Results for '*Implicit Learning'

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  1.  24
    Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge.Arthur S. Reber - 1989 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118 (3):219-235.
    I examine the phenomenon of implicit learning, the process by which knowledge about the rule-governed complexities of the stimulus environment is acquired independently of conscious attempts to do so. Our research with the two seemingly disparate experimental paradigms of synthetic grammar learning and probability learning, is reviewed and integrated with other approaches to the general problem of unconscious cognition. The conclusions reached are as follows: Implicit learning produces a tacit knowledge base that is abstract and representative (...)
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  2. Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious.Arthur S. Reber - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    In this new volume in the Oxford Psychology Series, the author presents a highly readable account of the cognitive unconscious, focusing in particular on the problem of implicit learning. Implicit learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge that takes place independently of the conscious attempts to learn and largely in the absence of explicit knowledge about what was acquired. One of the core assumptions of this argument is that implicit learning is a fundamental, "root" process, one (...)
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  3.  36
    Implicit Learning and Consciousness: An Empirical, Philosophical, and Computational Consensus in the Making.Robert M. French - 2002 - Psychology Press.
    Implicit Learning and Consciousness challenges conventional wisdom and presents the most up-to-date studies to define, quantify and test the predictions of the main models of implicit learning. The chapters include a variety of research from computer modeling, experimental psychology and neural imaging to the clinical data resulting from work with amnesics. The result is a topical book that provides an overview of the debate on implicit learning, and the various philosophical, psychological and neurological frameworks in which it (...)
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  4.  77
    First- and Third-Person Approaches in Implicit Learning Research.Vinciane Gaillard, Muriel Vandenberghe, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Axel Cleeremans - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):709-722.
    How do we find out whether someone is conscious of some information or not? A simple answer is “We just ask them”! However, things are not so simple. Here, we review recent developments in the use of subjective and objective methods in implicit learning research and discuss the highly complex methodological problems that their use raises in the domain.
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  5.  1
    Editors’ Introduction: Aligning Implicit Learning and Statistical Learning: Two Approaches, One Phenomenon.Patrick Rebuschat & Padraic Monaghan - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (3):459-467.
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  6. Implicit Learning and Consciousness: A Graded, Dynamic Perspective.Axel Cleeremans & Luis Jimenez - 2002 - In Robert M. French & Axel Cleeremans (eds.), Implicit Learning and Consciousness: An Empirical. Psychology Press.
    While the study of implicit learning is nothing new, the field as a whole has come to embody — over the last decade or so — ongoing questioning about three of the most fundamental debates in the cognitive sciences: The nature of consciousness, the nature of mental representation (in particular the difficult issue of abstraction), and the role of experience in shaping the cognitive system. Our main goal in this chapter is to offer a framework that attempts to integrate (...)
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  7.  9
    Statistical Learning, Implicit Learning, and First Language Acquisition: A Critical Evaluation of Two Developmental Predictions.Inbal Arnon - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (3):504-519.
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  8.  41
    Implicit Learning and Acquisition of Music.Martin Rohrmeier & Patrick Rebuschat - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):525-553.
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  9.  38
    Attention and Implicit Learning.Luis Jimenez (ed.) - 2003 - John Benjamins.
  10. Individual Differences in Implicit Learning: Implications for the Evolution of Consciousness.Arthur S. Reber & Robert F. Allen - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamin.
  11.  19
    Implicit Transfer of Reversed Temporal Structure in Visuomotor Sequence Learning.Kanji Tanaka & Katsumi Watanabe - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (3):565-579.
    Some spatio-temporal structures are easier to transfer implicitly in sequential learning. In this study, we investigated whether the consistent reversal of triads of learned components would support the implicit transfer of their temporal structure in visuomotor sequence learning. A triad comprised three sequential button presses ([1][2][3]) and seven consecutive triads comprised a sequence. Participants learned sequences by trial and error, until they could complete it 20 times without error. Then, they learned another sequence, in which each triad was (...)
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  12.  10
    The P600 in Implicit Artificial Grammar Learning.Susana Silva, Vasiliki Folia, Peter Hagoort & Karl Magnus Petersson - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (6):n/a-n/a.
    The suitability of the artificial grammar learning paradigm to capture relevant aspects of the acquisition of linguistic structures has been empirically tested in a number of EEG studies. Some have shown a syntax-related P600 component, but it has not been ruled out that the AGL P600 effect is a response to surface features rather than the underlying syntax structure. Therefore, in this study, we controlled for the surface characteristics of the test sequences and recorded the EEG before and after (...)
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  13.  40
    Contingency Learning Without Awareness: Evidence for Implicit Control.James R. Schmidt, Matthew J. C. Crump, Jim Cheesman & Derek Besner - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):421-435.
    The results of four experiments provide evidence for controlled processing in the absence of awareness. Participants identified the colour of a neutral distracter word. Each of four words was presented in one of the four colours 75% of the time or 50% of the time . Colour identification was faster when the words appeared in the colour they were most often presented in relative to when they appeared in another colour, even for participants who were subjectively unaware of any contingencies (...)
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  14.  1
    A Single Paradigm for Implicit and Statistical Learning.Padraic Monaghan, Christine Schoetensack & Patrick Rebuschat - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (3):536-554.
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  15.  10
    Implicit Statistical Learning: A Tale of Two Literatures.Morten H. Christiansen - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (3):468-481.
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  16. How Implicit is Implicit Learning?Dianne C. Berry (ed.) - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    Implicit learning is said to occur when a person learns about a complex stimulus without necessarily intending to do so, and in such a way that the resulting knowledge is difficult to express. Over the last 30 years, a number of studies have claimed to show evidence of implicit learning. In more recent years, however, considerable debate has arisen over the extent to which cognitive tasks can in fact be learned implicitly. Much of the debate has centred on (...)
     
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  17.  69
    Mechanisms of Implicit Learning: Connectionist Models of Sequence Processing.Axel Cleeremans - 1993 - MIT Press.
    What do people learn when they do not know that they are learning? Until recently, all of the work in the area of implicit learning focused on empirical questions and methods. In this book, Axel Cleeremans explores unintentional learning from an information-processing perspective. He introduces a theoretical framework that unifies existing data and models on implicit learning, along with a detailed computational model of human performance in sequence-learning situations.
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  18.  41
    Implicit Probabilistic Sequence Learning is Independent of Explicit Awareness.Sunbin Song, Howard Jr, James H. & Darlene V. Howard - 2007 - Learning and Memory 14 (1-6):167-176.
  19.  6
    Understanding the Neural Bases of Implicit and Statistical Learning.Laura J. Batterink, Ken A. Paller & Paul J. Reber - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (3):482-503.
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  20. Principles for Implicit Learning.Axel Cleeremans - 1997 - In Dianne C. Berry (ed.), How Implicit is Implicit Learning? Oxford University Press.
    Complete URL to this document: http://srsc.ulb.ac.be/axcWWW/93-Principles.html.
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  21. Implicit Learning.Axel Cleeremans - 1998 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (10):406-416.
    Implicit learning is the process through which we become sensitive to certain regularities in the environment (1) in the absence of intention to learn about those regularities (2) in the absence of awareness that one is learning, and (3) in such a way that the resulting knowledge is difficult to express.
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  22.  60
    Unconscious Structural Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry: Tang Poetry Redefines Limits of Implicit Learning.Shan Jiang, Lei Zhu, Xiuyan Guo, Wendy Ma, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):476-486.
    The study aims to help characterize the sort of structures about which people can acquire unconscious knowledge. It is already well established that people can implicitly learn n-grams and also repetition patterns. We explore the acquisition of unconscious structural knowledge of symmetry. Chinese Tang poetry uses a specific sort of mirror symmetry, an inversion rule with respect to the tones of characters in successive lines of verse. We show, using artificial poetry to control both n-gram structure and repetition patterns, that (...)
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  23. Towards a Characterization of Implicit Learning.D. Berry & Z. Dienes - 1993 - In Dianne C. Berry & Zoltán Dienes (eds.), Implicit Learning: Theoretical and Empirical Issues. Lawerence Erlbaum. pp. 1--18.
  24.  5
    What Mechanisms Underlie Implicit Statistical Learning? Transitional Probabilities Versus Chunks in Language Learning.Pierre Perruchet - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (3):520-535.
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  25.  31
    The Nature of the Memory Buffer in Implicit Learning: Learning Chinese Tonal Symmetries.Feifei Li, Shan Jiang, Xiuyan Guo, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):920-930.
    Previous research has established that people can implicitly learn chunks, which do not require a memory buffer to process. The present study explores the implicit learning of nonlocal dependencies generated by higher than finite-state grammars, specifically, Chinese tonal retrogrades and inversions , which do require buffers . People were asked to listen to and memorize artificial poetry instantiating one of the two grammars; after this training phase, people were informed of the existence of rules and asked to classify new (...)
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  26.  6
    Aligning Developmental and Processing Accounts of Implicit and Statistical Learning.Michelle S. Peter & Caroline F. Rowland - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (3):555-572.
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  27.  9
    The Proportion Valid Effect in Covert Orienting: Strategic Control or Implicit Learning?Evan F. Risko & Jennifer A. Stolz - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):432-442.
    It is well known that the difference in performance between valid and invalid trials in the covert orienting paradigm increases as the proportion of valid trials increases. This proportion valid effect is widely assumed to reflect “strategic” control over the distribution of attention. In the present experiments we determine if this effect results from an explicit strategy or implicit learning by probing participant’s awareness of the proportion of valid trials. Results support the idea that the proportion valid effect in (...)
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  28.  37
    An Old Problem: How Can We Distinguish Between Conscious and Unconscious Knowledge Acquired in an Implicit Learning Task?Hilde Haider, Alexandra Eichler & Thorsten Lange - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):658-672.
    A long lasting debate in the field of implicit learning is whether participants can learn without acquiring conscious knowledge. One crucial problem is that no clear criterion exists allowing to identify participants who possess explicit knowledge. Here, we propose a method to diagnose during a serial reaction time task those participants who acquire conscious knowledge. We first validated this method by using Stroop-like material during training. Then we assessed participants’ knowledge with the Inclusion/Exclusion task and the wagering task . (...)
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  29.  37
    Implicit Learning of Mappings Between Forms and Metaphorical Meanings.Fengying Li, Xiuyan Guo, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):174-183.
    Previous research has shown that people can implicitly acquire mappings between word forms and literal meanings . We argue, from the metaphor-representation and embodiment perspectives, that people can unconsciously establish mappings between word forms and not only literal but also metaphorical meanings. Using Williams’ paradigm, we found that transfer of form-meaning connections from a concrete domain to an abstract domain was achieved in a metaphor-consistent way without awareness. Our results support the view that unconscious knowledge can be flexibly deployed in (...)
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  30.  46
    Implicit Sequence Learning: The Truth is in the Details.Axel Cleeremans & L. JimC)nez - 1998 - In Michael A. Stadler & Peter A. Frensch (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Learning. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Over the past decade, sequence learning has gradually become a central paradigm through which to study implicit learning. In this chapter, we start by briefly summarizing the results obtained with different variants of the sequence learning paradigm. We distinguish three subparadigms in terms of whether the stimulus material is generated either by following a fixed and repeating sequence (e.g., Nissen & Bullemer, 1987), by relying on a complex set of rules from which one can produce several alternative (...)
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  31.  73
    Influences of Cognitive Control on Numerical Cognition—Adaptation by Binding for Implicit Learning.Korbinian Moeller, Elise Klein & Hans-Christoph Nuerk - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (2):335-353.
    Recently, an associative learning account of cognitive control has been suggested (Verguts & Notebaert, 2009). In this so-called adaptation by binding theory, Hebbian learning of stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response associations is assumed to drive the adaptation of human behavior. In this study, we evaluated the validity of the adaptation-by-binding account for the case of implicit learning of regularities within a stimulus set (i.e., the frequency of specific unit digit combinations in a two-digit number magnitude comparison task) and their (...)
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  32.  9
    Affective Discrimination and the Implicit Learning Process.Louis Manza & Robert F. Bornstein - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 4 (4):399-409.
    A modified version of the mere exposure effect paradigm was utilized in an implicit artificial grammar learning task in an attempt to develop a procedure that would be more sensitive in assesing nonconscious learning processes than the methods currently utilized within the field of implicit learning. Subjects were presented with stimuli generated from a finite-state artificial grammar and then had to either decide if novel items conformed to the rule structure of the grammar or rate the degree (...)
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  33.  14
    Computational Models of Implicit Learning.Z. Dienes - 1993 - In Dianne C. Berry & Zoltán Dienes (eds.), Implicit Learning: Theoretical and Empirical Issues. Lawerence Erlbaum. pp. 81--112.
  34.  31
    Rules Vs. Statistics in Implicit Learning of Biconditional Grammars.Axel Cleeremans - unknown
    A significant part of everyday learning occurs incidentally — a process typically described as implicit learning. A central issue in this domain and others, such as language acquisition, is the extent to which performance depends on the acquisition and deployment of abstract rules. Shanks and colleagues [22], [11] have suggested (1) that discrimination between grammatical and ungrammatical instances of a biconditional grammar requires the acquisition and use of abstract rules, and (2) that training conditions — in particular whether (...)
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  35.  7
    Two Forms of Sequential Implicit Learning.Carol A. Seger - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 6 (1):108-131.
    A serial reaction time experiment tested the hypothesis that there are two independent forms of implicit learning: learning that is linked to making judgments about stimuli, and learning that is linked to motor processing. Participants performed 2, 6, or 12 blocks of single task SRT, dual task SRT, or observation with one of five sequences; each sequence had the same underlying structure. Participants then performed two implicit tests, SRT and pattern judgment, as well as a generation test (...)
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  36.  12
    The Mechanics of Implicit Learning of Contingencies: A Commentary on Custers & Aarts' Paper.Baruch Eitam - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):379-381.
    In their paper: “Learning of Predictive Relations Between Events Depends on Attention, Not on Awareness” Custers & Aarts demonstrate that when one is first exposed to a clear predictive relationship – a consequent predictive relationship will be represented as a unidirectional association in the percievers’ minds regardless of their awareness of that relationship. Furthermore, a conscious intention to learn the relationship leads to the formation of a bidirectional association. While these findings may prove to be a significant step in (...)
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  37. The Question of Awareness in Research on Implicit Learning.Michael A. Stadler & Henry L. I. Roediger - 1998 - In Stadler, M; Frensch, P. (Eds.) Handbook of Implicit Learning. Sage Publications.
  38.  59
    Tacit Knowledge, Implicit Learning and Scientific Reasoning.Andrea Pozzali - 2007 - Mind and Society 7 (2):227-237.
    The concept of tacit knowledge is widely used in social sciences to refer to all those knowledge that cannot be codified and have to be transferred by personal contacts. All this literature has been affected by two kind of biases : (1) the interest has been focused more on the result (tacit knowledge) than on the process (implicit learning); (2) tacit knowledge has been somehow reduced to physical skills or know-how; other possible forms of tacit knowledge have been neglected. (...)
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  39. Implicit Learning in Rule Induction and Problem Solving.Aldo Zanga & Jean-Fran - 2004 - Thinking and Reasoning 10 (1):55 – 83.
    Using the Chinese Ring Puzzle, we studied the effect on rule discovery of having to plan actions or not in order to reach a goal state. This was done by asking participants to predict legal moves as in implicit learning tasks and by asking participants to make legal moves as in problem-solving tasks. Our hypothesis was that having a specific goal state to reach has a dual effect on rule discovery. The first effect is positive and related to feedback (...)
     
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  40.  29
    Rules Vs. Statistics in Implicit Learning of Biconditional Grammars.Bert Timmermans - unknown
    A significant part of everyday learning occurs incidentally — a process typically described as implicit learning. A central issue in this domain and others, such as language acquisition, is the extent to which performance depends on the acquisition and deployment of abstract rules. Shanks and colleagues [22], [11] have suggested (1) that discrimination between grammatical and ungrammatical instances of a biconditional grammar requires the acquisition and use of abstract rules, and (2) that training conditions — in particular whether (...)
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  41.  17
    Implicit Learning of (Boundedly) Rational Behaviour.Daniel John Zizzo - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):700-701.
    Stanovich & West's target article undervalues the power of implicit learning (particularly reinforcement learning). Implicit learning may allow the learning of more rational responses–and sometimes even generalisation of knowledge–in contexts where explicit, abstract knowledge proves only of limited value, such as for economic decision-making. Four other comments are made.
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  42.  4
    Methodological Considerations in Studying Awareness During Learning: Part 1: Implicit Learning.Daisuke Nakamura - 2013 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 44 (1):102-117.
    Methodological problems of how awareness during learning should be measured have been extensively discussed and investigated in cognitive psychology. This review considers; 1)whether amnesics can perform implicit learning tasks at a similar level to normal controls, 2) whether differences in instructional orientations create dissociations in performance in tests of implicit and explicit knowledge, and 3) whether participants can retrospectively verbalise the learning outcomes. The paper concludes that; amnesics’ implicit learning abilities differ from the normal controls, instructions (...)
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  43.  3
    The Route From Implicit Learning to Verbal Expression of What has Been Learned.Peter A. Frensch, Hilde Haider, D. Rünger, Uwe Neugebauer, Sabine Voigt & Jana Werg - 2003 - In Luis Jimenez (ed.), Attention and Implicit Learning. John Benjamins. pp. 335.
  44. Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious.Arthur S. Reber - 1996 - Oxford University Press USA.
    In this new volume in the Oxford Psychology Series, the author presents a highly readable account of the cognitive unconscious, focusing in particular on the problem of implicit learning. Implicit learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge that takes place independently of the conscious attempts to learn and largely in the absence of explicit knowledge about what was acquired. One of the core assumptions of this argument is that implicit learning is a fundamental, "root" process, one (...)
     
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  45.  68
    The Interaction of Explicit and Implicit Learning: An Integrated Model.Ron Sun - unknown
    This paper explicates the interaction between the implicit and explicit learning processes in skill acquisition, contrary to the common tendency in the literature of studying each type of learning in isolation. It highlights the interaction between the two types of processes and its various effects on learning, including the synergy effect. This work advocates an integrated model of skill learning that takes into account both implicit and explicit processes; moreover, it embodies a bottom-up approach (first (...) implicit knowledge and then explicit knowledge on its basis) towards skill learning. The paper shows that this approach accounts for various effects in the process control task data, in addition to accounting for other data reported elsewhere. (shrink)
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  46.  19
    Implicit Learning of Sequential Bias in a Guessing Task: Failure to Demonstrate Effects of Dopamine Administration and Paranormal Belief☆.John Palmer, Christine Mohr, Peter Krummenacher & Peter Brugger - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):498-506.
    Previous research suggests that implicit sequence learning is superior for believers in the paranormal and individuals with increased cerebral dopamine. Thirty-five healthy participants performed feedback-guided anticipations of four arrow directions. A 100-trial random sequence preceded two 100-trial biased sequences in which visual targets on trial t tended to be displaced 90° clockwise or counter-clockwise from those on t − 1. ISL was defined as a positive change during the course of the biased run in the difference between pro-bias and (...)
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  47.  17
    Implicit Verbal Chaining in Paired-Associate Learning.Wallace A. Russell & Lowell H. Storms - 1955 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 49 (4):287.
  48.  10
    Implicit and Explicit Mediation in Paired-Associate Learning.Randall B. Martin & Sanford J. Dean - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (1):21.
  49.  4
    Implicit Verbal Chaining as the Basis of Transfer in Paired-Associate Learning.Jack Richardson - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (1p1):109.
  50.  4
    Effects of Taxonomic Instances as Implicit Associative Responses on Verbal Discrimination Learning.Frank E. Fulkerson & Lawrence A. Prindaville - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):383.
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