Results for '*Brain Damage'

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  1. Brain Damage and the Moral Significance of Consciousness.Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (1):6-26.
    Neuroimaging studies of brain-damaged patients diagnosed as in the vegetative state suggest that the patients might be conscious. This might seem to raise no new ethical questions given that in related disputes both sides agree that evidence for consciousness gives strong reason to preserve life. We question this assumption. We clarify the widely held but obscure principle that consciousness is morally significant. It is hard to apply this principle to difficult cases given that philosophers of mind distinguish between a range (...)
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  2.  75
    Brain Damage and the Moral Significance of Consciousness.Julian Savulescu - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (1):6-26.
    Neuroimaging studies of brain-damaged patients diagnosed as in the vegetative state suggest that the patients might be conscious. This might seem to raise no new ethical questions given that in related disputes both sides agree that evidence for consciousness gives strong reason to preserve life. We question this assumption. We clarify the widely held but obscure principle that consciousness is morally significant. It is hard to apply this principle to difficult cases given that philosophers of mind distinguish between a range (...)
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  3. Perinatal Brain Damage Causation.Olaf Dammann - 2007 - Developmental Neuroscience 29:280–8.
    The search for causes of perinatal brain damage needs a solid theoretical foundation. Current theory apparently does not offer a unanimously accepted view of what constitutes a cause, and how it can be identified. We discuss nine potential theoretical misconceptions: (1) too narrow a view of what is a cause (causal production vs. facilitation), (2) extrapolating from possibility to fact (potential vs. factual causation), (3) if X, then invariably Y (determinism vs. probabilism), (4) co-occurrence in individuals vs. association in (...)
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  4. The Argument From Brain Damage Vindicated.Rocco J. Gennaro & Yonatan I. Fishman - 2015 - In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 105-133.
    It has long been known that brain damage has important negative effects on one’s mental life and even eliminates one’s ability to have certain conscious experiences. It thus stands to reason that when all of one’s brain activity ceases upon death, consciousness is no longer possible and so neither is an afterlife. It seems clear that human consciousness is dependent upon functioning brains. This essay reviews some of the overall neurological evidence from brain damage studies and concludes that (...)
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  5.  3
    Conversation and Brain Damage.Charles Goodwin (ed.) - 2003 - Oxford University Press USA.
    How do people with brain damage communicate? How does the partial or total loss of the ability to speak and use language fluently manifest itself in actual conversation? How are people with brain damage able to expand their cognitive ability through interaction with others - and how do these discursive activities in turn influence cognition? This groundbreaking collection of new articles examines the ways in which aphasia and other neurological deficits lead to language impairments that shape the production, (...)
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  6.  26
    Structural Brain Damage and Upper Limb Kinematics in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy.Lisa Mailleux, Cristina Simon-Martinez, Katrijn Klingels, Ellen Jaspers, Kaat Desloovere, Philippe Demaerel, Simona Fiori, Andrea Guzzetta, Els Ortibus & Hilde Feys - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  7.  75
    Brain-Damaged Babies and Brain-Damaged Kittens: A Reexamination of the Argument From Marginal Cases. Foreman - 2014 - Journal of Animal Ethics 4 (1):58-73,.
    Given the existence of “marginal human cases”, it is often argued that we must either acknowledge that some human beings have less moral status than some non-human animals, or commit to the idea that moral status is held by humans qua human. In this paper, the moves available on both sides are shown to be unsatisfactory, and an argument for moral status that avoids both of the standard positions is suggested. Ultimately, it is argued that the discussion of moral status (...)
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  8. Brain Damage, Dementia, and Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Associated with Neuroleptic Drugs: Evidence, Etiology, Implications.Peter R. Breggin - 1990 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 11 (3):4.
    Several million people are treated with neuroleptic medications in North America each year. A large percentage of these patients develop a chronic neurologic disorder-tardive dyskinesia-characterized by abnormal movements of the voluntary muscles. Most cases are permanent and there is no known treatment. Evidence has been accumulating that the neuroleptics also cause damage to the highest centers of the brain, producing chronic mental dysfunction, tardive dementia and tardive psychosis. These drug effects may be considered a mental equivalent of tardive dyskinesia. (...)
     
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  9.  34
    Brain Damage and Cognitive Dysfunction.Marlene Oscar-Berman - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):678-679.
  10. Right Brain Damage, Body Image, and Language: A Psychoanalytic Perspective.C. Morin, S. Thibierge & M. Perrigot - 2001 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 22 (1):69-89.
    The right hemisphere syndrome refers to various disturbances in patients’ relationships with space and body due to right hemisphere lesions. While the psychological aspects of this syndrome have been discussed at length in the literature, the relevance of the Lacanian psychoanalytic notion of specular image has not yet been considered. The present study is an attempt to evaluate, in a case report, whether the right hemisphere syndrome has subjective coherence regarding the pathology of the specular image. The patient described here (...)
     
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  11.  13
    Intellectual Disability, Brain Damage, and Group-to-Individual Inferences.Valerie Gray Hardcastle - 2018 - Balkan Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):5-16.
    In this essay, I home in on the difficulties with group-to-individual inferences in neuroscience and how they impact the legal system. I briefly outline how cognitive shortcutting can distort legal decisions, and then turn my attention to G2i inferences, with a special focus on issues of intellectual disability and brain damage. I argue that judges and juries are not situated to appreciate the nuances in brain data and that they are required to make clinical decisions without clinical training. As (...)
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  12.  10
    Possible Brain Damage by Electroconvulsive Therapy: Memory Impairment and Cultural Resistance.Arthur Cherkin - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1):25-26.
  13.  17
    Minimal Brain Damage/Dysfunction En de Ontwikkeling van de Wetenschappelijke Kinderstudie in Nederland, Ca. 1950–1990.Nelleke Bakker - 2014 - Studium : Revue D’Histoire des Sciences Et des Universités 7 (2):82.
  14.  5
    Brain Damage From Spontaneous but Not From Induced Seizures in Animals.Agnete Mouritzen Dam - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1):26-26.
  15. Brain Damage, Treatment and Recovery From.Barbara A. Wilson - 2003 - In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group.
     
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  16.  18
    Hyperschematia After Right Brain Damage: A Meaningful Entity?Gilles Rode, Roberta Ronchi, Patrice Revol, Yves Rossetti, Sophie Jacquin-Courtois, Irene Rossi & Giuseppe Vallar - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  17.  23
    Does Electroconvulsive Therapy Cause Brain Damage?Richard D. Weiner - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1):1-22.
    Although the use of ECT has declined dramatically from its inception, this decrease has recently shown signs of leveling out because of ECT's powerful therapeutic effect in severely ill depressed individuals who either do not respond to pharmacologic alternatives or are too ill to tolerate a relatively lengthy drug trial. Notwithstanding its therapeutic benefits, ECT has also remained a controversial treatment modality, particularly in the eye of the public. Given the unsavory qualities associated with the word “electroconvulsive,” claims of possible, (...)
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  18. Neuroethics and the Problem of Other Minds: Implications of Neuroscience for the Moral Status of Brain-Damaged Patients and Nonhuman Animals. [REVIEW]Martha J. Farah - 2008 - Neuroethics 1 (1):9-18.
    Our ethical obligations to another being depend at least in part on that being’s capacity for a mental life. Our usual approach to inferring the mental state of another is to reason by analogy: If another being behaves as I do in a circumstance that engenders a certain mental state in me, I conclude that it has engendered the same mental state in him or her. Unfortunately, as philosophers have long noted, this analogy is fallible because behavior and mental states (...)
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  19.  60
    To Treat or Not to Treat a Newborn Child with Severe Brain Damage? A Cross-Sectional Study of Physicians’ and the General Population’s Perceptions of Intentions.Anders Rydvall, Niklas Juth, Mikael Sandlund, Magnus Domellöf & Niels Lynøe - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (1):81-88.
    Ethical dilemmas are common in the neonatal intensive care setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the opinions of Swedish physicians and the general public on treatment decisions regarding a newborn with severe brain damage. We used a vignette-based questionnaire which was sent to a random sample of physicians (n = 628) and the general population (n = 585). Respondents were asked to provide answers as to whether it is acceptable to discontinue ventilator treatment, and when (...)
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  20.  12
    Dealing with the Brain-Damaged Old--Dignity Before Sanctity.G. S. Robertson - 1982 - Journal of Medical Ethics 8 (4):173-179.
    The present and future rapid increase in the hospital population of geriatric patients is discussed with particular reference to the problem of advanced brain degeneration. The consequences of various clinical management options are outlined and it is suggested that extreme attempts either to preserve or terminate life are medically, morally and socially unacceptable. The preservation of life in senile patients has important economic consequences. In achieving a decision on the medical management of patients with advanced brain decay it is suggested (...)
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  21.  46
    Attitudes of Lay People to Withdrawal of Treatment in Brain Damaged Patients.Jacob Gipson, Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundWhether patients in the vegetative state (VS), minimally conscious state (MCS) or the clinically related locked-in syndrome (LIS) should be kept alive is a matter of intense controversy. This study aimed to examine the moral attitudes of lay people to these questions, and the values and other factors that underlie these attitudes.MethodOne hundred ninety-nine US residents completed a survey using the online platform Mechanical Turk, comprising demographic questions, agreement with treatment withdrawal from each of the conditions, agreement with a series (...)
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  22.  46
    Neuronal Connectivity, Regional Differentiation, and Brain Damage in Humans.Dahlia W. Zaidel - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):854-855.
    When circumscribed brain regions are damaged in humans, highly specific iimpairments in language, memory, problem solving, and cognition are observed. Neurosurgery such as "split brain " or hemispherectomy, for example has shown that encompassing regions, the left and right cerebral hemispheres each control human behavior in unique ways. Observations stretching over 100 years of patients with unilateral focal brain damage have revealed, withouth the theoretical benefits of "cognitive neuroscience" or "cognitive psychology," that human behavior is indeed controlled by the (...)
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  23.  30
    Unilateral Neglect: Clinical And Experimental Studies (Brain Damage, Behaviour and Cognition).John Marshall & Ian Robertson (eds.) - 1993 - Psychology Press.
    This book covers all aspects of the disorder, from an historical survey of research to date, through the nature and anatomical bases of neglect, and on to review contemporary theories on the subject.
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  24.  94
    Does Any Aspect of Mind Survive Brain Damage That Typically Leads to a Persistent Vegetative State? Ethical Considerations.Jaak Panksepp, Thomas Fuchs, Victor Abella Garcia & Adam Lesiak - 2007 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2:32-.
    Recent neuroscientific evidence brings into question the conclusion that all aspects of consciousness are gone in patients who have descended into a persistent vegetative state (PVS). Here we summarize the evidence from human brain imaging as well as neurological damage in animals and humans suggesting that some form of consciousness can survive brain damage that commonly causes PVS. We also raise the issue that neuroscientific evidence indicates that raw emotional feelings (primary-process affects) can exist without any cognitive awareness (...)
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  25.  26
    Overall Intelligence and Localized Brain Damage.Dahlia W. Zaidel - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):173-174.
    Overall mean performance on intelligence tests by brain-damaged patients with focal lesions can be misleading in regard to localization of intelligence. The widely used WAIS has many subtests that together recruit spatially distant neural but individually the subtests reveal localized functions. Moreover, there are kinds of intelligence that defy the localizationist approach inferred from brain damage.
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  26.  16
    Electroshock: Death, Brain Damage, Memory Loss, and Brainwashing.Leonard Frank - 1990 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 11 (3-4):498-512.
    Since its introduction in 1938, electroshock, or electroconvulsion therapy , has been one of psychiatry's most controversial procedures. Approximately 100,000 people in the United States undergo ECT yearly, and recent media reports indicate a resurgence of its use. Proponents claim that changes in the technology of ECT administration have greatly reduced the fears and risk formely associated with the procedure. I charge, however that ECT as routinely used today is at least as harmful overall as it was before these changes (...)
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  27.  83
    Are Developmental Disorders Like Cases of Adult Brain Damage? Implications From Connectionist Modelling.Michael Thomas & Annette Karmiloff-Smith - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):727-750.
    It is often assumed that similar domain-specific behavioural impairments found in cases of adult brain damage and developmental disorders correspond to similar underlying causes, and can serve as convergent evidence for the modular structure of the normal adult cognitive system. We argue that this correspondence is contingent on an unsupported assumption that atypical development can produce selective deficits while the rest of the system develops normally (Residual Normality), and that this assumption tends to bias data collection in the field. (...)
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    Implicit Short-Lived Motor Representations of Space in Brain Damaged and Healthy Subjects.Yves Rossetti - 1998 - Consciousness and Cognition 7 (3):520-558.
    This article reviews experimental evidence for a specific sensorimotor function which can be dissociated from higher level representations of space. It attempts to delineate this function on the basis of results obtained by psychophysical experiments performed with brain damaged and healthy subjects. Eye and hand movement control exhibit automatic features, such that they are incompatible with conscious control. In addition, they rely on a reference frame different from the one used by conscious perception. Neuropsychological cases provide a strong support for (...)
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  29. Music and Emotion: Perceptual Determinants, Immediacy, and Isolation After Brain Damage.I. Peretz - 1998 - Cognition 68 (2):111-141.
  30.  35
    The New Wounded, From Neurosis to Brain Damage.Catherine Malabou & Steven Miller - unknown
  31. Testing Models of Cognition Through the Analysis of Brain-Damaged Patients.Jeffrey Bub - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (3):837-55.
    The aim of cognitive neuropsychology is to articulate the functional architecture underlying normal cognition, on the basis of congnitive performance data involving brain-damaged subjects. Throughout the history of the subject, questions have been raised as to whether the methods of neuropsychology are adequate to its goals. The question has been reopened by Glymour [1994], who formulates a discovery problem for cognitive neuropsychology, in the sense of formal learning theory, concerning the existence of a reliable methodology. It appears that the discovery (...)
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  32.  8
    Cognitive Processes in Verbal-Number Production: Inferences From the Performance of Brain-Damaged Subjects.Michael McCloskey, Scott M. Sokol & Roberta A. Goodman - 1986 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115 (4):307-330.
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    Consciousness of Perception After Brain Damage.Martha J. Farah & Todd E. Feinberg - 1997 - Seminars in Neurology 17:145-52.
  34.  43
    Perception and Awareness After Brain Damage.Martha J. Farah - 1994 - Current Opinion in Neurobiology 4:252-55.
  35. Depth Psychological Consequences of Brain Damage.Oliver H. Turnbull & Mark Solms - 2004 - In Jaak Panksepp (ed.), Textbook of Biological Psychiatry. Wiley-Liss. pp. 571.
     
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  36. Imagery and Memory in Brain-Damaged Patients.J. T. E. Richardson - 1990 - In P. J. Hampson, D. F. Marks & Janet Richardson (eds.), Imagery: Current Developments. Routledge.
     
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  37.  12
    ECT and Brain Damage: How Much Risk is Acceptable?Donald I. Templer - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1):39-39.
  38.  24
    Visual Perception and Visual Awareness After Brain Damage: A Tutorial Overview.Martha J. Farah - 1994 - In Carlo Umilta & Morris Moscovitch (eds.), Consciousness and Unconscious Information Processing: Attention and Performance 15. MIT Press. pp. 203--236.
  39.  19
    Electroshock Therapy and Brain Damage: The Acute Organic Brain Syndrome as Treatment.Peter R. Breggin - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1):24-25.
  40.  29
    Behavioral Evaluation of Consciousness in Severe Brain Damage.S. Majerus, H. Gill-Thwaites, Kristin Andrews & Steven Laureys - 2006 - In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  41. Clinical Pragmatism and the Care of Brain Damaged Patients: Towards a Palliative Neuroethics for Disorders of Consciousness.Joseph J. Fins - 2006 - In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  42.  20
    Dividing the Self: Distinct Neural Substrates of Task-Based and Automatic Self-Prioritization After Brain Damage.Jie Sui, Magdalena Chechlacz & Glyn W. Humphreys - 2012 - Cognition 122 (2):150-162.
  43. Object Recognition and Dorsal Stream Vulnerabilities in Children With Early Brain Damage.Ymie J. van der Zee, Peter L. J. Stiers & Heleen M. Evenhuis - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    AimVisual functions of the dorsal stream are considered vulnerable in children with early brain damage. Considering the recognition of objects in suboptimal representations a dorsal stream dysfunction, we examined whether children with early brain damage and impaired object recognition had either general or selective dorsal stream dysfunctions.MethodIn a group of children with early brain damage we evaluated the dorsal stream functioning. To determine whether these patients had an increased risk of a dorsal stream dysfunction we compared the (...)
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  44.  14
    In Re Sharon Siebert: Decision Regarding a Brain-Damaged Adult.Lindsay G. Arthur - 1981 - Journal of Medical Humanities 3 (1):10-15.
    Judge Arthur has been a Senior District Court Judge since 1961, and was a District Court Judge. He is past President of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, past Director of the National Center for State Courts, and was a Consultant for the White House Council on Children.
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  45.  9
    What Do Spatial Distortions in Patients’ Drawing After Right Brain Damage Teach Us About Space Representation in Art?Gilles Rode, Giuseppe Vallar, Eric Chabanat, Patrice Revol & Yves Rossetti - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  46.  12
    Rehabilitation of Executive Functioning in Patients with Frontal Lobe Brain Damage with Goal Management Training.Brian Levine, Tom A. Schweizer, Charlene O'Connor, Gary Turner, Susan Gillingham, Donald T. Stuss, Tom Manly & Ian H. Robertson - 2011 - Frontiers Human Neuroscience 5.
  47.  15
    Are Fetal Brain Tissue Grafts Necessary for the Treatment of Brain Damage?Donald G. Stein & Marylou M. Glasier - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):86-107.
    Despite some clinical promise, using fetal transplants for degenerative and traumatic brain injury remains controversial and a number of issues need further attention. This response reexamines a number of questions. Issues addressed include: temporal factors relating to neural grafting, the role of behavioral experience in graft outcome, and the relationship of rebuilding of neural circuitry to functional recovery. Also discussed are organization and type of transplanted tissue, the of transplant viability, and whether transplants are really needed to obtain functional recovery (...)
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  48.  10
    The Analytic/Holistic Distinction Applied to the Speech of Patients with Hemispheric Brain Damage.William E. Cooper - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (1):68-69.
  49.  10
    The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Cognitive Rehabilitation in Brain-Damaged Patients.Anna Bolewska & Emilia Łojek - 2013 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 44 (1):31-39.
    This study examined the effects of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation in a group of 16 brain-damaged patients. Therapeutic effectiveness was assessed by improvement on computer tasks, the results of neuropsychological tests and quality of life ratings. Participants suffered from mild to moderate attention and memory problems or aphasia. The procedure involved baseline assessment, a 15-week course of therapy conducted twice a week and posttest. Neuropsychological tests assessing attention, memory and language problems and quality of life ratings were administered twice: in pre- (...)
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  50.  17
    Narrating Stroke: The Life-Writing and Fiction of Brain Damage.Martina Zimmermann - 2012 - Medical Humanities 38 (2):73-77.
    Cerebro-vascular events are, after neurodegenerative disorders, the most frequent cause of brain damage that leads to the patient's impaired cognitive and/or bodily functioning. While the medico-scientific discourse related to stroke suggests that patients experience a change in identity and self-concept, the present analysis focuses on the patients' personal presentation of their experience to, first, highlight their way of thinking and feeling and, second, contribute to the clinician's actual understanding of the meaning of stroke within the life of each individual. (...)
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