. Durwin - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 49 (2):302-306.
    People disagree about whether “moral facts” are objective facts like mathematical truths (moral realism) or simply products of the human mind (moral antirealism). What is the impact of different meta-ethical views on actual behavior? In Experiment 1, a street canvasser, soliciting donations for a charitable organization dedicated to helping impoverished children, primed passersby with realism or antirealism. Participants primed with realism were twice as likely to be donors, compared to control participants and participants primed with antirealism. In Experiment 2, online (...)
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  15.  11
    Damage to Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Judgment of Harmful Intent.Liane Young, Antoine Bechara, Daniel Tranel, Hanna Damasio, Marc Hauser & Antonio Damasio - 2010 - Neuron 65 (6):845-851.
    Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work demonstrates that patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex deliver abnormal judgments in response to moral dilemmas and that these patients are especially impaired in triggering emotional responses to inferred or abstract events, as opposed to real or actual outcomes. We therefore predicted that VMPC patients would deliver (...)
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  16. Patterns of Moral Judgment Derive From Nonmoral Psychological Representations.Fiery Cushman & Liane Young - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (6):1052-1075.
    Ordinary people often make moral judgments that are consistent with philosophical principles and legal distinctions. For example, they judge killing as worse than letting die, and harm caused as a necessary means to a greater good as worse than harm caused as a side-effect (Cushman, Young, & Hauser, 2006). Are these patterns of judgment produced by mechanisms specific to the moral domain, or do they derive from other psychological domains? We show that the action/omission and means/side-effect distinctions affect nonmoral representations (...)
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  17. The Role of Conscious Reasoning and Intuition in Moral Judgment.Fiery Cushman, Liane Young & Marc Hauser - 2006 - Psychological Science 17 (12):1082-1089.
    ��Is moral judgment accomplished by intuition or conscious reasoning? An answer demands a detailed account of the moral principles in question. We investigated three principles that guide moral judgments: (a) Harm caused by action is worse than harm caused by omission, (b) harm intended as the means to a goal is worse than harm foreseen as the side effect of a goal, and (c) harm involving physical contact with the victim is worse than harm involving no physical contact. Asking whether (...)
     
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  18. Multi-System Moral Psychology.Fiery Cushman, Liane Young & Joshua D. Greene - 2010 - In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
  19.  5
    ‘The Impossible Possibility of Love’: Reinhold Niebuhr’s Thought on Racial Justice.Liane Hartnett - 2021 - Journal of International Political Theory 17 (2):151-168.
    Love has been long lauded for its salvific potential in U.S. anti-racist rhetoric. Yet, what does it mean to speak or act in love’s name to redress racism? Turning to the work of the North American public intellectual and theologian, Reinhold Niebuhr, this essay explores his contribution to normative theory on love’s role in the work of racial justice. Niebuhr was a staunch supporter of civil rights, and many prominent figures of the movement such as James Cone, Jesse Jackson, Martin (...)
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  20.  81
    Contextualizing Concepts Using a Mathematical Generalization of the Quantum Formalism.Liane Gabora & Diederik Aerts - 2002 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 14 (4):327-358.
    We outline the rationale and preliminary results of using the State Context Property (SCOP) formalism, originally developed as a generalization of quantum mechanics, to describe the contextual manner in which concepts are evoked, used, and combined to generate meaning. The quantum formalism was developed to cope with problems arising in the description of (1) the measurement process, and (2) the generation of new states with new properties when particles become entangled. Similar problems arising with concepts motivated the formal treatment introduced (...)
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  21. Concepts and Their Dynamics: A Quantum‐Theoretic Modeling of Human Thought.Diederik Aerts, Liane Gabora & Sandro Sozzo - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):737-772.
    We analyze different aspects of our quantum modeling approach of human concepts and, more specifically, focus on the quantum effects of contextuality, interference, entanglement, and emergence, illustrating how each of them makes its appearance in specific situations of the dynamics of human concepts and their combinations. We point out the relation of our approach, which is based on an ontology of a concept as an entity in a state changing under influence of a context, with the main traditional concept theories, (...)
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  22.  37
    In Early Childhood: What's Language About?Liane Mozère - 2007 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (3):291–299.
    This paper argues that in daycare centres in France, where children are cared for from four months to age three, the competence of female staff members is usually denied and unvalued vis à vis the expert opinions. The paper highlights empirical research on early childhood and gender, providing pragmatic access to children's languages of desire, a language mostly ignored. Incorporating the ideas of Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari, the paper draws upon the conceptualization of Fernand Deligny who took care of autistic (...)
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  23. Ideas Are Not Replicators but Minds Are.Liane Gabora - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (1):127-143.
    An idea is not a replicator because it does not consist of coded self-assembly instructions. It may retain structure as it passes from one individual to another, but does not replicate it. The cultural replicator is not an idea but an associatively-structured network of them that together form an internal model of the world, or worldview. A worldview is a primitive, uncoded replicator, like the autocatalytic sets of polymers widely believed to be the earliest form of life. Primitive replicators generate (...)
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  24. The Psychology of Dilemmas and the Philosophy of Morality.Fiery Cushman & Liane Young - 2009 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (1):9-24.
    We review several instances where cognitive research has identified distinct psychological mechanisms for moral judgment that yield conflicting answers to moral dilemmas. In each of these cases, the conflict between psychological mechanisms is paralleled by prominent philosophical debates between different moral theories. A parsimonious account of this data is that key claims supporting different moral theories ultimately derive from the psychological mechanisms that give rise to moral judgments. If this view is correct, it has some important implications for the practice (...)
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  25.  94
    Moral Intuitions.Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Liane Young & Fiery Cushman - 2010 - In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press. pp. 246--272.
    Moral intuitions are strong, stable, immediate moral beliefs. Moral philosophers ask when they are justified. This question cannot be answered separately from a psychological question: How do moral intuitions arise? Their reliability depends upon their source. This chapter develops and argues for a new theory of how moral intuitions arise—that they arise through heuristic processes best understood as unconscious attribute substitutions. That is, when asked whether something has the attribute of moral wrongness, people unconsciously substitute a different question about a (...)
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  26.  7
    Neural Evidence for "Intuitive Prosecution": The Use of Mental State Information for Negative Moral Verdicts.Liane Young, Jonathan Scholz & Rebecca Saxe - 2011 - Social Neuroscience 6 (3):302-315.
    Moral judgment depends critically on theory of mind, reasoning about mental states such as beliefs and intentions. People assign blame for failed attempts to harm and offer forgiveness in the case of accidents. Here we use fMRI to investigate the role of ToM in moral judgment of harmful vs. helpful actions. Is ToM deployed differently for judgments of blame vs. praise? Participants evaluated agents who produced a harmful, helpful, or neutral outcome, based on a harmful, helpful, or neutral intention; participants (...)
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  27.  19
    Can Only One Person Be Right? The Development of Objectivism and Social Preferences Regarding Widely Shared and Controversial Moral Beliefs.Larisa Heiphetz & Liane L. Young - 2017 - Cognition 167:78-90.
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  28.  14
    Harmful Situations, Impure People: An Attribution Asymmetry Across Moral Domains.Alek Chakroff & Liane Young - 2015 - Cognition 136:30-37.
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  29.  19
    The Cultural Evolution of Socially Situated Cognition.Liane Gabora - manuscript
    Because human cognition is creative and socially situated, knowledge accumulates, diffuses, and gets applied in new contexts, generating cultural analogs of phenomena observed in population genetics such as adaptation and drift. It is therefore commonly thought that elements of culture evolve through natural selection. However, natural selection was proposed to explain how change accumulates despite lack of inheritance of acquired traits, as occurs with template-mediated replication. It cannot accommodate a process with significant retention of acquired or horizontally (e.g. socially) transmitted (...)
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  30.  94
    Doing Good Leads to More Good: The Reinforcing Power of a Moral Self-Concept.Liane Young, Alek Chakroff & Jessica Tom - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (3):325-334.
    What is the role of self-concept in motivating moral behavior? On one account, when people are primed to perceive themselves as “do-gooders”, conscious access to this positive self-concept will reinforce good behavior. On an alternative account, when people are reminded that they have done their “good deed for the day”, they will feel licensed to behave worse. In the current study, when participants were asked to recall their own good deeds (positive self-concept), their subsequent charitable donations were nearly twice that (...)
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  31.  44
    Contextualizing Concepts.Liane Gabora & Diederik Aerts - unknown
    To cope with problems arising in the description of (1) contextual interactions, and (2) the generation of new states with new properties when quantum entities become entangled, the mathematics of quantum mechanics was developed. Similar problems arise with concepts. We use a generalization of standard quantum mechanics, the mathematical lattice theoretic formalism, to develop a formal description of the contextual manner in which concepts are evoked, used, and combined to generate meaning.
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  32.  67
    Stock Option Repricing: Heads I Win, Tails You Lose. [REVIEW]Avinash Arya & Huey-Lian Sun - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 50 (4):297-312.
    Recent scandals at Enron, WorldCom and Global Crossing have put the ethical spotlight on corporate malfeasance as never before. However, these are the situations in which management knew that they made the wrong choice. As professor Joseph Badaracco of Harvard Business School points out, the real ethical dilemmas arise when people must choose between right and right — where both choices can be justified, yet one must be chosen over the other. Whether or not to reprice stock options represents one (...)
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  33.  15
    Pressure Behavior of Shale-Gas Flow in Dual Porous Medium Based on Fractal Theory.Peiqing Lian, Taizhong Duan, Rui Xu, Linlin Li & Meng Li - 2018 - Interpretation: SEG 6 (4):SN1-SN10.
    The shale gas reservoir is a complex subject with a multiscale nanopore and fracture system, and the gas flow mechanism indicates an evident difference from the conventional gas reservoir. We have introduced fractal theory to characterize the multiscale distribution of pores and fractures, and we have developed a single-phase radial flow model considering nonequilibrium adsorption to describe the flow characteristics in the shale gas reservoir. The numerical solution of the flow model in Euclidean space is obtained by inversing the analytical (...)
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  34.  15
    Revenge of the 'Neurds': Characterizing Creative Thought in Terms of the Structure and Dynamics of Memory.Liane Gabora - unknown
    Empirical results suggest that defocusing attention results in primary process or associative thought, conducive to finding unusual connections, while focusing attention results in secondary process or analytic thought, conducive to rule-based operations. Creativity appears to involve both. It is widely believed that it is possible to escape mental fixation by spontaneously and temporarily engaging in a more divergent or associative mode of thought. The resulting insight may be refined in a more analytic mode of thought. The question addressed here is: (...)
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  35.  29
    Five Clarifications About Cultural Evolution.Liane Gabora - 2011 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 11 (1-2):61-83.
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  36.  86
    Where Should the Line Be Drawn on Insider Trading Ethics?Yulong Ma & Huey-Lian Sun - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (1):67-75.
    Finance ethics have drawn increasing attention from both government regulators and academic researchers. This paper addresses the issue of insider trading ethics. Previous studies on insider trading ethics have failed to provide convincing arguments and consistent results. In particular, the arguments against insider trading are based primarily on moral and philosophical grounds and lack empirical rigor. This study intends to establish and examine the relationship between the ethical issue and economic issue of insider trading. We argue that the ethics of (...)
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  37.  21
    Ensemble Prediction Algorithm of Anomaly Monitoring Based on Big Data Analysis Platform of Open-Pit Mine Slope.Song Jiang, Minjie Lian, Caiwu Lu, Qinghua Gu, Shunling Ruan & Xuecai Xie - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-13.
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  38.  10
    Pressure Behavior of Shale-Gas Flow in Dual Porous Medium Based on Fractal Theory.Peiqing Lian, Taizhong Duan, Rui Xu, Linlin Li & Meng Li - 2018 - Interpretation 6 (4):SN1-SN10.
    The shale gas reservoir is a complex subject with a multiscale nanopore and fracture system, and the gas flow mechanism indicates an evident difference from the conventional gas reservoir. We have introduced fractal theory to characterize the multiscale distribution of pores and fractures, and we have developed a single-phase radial flow model considering nonequilibrium adsorption to describe the flow characteristics in the shale gas reservoir. The numerical solution of the flow model in Euclidean space is obtained by inversing the analytical (...)
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  39.  49
    Moral Universals and Individual Differences.Liane Young & Rebecca Saxe - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):323-324.
    Contemporary moral psychology has focused on the notion of a universal moral sense, robust to individual and cultural differences. Yet recent evidence has revealed individual differences in the psychological processes for moral judgment: controlled cognition, mental-state reasoning, and emotional responding. We discuss this evidence and its relation to cross-cultural diversity in morality.
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  40.  19
    Generating a Social Movement Online Community Through an Online Discourse: The Case of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.Olaug S. Lian & Jan Grue - 2017 - Journal of Medical Humanities 38 (2):173-189.
    Online communities, created and sustained by people sharing and discussing texts on the internet, play an increasingly important role in social health movements. In this essay, we explore a collective mobilization in miniature through an in-depth analysis of two satiric texts from an online community for people with myalgic encephalomyelitis. By blending a sociological analysis with a rhetorical exploration of these texts, our aim is to grasp the discursive generation of a social movement online community set up by sufferers themselves (...)
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  41. Amplifying Phenomenal Information: Toward a Fundamental Theory of Consciousness.Liane Gabora - 2002 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (8):3-29.
    from non-conscious components by positing that consciousness is a universal primitive. For example, the double aspect theory of information holds that infor- mation has a phenomenal aspect. How then do you get from phenomenal infor- mation to human consciousness? This paper proposes that an entity is conscious to the extent it amplifies information, first by trapping and integrating it through closure, and second by maintaining dynamics at the edge of chaos through simul- taneous processes of divergence and convergence. The origin (...)
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  42.  25
    Self-Other Organization: Why Early Life Did Not Evolve Through Natural Selection.Liane Gabora - manuscript
    The improbability of a spontaneously generated self-assembling molecule has suggested that life began with a set of simpler, collectively replicating elements, such as an enclosed autocatalytic set of polymers (or autocell). Since replication occurs without a self-assembly code, acquired characteristics are inherited. Moreover, there is no strict distinction between alive and dead; one can only infer that an autocell was alive if it replicates. These features of early life render natural selection inapplicable to the description of its change-of-state because they (...)
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  43.  21
    What Entrepreneurial Followers at the Start-Up Stage Need From Entrepreneurship Cultivation: Evidence From Western China.Xuefan Dong, Chengxiang Tang, Ying Lian & Daisheng Tang - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  44.  17
    Efficient Privacy-Preserving Protocol for K-NN Search Over Encrypted Data in Location-Based Service.Huijuan Lian, Weidong Qiu, Zheng di YanHuang & Jie Guo - 2017 - Complexity:1-14.
    With the development of mobile communication technology, location-based services are booming prosperously. Meanwhile privacy protection has become the main obstacle for the further development of LBS. The k-nearest neighbor search is one of the most common types of LBS. In this paper, we propose an efficient private circular query protocol with high accuracy rate and low computation and communication cost. We adopt the Moore curve to convert two-dimensional spatial data into one-dimensional sequence and encrypt the points of interest information with (...)
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  45.  88
    A Theory of Concepts and Their Combinations I: The Structure of the Sets of Contexts and Properties.Diederik Aerts & Liane Gabora - 2005 - Aerts, Diederik and Gabora, Liane (2005) a Theory of Concepts and Their Combinations I.
    We propose a theory for modeling concepts that uses the state-context-property theory (SCOP), a generalization of the quantum formalism, whose basic notions are states, contexts and properties. This theory enables us to incorporate context into the mathematical structure used to describe a concept, and thereby model how context influences the typicality of a single exemplar and the applicability of a single property of a concept. We introduce the notion `state of a concept' to account for this contextual influence, and show (...)
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  46.  15
    A Developmental Model of Number Representation.Karin Kucian & Liane Kaufmann - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):340-341.
    We delineate a developmental model of number representations. Notably, developmental dyscalculia (DD) is rarely associated with an all-or-none deficit in numerosity processing as would be expected if assuming abstract number representations. Finally, we suggest that the view might be a plausible explanatory framework for our model of how number representations develop.
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  47.  3
    Modeling a Cognitive Transition at the Origin of Cultural Evolution Using Autocatalytic Networks.Liane Gabora & Mike Steel - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (9).
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  48.  29
    A Day in the Life of a Meme.Liane Gabora - 1996 - Philosophica 57 (1):53-90.
    Like the information patterns that evolve through. biological processes, mental representations or memes evolve through adaptive exploration and transformation of an information space through variation, selection, and transmission. However since memes do not contain instructions for their replication our brains do it for them, strategically, guided by a fitness landscape that reflects both internal drives and a worldview that forms through meme assimilation. This paper presents a tentative model for how an individual becomes a meme evolving agent via the emergence (...)
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  49.  49
    Weaving, Bending, Patching, Mending the Fabric of Reality: A Cognitive Science Perspective on Worldview Inconsistency. [REVIEW]Liane Gabora - 1998 - Foundations of Science 3 (2):395-428.
    In order to become aware of inconsistencies, one must first construe of the world in a way that reflects its consistencies. This paper begins with a tentative model for how a set of discrete memories transforms into an interconnected worldview wherein relationships between memories are forged by way of abstractions. Inconsistencies prompt the invention of new abstractions. In regions of the conceptual network where inconsistencies abound, a cognitive analog of simulated annealing is in order; there is a willingness to question (...)
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  50.  80
    Zhuangzi the Poet: Re-Reading the Peng Bird Image.Lian Xinda - 2009 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (3):233-254.
    The image of the Peng bird, which opens the Zhuangzi text, is not the product of metaphysical reasoning. An inspiring example of soaring up and going beyond, the image is used to broaden the outlook of the small mind; its function is thus more therapeutic than instructional. With its rich poetic and experiential content, the image of the Peng refuses to be reduced to an abstract concept, or a mere signifier of certain philosophical position. Misreading of the image results from (...)
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