Results for '*Chimpanzees'

314 found
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  1.  50
    Social Learning and Teaching in Chimpanzees.Richard Moore - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (6):879-901.
    There is increasing evidence that some behavioural differences between groups of chimpanzees can be attributed neither to genetic nor to ecological variation. Such differences are likely to be maintained by social learning. While humans teach their offspring, and acquire cultural traits through imitative learning, there is little evidence of such behaviours in chimpanzees. However, by appealing only to incremental changes in motivation, attention and attention-soliciting behaviour, and without expensive changes in cognition, we can hypothesise the possible emergence of imitation and (...)
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  2.  34
    A Review of the Institute of Medicine’s Analysis of Using Chimpanzees in Biomedical Research. [REVIEW]Robert C. Jones & Ray Greek - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):481-504.
    We argue that the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine’s 2011 report, Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research : Assessing the Necessity, are methodologically and ethically confused. We argue that a proper understanding of evolution and complexity theory in terms of the science and ethics of using chimpanzees in biomedical research would have had led the committee to recommend not merely limiting but eliminating the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research. Specifically, we argue that a proper understanding of the (...)
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  3.  24
    Lessons Learned: Challenges in Applying Current Constraints on Research on Chimpanzees to Other Animals.Jeffrey Kahn - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (2):97-104.
    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on the Necessity of the Use of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research made a series of recommendations that, as of an announcement on June 26, 2013, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is turning into implemented guidelines. Many advocates, including some researchers and scholars, have suggested that the Committee’s recommendations could be applied successfully to other animal species. This article examines, from my perspective as the IOM Committee’s chair, some of the most important (...)
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  4.  25
    Moving Beyond the Welfare Standard of Psychological Well-Being for Nonhuman Primates: The Case of Chimpanzees.John P. Gluck - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (2):105-116.
    Since 1985, the US Animal Welfare Act and Public Health Service policy have required that researchers using nonhuman primates in biomedical and behavioral research develop a plan “for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates.” In pursuing this charge, housing attributes such as social companionship, opportunities to express species-typical behavior, suitable space for expanded locomotor activity, and nonstressful relationships with laboratory personnel are dimensions that have dominated the discussion. Regulators were careful not to direct a specific (...)
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  5.  32
    The Evolution of Sexuality in Chimpanzees and Bonobos.Richard W. Wrangham - 1993 - Human Nature 4 (1):47-79.
    The evolution of nonconceptive sexuality in bonobos and chimpanzees is discussed from a functional perspective. Bonobos and chimpanzees have three functions of sexual activity in common (paternity confusion, practice sex, and exchange for favors), but only bonobos use sex purely for communication about social relationships. Bonobo hypersexuality appears closely linked to the evolution of female-female alliances. I suggest that these alliances were made possible by relaxed feeding competition, that they were favored through their effect on reducing sexual coercion, and that (...)
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  6.  43
    Legal Personality of Robots, Corporations, Idols and Chimpanzees: A Quest for Legitimacy.S. M. Solaiman - 2017 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 25 (2):155-179.
    Robots are now associated with various aspects of our lives. These sophisticated machines have been increasingly used in different manufacturing industries and services sectors for decades. During this time, they have been a factor in causing significant harm to humans, prompting questions of liability. Industrial robots are presently regarded as products for liability purposes. In contrast, some commentators have proposed that robots be granted legal personality, with an overarching aim of exonerating the respective creators and users of these artefacts from (...)
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  7.  25
    Linguistically Mediated Tool Use and Exchange by Chimpanzees.E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Duane M. Rumbaugh & Sally Boysen - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (4):539-554.
  8.  6
    The Basis of Solution by Chimpanzees of the Intermediate Size Problem.K. W. Spence - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (4):257.
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  9.  11
    Galvanic Skin Responses of Infant Chimpanzees.A. H. Riesen - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (3):249.
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  10.  8
    Reinforcement and "Hypothesis" in the Discrimination Behavior of Chimpanzees.H. W. Nissen, Billey Levinson & J. W. Nichols - 1953 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (5):334.
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  11.  49
    Autonomy in Chimpanzees.Tom L. Beauchamp & Victoria Wobber - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (2):117-132.
    Literature on the mental capacities and cognitive mechanisms of the great apes has been silent about whether they can act autonomously. This paper provides a philosophical theory of autonomy supported by psychological studies of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie chimpanzee behavior to argue that chimpanzees can act autonomously even though their psychological mechanisms differ from those of humans. Chimpanzees satisfy the two basic conditions of autonomy: (1) liberty (the absence of controlling influences) and (2) agency (self-initiated intentional action), each of (...)
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  12.  38
    Intergroup Aggression in Chimpanzees and War in Nomadic Hunter-Gatherers.Richard W. Wrangham & Luke Glowacki - 2012 - Human Nature 23 (1):5-29.
    Chimpanzee and hunter-gatherer intergroup aggression differ in important ways, including humans having the ability to form peaceful relationships and alliances among groups. This paper nevertheless evaluates the hypothesis that intergroup aggression evolved according to the same functional principles in the two species—selection favoring a tendency to kill members of neighboring groups when killing could be carried out safely. According to this idea chimpanzees and humans are equally risk-averse when fighting. When self-sacrificial war practices are found in humans, therefore, they result (...)
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  13.  31
    If Chimpanzees Are Mindreaders, Could Behavioral Science Tell? Toward a Solution of the Logical Problem.Robert Lurz - 2009 - Philosophical Psychology 22 (3):305-328.
    There is a persistent methodological problem in primate mindreading research, dubbed the 'logical problem,' over how to determine experimentally whether chimpanzees are mindreaders or just clever behavior-readers of a certain sort. The problem has persisted long enough that some researchers have concluded that it is intractable. The logical problem, I argue, is tractable but only with experimental protocols that are fundamentally different from those that have been currently used or suggested. In the first section, I describe what the logical problem (...)
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  14.  20
    Cooperative Hunting Roles Among Taï Chimpanzees.Christophe Boesch - 2002 - Human Nature 13 (1):27-46.
    All known chimpanzee populations have been observed to hunt small mammals for meat. Detailed observations have shown, however, that hunting strategies differ considerably between populations, with some merely collecting prey that happens to pass by while others hunt in coordinated groups to chase fast-moving prey. Of all known populations, Taï chimpanzees exhibit the highest level of cooperation when hunting. Some of the group hunting roles require elaborate coordination with other hunters as well as precise anticipation of the movements of the (...)
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  15.  77
    Evolutionary Precursors of Social Norms in Chimpanzees: A New Approach.Claudia Rudolf von Rohr, Judith M. Burkart & Carel P. van Schaik - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):1-30.
    Moral behaviour, based on social norms, is commonly regarded as a hallmark of humans. Hitherto, humans are perceived to be the only species possessing social norms and to engage in moral behaviour. There is anecdotal evidence suggesting their presence in chimpanzees, but systematic studies are lacking. Here, we examine the evolution of human social norms and their underlying psychological mechanisms. For this, we distinguish between conventions, cultural social norms and universal social norms. We aim at exploring whether chimpanzees possess evolutionary (...)
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  16.  52
    Joint Cooperative Hunting Among Wild Chimpanzees: Taking Natural Observations Seriously.Christophe Boesch - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):692-693.
    Ignoring most published evidence on wild chimpanzees, Tomasello et al.'s claim that shared goals and intentions are uniquely human amounts to a faith statement. A brief survey of chimpanzee hunting tactics shows that group hunts are compatible with a shared goals and intentions hypothesis. The disdain of observational data in experimental psychology leads some to ignore the reality of animal cognitive achievements.
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  17.  28
    What Chimpanzees Know About Seeing, Revisited: An Explanation of the Third Kind.Josep Call & Michael Tomasello - 2005 - In Naomi Eilan, Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Johannes Roessler (eds.), Joint Attention: Communication and Other Minds. Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Oxford University Press. pp. 45--64.
    Chimpanzees follow the gaze of conspecifics and humans — follow it past distractors and behind barriers, ‘check back’ with humans when gaze following does not yield interesting sights, use gestures appropriately depending on the visual access of their recipient, and select different pieces of food depending on whether their competitor has visual access to them. Taken together, these findings make a strong case for the hypothesis that chimpanzees have some understanding of what other individuals can and cannot see. However, chimpanzees (...)
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  18.  6
    Chimpanzees' Technical Reasoning: Taking Fieldwork and Ontogeny Seriously.Christophe Boesch - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Following the tradition of comparing humans with chimpanzees placed under unfavorable conditions, the authors suggest many uniquely human technological abilities. However, chimpanzees use spontaneously tools in nature to achieve many different goals demonstrating technological skills and reasoning contradicting the authors contrast. Chimpanzees and humans develop skills through the experiences faced during their upbringing and neglecting this leads to fake conclusions.
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  19.  36
    Chimpanzees as Vulnerable Subjects in Research.Jane Johnson & Neal D. Barnard - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (2):133-141.
    Using an approach developed in the context of human bioethics, we argue that chimpanzees in research can be regarded as vulnerable subjects. This vulnerability is primarily due to communication barriers and situational factors—confinement and dependency—that make chimpanzees particularly susceptible to risks of harm and exploitation in experimental settings. In human research, individuals who are deemed vulnerable are accorded special protections. Using conceptual and moral resources developed in the context of research with vulnerable humans, we show how chimpanzees warrant additional safeguards (...)
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  20.  27
    Where Are We in the Justification of Research Involving Chimpanzees?Tom L. Beauchamp, Hope R. Ferdowsian & John P. Gluck - 2012 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (3):211-242.
    On December 15, 2011, a final report was issued by the Committee on the Use of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research, which had been convened by the U. S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) in collaboration with National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies. Within a month of its release, this report was designated by Wired Science one of the “top scientific discoveries of 2011” (Wired Science Staff 2011). The ad hoc Committee responsible for this report was formed at (...)
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  21.  89
    Chimpanzees and Sign Language: Darwinian Realities Versus Cartesian Delusions. Fouts & McKenna - 2011 - The Pluralist 6 (3):19.
    Dr. Fouts began his lecture with the story of how he and his wife Deborah became involved with Washoe—the first non-human to acquire the signs of American Sign Language (ASL). Project Washoe began in 1966 with Drs. Allen and Beatrix Gardner in Reno, Nevada. There had been other experiments that attempted to get chimpanzees to speak. These experiments were not successful due to anatomical and neurological differences between humans and chimpanzees. (Fouts showed some video of the chimpanzee Vicki trying to (...)
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  22.  92
    Identifying the Motivations of Chimpanzees: Culture and Collaboration.Victoria Horner, Kristin E. Bonnie & Frans B. M. de Waal - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):704-705.
    Tomasello et al. propose that shared intentionality is a uniquely human ability. In light of this, we discuss several cultural behaviors that seem to result from a motivation to share experiences with others, suggest evidence for coordination and collaboration among chimpanzees, and cite recent findings that counter the argument that the predominance of emulation in chimpanzees reflects a deficit in intention reading.
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  23.  65
    Psychological Realism, Morality, and Chimpanzees.Harnden-Warwick David - 1997 - Zygon 32 (1):29-40.
    The parsimonious consideration of research into food sharing among chimpanzees suggests that the type of social regulation found among our closest genetic relatives can best be understood as a form of morality. Morality is here defined from a naturalistic perspective as a system in which self-aware individuals interact through socially prescribed, psychologically realistic rules of conduct which provide these individuals with an awareness of how one ought to behave. The empirical markers of morality within chimpanzee communities and the traditional moral (...)
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  24.  15
    Contingency in Requests of Signing Chimpanzees.Lisa Leitten, Mary Lee A. Jensvold, Roger S. Fouts & Jason M. Wallin - 2012 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 13 (2):147-164.
    Conversational interactions depend on partners making contingent responses. This experiment examined the responses of five chimpanzees, Washoe, Moja, Tatu, Dar and Loulis, to four conversational conditions. Following the chimpanzee’s request, a human interlocutor either: complied with the request, provided an unrequested item or activity, refused to comply or did not respond to the request. The chimpanzees’ responses were contingent on the conversational input of the interlocutor. When their requests were satisfied, the chimpanzees most often ceased signing. However, when their requests (...)
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  25.  13
    Complex Sociality of Wild Chimpanzees Can Emerge from Laterality of Manual Gestures.Anna Ilona Roberts, Lindsay Murray & Sam George Bradley Roberts - 2019 - Human Nature 30 (3):299-325.
    Humans are strongly lateralized for manual gestures at both individual and population levels. In contrast, the laterality bias in primates is less strong, leading some to suggest that lateralization evolved after the Pan and Homo lineages diverged. However, laterality in humans is also context-dependent, suggesting that observed differences in lateralization between primates and humans may be related to external factors such as the complexity of the social environment. Here we address this question in wild chimpanzees and examine the extent to (...)
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  26.  34
    Pushmi-Pullyu Representations and Mindreading in Chimpanzees.Laura Danón - 2016 - Studia Philosophica Estonica 9 (1):208-236.
    Lurz and Krachun propose a new experimental protocol designed to discriminate genuine mindreading animals from mere behavior-readers and to give evidence in favor of the claim that chimpanzees are capable of attributing internal goals to others. They suggest that chimpanzees' variety of "internal goal attribution" consists in attributing to others basic intentional representations, baptized by Millikan as "pushmi-pullyu representations". Now, Millikan distinguishes what I propose to call 'pure' PPs from more complex varieties of PPs, which allow their owners to respond (...)
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  27.  49
    Is Displacement Possible Without Language? Evidence From Preverbal Infants and Chimpanzees.Valentina Cuccio & Marco Carapezza - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (3):369-386.
    Is displacement possible without language? This question was addressed in a recent work by Liszkowski and colleagues . The authors carried out an experiment to demonstrate that 12-month-old prelinguistic infants can communicate about absent entities by using pointing gestures, while chimpanzees cannot. The main hypothesis of their study is that displacement does not depend on language but is, however, exclusively human and instead depends on species-specific social-cognitive human skills. Against this hypothesis, we will argue that a symbolic representation is needed (...)
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  28.  11
    Action Planning in Humans and Chimpanzees but Not in Monkeys.Nobuyuki Kawai - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):42-43.
    Studies with primates in sequence production tasks reveal that chimpanzees make action plans before initiating responses and making on-line adjustments to spatially exchanged stimuli, whereas such planning isn't evident in monkeys. Although planning may rely on phylogenetically newer regions in the inferior parietal lobe – along with the frontal lobes and basal ganglia – it dates back to as far as five million years ago.
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  29.  12
    Brain Functional Asymmetry of Chimpanzees : The Example of Auditory Laterality.Julia Sikorska, Maciej Kapusta, Katarzyna Wejchert, Anna Jakucińska, Maciej Trojan & Justyna Szymańska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):87-92.
    The aim of this study was to verify whether chimpanzees demonstrate an auditory laterality during the orientation reaction, and which hemisphere is responsible for processing the emotional stimuli and which for the species-specific vocalizations. The study involved nine chimpanzees from the Warsaw Municipal Zoological Garden. They were tested individually in their bedrooms. Chimpanzees approached a tube filled with food, located in the centre of the cage. Randomly selected sounds were played from the speakers when the subject was focused on getting (...)
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  30.  25
    Copying a Model Stack of Colored Blocks by Chimpanzees and Humans.Misato Hayashi, Sumirena Sekine, Masayuki Tanaka & Hideko Takeshita - 2009 - Interaction Studies 10 (2):130-149.
    The present study assesses imitative ability in chimpanzees and human children. A direct comparison of these two species was conducted in an object-manipulation task. The subjects were required to copy the model stack by stacking colored blocks in the same order as the model. Four juvenile/adolescent chimpanzees failed to copy the model stack even after a long training-period. Two adult chimpanzees eventually learned to copy the model stack of two blocks. However, they failed to copy the model of three blocks, (...)
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  31.  1
    Is That All There Is? Or is Chimpanzees Group Hunt “Fair” Enough?Angelica Kaufmann - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello claims that we lack convincing evidence that nonhuman animals manifest a sense of moral obligation in their group activities. The philosophical analysis of distinctive evidence from ethology, namely group hunting practices among chimpanzees, can help the author appreciate the distinctive character of this behaviour as a display of fairness put into practice.
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  32.  19
    The Communicative Functions of Five Signing Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes).Charles Austin Leeds & Mary Lee A. Jensvold - 2013 - Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):224-247.
    Speech act theory describes units of language as acts which function to change the behavior or beliefs of the partner. Therefore, with every utterance an individual seeks a communicative goal that is the underlying motive for the utterance’s production; this is the utterance’s function. Studies of deaf and hearing human children classify utterances into categories of communicative function. This study classified signing chimpanzees’ utterances into the categories used in human studies. The chimpanzees utilized all seven categories of communicative functions and (...)
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  33.  29
    Is Gestural Communication More Sophisticated Than Vocal Communication in Wild Chimpanzees?Adam Clark Arcadi - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):210-211.
    The communicative behavior of chimpanzees has been cited in support of the hypothesis that language evolved from gesture. In this commentary, I compare gestural and vocal communication in wild chimpanzees. Because the use of gesture in wild chimpanzees is limited, whereas their vocal behavior is relatively complex, I argue that wild chimpanzee behavior fails to support the gestural origins hypothesis.
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  34.  24
    Chimpanzees Show More Understanding of Human Attentional States When They Request Food in the Experimenter’s Hand Than on the Table.Yuko Hattori, Masaki Tomonaga & Kazuo Fujita - 2011 - Interaction Studies 12 (3):418-429.
    Although chimpanzees have been reported to understand to some extent others' visual perception, previous studies using food requesting tasks are divided on whether or not chimpanzees understand the role of eye gaze. One plausible reason for this discrepancy may be the familiarity of the testing situation. Previous food requesting tasks with negative results used an unfamiliar situation that may be difficult for some chimpanzees to recognize as a requesting situation, whereas those with positive results used a familiar situation. The present (...)
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  35.  16
    Of Fish, Birds, Cats, Mice, Spiders, Flies, Pigs, and Chimpanzees: How Chance Casts the Historic Action Photograph Into Doubt.Robin Kelsey - 2009 - History and Theory 48 (4):59-76.
    The role of chance in producing a picture by snapping a shutter release before a complex and quickly changing scene weakens the bond between the historic action photograph and the meanings it is routinely asked to bear. To appreciate this problem and to understand the array of popular notions that have been marshaled to finesse or suppress the role of chance in photographic production, I consider the case of Joe Rosenthal’s 1945 photograph of American servicemen raising a flag on Iwo (...)
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  36.  21
    Why Not Chimpanzees, Lions, and Hyenas Too?Richard Schuster - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):716-717.
    Examples are cited of group hunting in chimpanzees, lions, and hyenas consistent with evidence for intentionality, organization, and coordination. These challenge the claim for shared intentionality as uniquely human. Even when rarely performed in this way, the significance of such behaviors should not be minimized, especially if this level of “intelligent” action emerges spontaneously in the wild.
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  37.  20
    Brodmann's Area 44, Gestural Communication, and the Emergence of Right Handedness in Chimpanzees.William D. Hopkins & Claudio Cantalupo - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):224-225.
    The target article by Corballis presents an interesting and novel theoretical perspective on the evolution of language, speech, and handedness. There are two specific aspects of the article that will be addressed in this commentary: (a) the link between Broca's area and gestural communication in chimpanzees, and (b) the issue of population-level handedness in great apes, notably chimpanzees.
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  38.  9
    The Communicative Functions of Five Signing Chimpanzees.Charles Austin Leeds & Mary Lee A. Jensvold - 2013 - Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):224-247.
    Speech act theory describes units of language as acts which function to change the behavior or beliefs of the partner. Therefore, with every utterance an individual seeks a communicative goal that is the underlying motive for the utterance’s production; this is the utterance’s function. Studies of deaf and hearing human children classify utterances into categories of communicative function. This study classified signing chimpanzees’ utterances into the categories used in human studies. The chimpanzees utilized all seven categories of communicative functions and (...)
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  39.  10
    Chimpanzees Are Sensitive to Some of the Psychological States of Others.Josep Call - 2005 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 6 (3):413-427.
    Animals react and adjust to the behavior of their conspecifics. Much less is known about whether animals also react and adjust to the psychological states of others. Recent evidence suggests that chimpanzees follow the gaze of others around barriers, past distracters, and check back if they find nothing. Chimpanzees can gauge the motives of a human experimenter and distinguish his intentional from accidental actions. These results suggest that chimpanzees interpret the perceptions and actions of others from a psychological perspective -they (...)
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  40.  7
    Chimpanzees Show More Understanding of Human Attentional States When They Request Food in the Experimenter’s Hand Than on the Table.Yuko Hattori, Masaki Tomonaga & Kazuo Fujita - 2011 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 12 (3):418-429.
    Although chimpanzees have been reported to understand to some extent others’ visual perception, previous studies using food requesting tasks are divided on whether or not chimpanzees understand the role of eye gaze. One plausible reason for this discrepancy may be the familiarity of the testing situation. Previous food requesting tasks with negative results used an unfamiliar situation that may be difficult for some chimpanzees to recognize as a requesting situation, whereas those with positive results used a familiar situation. The present (...)
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  41.  11
    Children, Chimpanzees, and Social Understanding: Inter- or Intra-Specific?Timothy J. Eddy - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):103-104.
    Theories of children's understanding of mind benefit from rigorous interpretations of demonstrations of similar understandings in closely related species. This commentary describes how Carpendale & Lewis's (C&L's) argument could be made more persuasive with a more rigorous interpretation of the studies of chimpanzees' understanding of mind.
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  42.  4
    Copying a Model Stack of Colored Blocks by Chimpanzees and Humans.Misato Hayashi, Sumirena Sekine, Masayuki Tanaka & Hideko Takeshita - 2009 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 10 (2):130-149.
    The present study assesses imitative ability in chimpanzees and human children. A direct comparison of these two species was conducted in an object-manipulation task. The subjects were required to copy the model stack by stacking colored blocks in the same order as the model. Four juvenile/adolescent chimpanzees failed to copy the model stack even after a long training-period. Two adult chimpanzees eventually learned to copy the model stack of two blocks. However, they failed to copy the model of three blocks, (...)
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  43. Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes) Show More Understanding of Human Attentional States When They Request Food in the Experimenter’s Hand Than on the Table.Yuko Hattori, Masaki Tomonaga & Kazuo Fujita - 2011 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 12 (3):418-429.
    Although chimpanzees have been reported to understand to some extent others’ visual perception, previous studies using food requesting tasks are divided on whether or not chimpanzees understand the role of eye gaze. One plausible reason for this discrepancy may be the familiarity of the testing situation. Previous food requesting tasks with negative results used an unfamiliar situation that may be difficult for some chimpanzees to recognize as a requesting situation, whereas those with positive results used a familiar situation. The present (...)
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  44. A Comparison of the Socio-Communicative Behavior in Chimpanzees and Bonobos.Jared P. Taglialatela, Scott C. Milne & Robert E. Evans - 2018 - In Laura Desirèe Di Paolo, Fabio Di Vincenzo & Francesca De Petrillo (eds.), Evolution of Primate Social Cognition. Springer Verlag. pp. 79-93.
    Studying the similarities and differences in socio-communicative behavior between chimpanzees and bonobos is critical to increasing our understanding of the evolution of human sociality and communication. Both species rely heavily on the use of vocalizations during communicative interactions, although the form and function of these signals may vary between the two ape species. For example, bonobo vocalizations seem to be structurally more complex than those produced by chimpanzees, and calls seem to be directed to individuals not in immediate physical proximity. (...)
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  45. From False Beliefs to True Interactions: Are Chimpanzees Socially Enactive?Sarah Vincent & Shaun Gallagher - 2017 - In Kristin Andrews & Jacob Beck (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds. pp. 280-288.
    In their 1978 paper, psychologists David Premack and Guy Woodruff posed the question, “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?” They treated this question as interchangeable with the inquiry, “Does a chimpanzee make inferences about another individual, in any degree or kind?” Here, we offer an alternative way of thinking about this issue, positing that while chimpanzees may not possess a theory of mind in the strict sense, we ought to think of them as enactive perceivers of practical and (...)
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  46.  48
    Chimpanzees Understand Psychological States – the Question is Which Ones and to What Extent.Michael Tomasello, Josep Call & Brian Hare - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):153-156.
  47.  52
    Varieties of Altruism in Children and Chimpanzees.Felix Warneken & Michael Tomasello - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (9):397-402.
  48.  44
    Chimpanzees Know What Others Know, but Not What They Believe.Juliane Kaminski, Josep Call & Michael Tomasello - 2008 - Cognition 109 (2):224-234.
  49.  12
    Spontaneous Symbol Acquisition and Communicative Use by Pygmy Chimpanzees.Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Kelly McDonald, Rose A. Sevcik, William D. Hopkins & Elizabeth Rubert - 1986 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115 (3):211-235.
  50.  78
    Enactive and Behavioral Abstraction Accounts of Social Understanding in Chimpanzees, Infants, and Adults.Shaun Gallagher & Daniel J. Povinelli - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (1):145-169.
    We argue against theory-of-mind interpretation of recent false-belief experiments with young infants and explore two other interpretations: enactive and behavioral abstraction approaches. We then discuss the differences between these alternatives.
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