Results for '*Mammals'

297 found
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  1. Criteria for Consciousness in Humans and Other Mammals.Anil K. Seth, Bernard J. Baars & David B. Edelman - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):119-39.
    The standard behavioral index for human consciousness is the ability to report events with accuracy. While this method is routinely used for scientific and medical applications in humans, it is not easy to generalize to other species. Brain evidence may lend itself more easily to comparative testing. Human consciousness involves widespread, relatively fast low-amplitude interactions in the thalamocortical core of the brain, driven by current tasks and conditions. These features have also been found in other mammals, which suggests that consciousness (...)
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  2.  8
    X‐Chromosome Upregulation and Inactivation: Two Sides of the Dosage Compensation Mechanism in Mammals.Elena V. Dementyeva & Suren M. Zakian - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (1):21-28.
  3. Minding Mammals.Adam Shriver - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (4):433-442.
    Many traditional attempts to show that nonhuman animals are deserving of moral consideration have taken the form of an argument by analogy. However, arguments of this kind have had notable weaknesses and, in particular, have not been able to convince two kinds of skeptics. One of the most important weaknesses of these arguments is that they fail to provide theoretical justifications for why particular physiological similarities should be considered relevant. This paper examines recent empirical research on pain and, in particular, (...)
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  4.  7
    Understanding the Relationship Between Farmers and Burrowing Mammals on South African Farms: Are Burrowers Friends or Foes?Izak B. Foster, Trevor McIntyre & Natalie S. Haussmann - 2019 - Agriculture and Human Values 36 (4):719-731.
    Burrowing mammals are ubiquitous on farms in South Africa and can hinder agricultural practices. This study explored farmer perspectives of these species, and specifically the factors that influence these perspectives. Forty-four farmers responded to a questionnaire that assessed their ecological knowledge of, tolerance towards and lethal management of burrowing mammals that occur on their farms. The results from generalised linear models showed that neither farmer age, nor level of education are accurate predictors of ecological knowledge, overall tolerance towards burrowers, or (...)
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  5.  20
    Cross-Species Neuroaffective Parsing of Primal Emotional Desires and Aversions in Mammals.Jaak Panksepp - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (3):235-240.
    The primal motivational systems of all mammals are constituted of the evolved affective brain networks that gauge key survival issues. However, since progress in functional neuroscience has historically lagged behind conceptual developments in psychological science, motivational processes have traditionally been anchored to behavioral rather than neural and affective issues. Attempts to retrofit neuroaffective issues onto established psychological-conceptual structures are problematic, especially when fundamental evidence for primal affective circuits, and their neural nature, comes largely from animal research. This article provides a (...)
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  6.  16
    Sign Activity of Mammals as Means of Ecological Adaptation.Elina Vladimirova - 2009 - Sign Systems Studies 37 (3/4):614-635.
    The present article discusses different basic semiotic-scientific postulates regarding mammals’ sign activity. On the one hand, there are arguments denying animals sign activity, according to which mammals are not capable of semantic generalization on the basis of conventional linguistic values. According to another approach, mammals’ sign activity can be considered as means of ecological adaptation, that is, the features of animal behaviour based on the information, received by them through their habitat characteristics without direct visual contacts with their kind. Movement (...)
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  7.  12
    Temperature‐Controlled Rhythmic Gene Expression in Endothermic Mammals: All Diurnal Rhythms Are Equal, but Some Are Circadian.Marco Preußner & Florian Heyd - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (7):1700216.
    The circadian clock is a cell autonomous oscillator that controls many aspects of physiology through generating rhythmic gene expression in a time of day dependent manner. In addition, in endothermic mammals body temperature cycles contribute to rhythmic gene expression. These body temperature‐controlled rhythms are hard to distinguish from classic circadian rhythms if analyzed in vivo in endothermic organisms. However, they do not fulfill all criteria of being circadian if analyzed in cell culture or in conditions where body temperature of an (...)
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  8.  7
    Offspring Sex Ratio in Mammals and the Trivers-Willard Hypothesis: In Pursuit of Unambiguous Evidence.Mathieu Douhard - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (9):1700043.
    Can mammalian mothers adaptively control the sex of their offspring? The influential Trivers-Willard hypothesis proposes that when maternal condition increases the fitness of sons more than that of daughters, the proportion of sons produced should increase with maternal condition. Studies of mammals, however, often fail to support this hypothesis. This article highlights recent advances, including studies on the assumptions of the TWH and physiological mechanisms for sex-ratio manipulation. Particular emphasis is placed on how factors such as paternal quality, maternal reproductive (...)
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  9.  14
    Ideas in Theoretical Biology - Failure of Anti-Tumor Immunity in Mammals - Evolution of the Hypothesis.I. Bubanovic & S. Najman - 2004 - Acta Biotheoretica 52 (1):57-64.
    Observations on the morphological and functional similarity between embryonic or trophoblast tissues and tumors are very old. Over a period of time many investigators have created different hypotheses on the origin of cancerogenesis or tumor efficiency in relation to the host immune system. Some of these ideas have been rejected but many of them are still current. A presumption of the inefficiency of anti-tumor immunity in mammals due to the high similarity between trophoblast and embryonic cells to tumor cells is (...)
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  10.  23
    Aggression in Female Mammals: Is It Really Rare?Paul F. Brain - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):218-218.
    The view that female mammals are more docile appears to arise in part from imposing human values on animal studies. Many reports of sexual dimorphism in physical aggression favouring the male in laboratory rodents appear to select circumstances where that expectation is supported. Other situations that favour the expression of conflict in females have been (until recently) relatively little studied. Although female rodents generally do not show the “ritualised” forms of conflict that characterise male sexual competition, they can use notably (...)
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  11.  5
    A Survey of the Growth of Knowledge About Certain Parts of the Foetal Cardio-Vascular Apparatus, and About the Foetal Circulation, in Man and Some Other Mammals. Part I: Galen to Harvey.R. C. P. F. - 1941 - Annals of Science 5 (1):57-89.
    (1941). A survey of the growth of knowledge about certain parts of the foetal cardio-vascular apparatus, and about the foetal circulation, in Man and some other mammals. Part I: Galen to Harvey. Annals of Science: Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 57-89.
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  12.  9
    Teaching in Marine Mammals? Anecdotes Versus Science.Dario Maestripieri & Jessica Whitham - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):342-343.
    The use of anecdotes is not a viable research strategy to study animal culture. Social learning processes can often be documented with careful quantitative analyses of observational data. Unfortunately, suggestions that killer whales engage in teaching are entirely based on subjective interpretations of qualitative observations. Thus, of teaching in killer whales cannot be used to argue for the occurrence of culture in marine mammals.
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  13.  9
    Scaling Patterns of Interhemispheric Connectivity in Eutherian Mammals.Emmanuel Gilissen - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (1):16-17.
    Because network scaling costs tend to limit absolute brain size, Striedter suggests that large cetacean brains must have evolved some novel ways to cope with these costs. A new analysis of available data shows that the scaling pattern of interhemispheric connectivity in cetaceans is isometric and differs from that observed in terrestrial mammals.
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  14.  4
    The Promise of Perfect Adult Tissue Repair and Regeneration in Mammals: Learning From Regenerative Amphibians and Fish.James Godwin - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (9):861-871.
    Regenerative medicine promises to greatly impact on human health by improving repair outcomes in a range of tissues and injury contexts. Successful therapies will rely on identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic biological circuits that control wound healing, proliferation, cell survival, and developmental cell fate. Animals such as the zebrafish and the salamander display powerful examples of near‐perfect regeneration and scar‐free healing in a range of injury contexts not attained in mammals. By studying regeneration in a range of highly regenerative species (...)
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  15.  9
    Mesozoic Mammals and Early Mammalian Brain Diversity.Emmanuel Gilissen & Thierry Smith - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):556-557.
    Fossil remains witness the relationship between the appearance of the middle ear and the expansion of the brain in early mammals. Nevertheless, the lack of detachment of ear ossicles in the mammaliaform Morganucodon, despite brain enlargement, points to other factors that triggered brain expansion in early mammals. Moreover, brain expansion in some early mammalian groups seems to have favored brain regions other than the cortex.
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  16.  6
    Early Life Epigenetic Programming and Transmission of Stress-Induced Traits in Mammals.Katharina Gapp, Lukas von Ziegler, Ry Yves Tweedie-Cullen & Isabelle M. Mansuy - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (5):491-502.
    The environment can have a long‐lasting influence on an individual's physiology and behavior. While some environmental conditions can be beneficial and result in adaptive responses, others can lead to pathological behaviors. Many studies have demonstrated that changes induced by the environment are expressed not only by the individuals directly exposed, but also by the offspring sometimes across multiple generations. Epigenetic alterations have been proposed as underlying mechanisms for such transmissible effects. Here, we review the most relevant literature on these changes (...)
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  17.  3
    Evolutionary Changes in the Physiological Control of Mating Behavior in Mammals.Frank A. Beach - 1947 - Psychological Review 54 (6):297-315.
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  18. A Framework for the First‑Person Internal Sensation of Visual Perception in Mammals and a Comparable Circuitry for Olfactory Perception in Drosophila.Kunjumon Vadakkan - 2015 - Springerplus 4 (833):1-23.
    Perception is a first-person internal sensation induced within the nervous system at the time of arrival of sensory stimuli from objects in the environment. Lack of access to the first-person properties has limited viewing perception as an emergent property and it is currently being studied using third-person observed findings from various levels. One feasible approach to understand its mechanism is to build a hypothesis for the specific conditions and required circuit features of the nodal points where the mechanistic operation of (...)
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  19. Dolphin Social Intelligence: Complex Alliance Relationships in Bottlenose Dolphins and a Consideration of Selective Environments for Extreme Brain Size Evolution in Mammals.Richard C. Connor - 2007 - In Nathan Emery, Nicola Clayton & Chris Frith (eds.), Social Intelligence: From Brain to Culture. Oxford University Press.
  20.  3
    Admixture in Mammals and How to Understand Its Functional Implications.Claudia Fontsere, Marc Manuel, Tomas Marques‐Bonet & Martin Kuhlwilm - forthcoming - Bioessays:1900123.
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  21. Kipsigis Women's Preferences for Wealthy Men: Evidence for Female Choice in Mammals?Monique Borcerhoff Mulder - forthcoming - Human Nature: A Critical Reader.
     
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  22.  9
    Endogenous Retroviruses in Mammals: An Emerging Picture of How ERVs Modify Expression of Adjacent Genes.Luke Isbel & Emma Whitelaw - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (9):734-738.
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  23.  17
    Men, Mammals, or Machines? Dehumanization Embedded in Organizational Practices.Tuure Väyrynen & Sari Laari-Salmela - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (1):95-113.
    The present study combines dehumanization research with the concept of organizational trust to examine how employees perceive various types of maltreatment embedded within the organizational practices that form the ethical climate of an organization. With the help of grounded theory methodology, we analyzed 188 employment exit interview transcripts from an ICT subcontracting company. By examining perceived trustworthiness and perceived humanness, we found that dehumanizing employees can deteriorate trust within organizations. The violations found in the empirical material were divided into animalistic (...)
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  24. There Are No Known Differences in Brain Mechanisms of Consciousness Between Humans and Other Mammals.Bernard J. Baars - 2001 - Animal Welfare Supplement 10:31- 40.
  25. Constructing the Neocortex: Influence on the Pattern of Organization in Mammals.L. Krubitzer, K. Huffman & Z. Molnár - forthcoming - Brain and Mind: Evolutionary Perspectives.
     
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  26. Mammals Versus Dinosaurs: The Success of a Conspiracy.M. Ryszkiewicz & R. S. Walker - 1983 - Diogenes 31 (124):78-89.
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  27.  12
    Histone Lysine and Genomic Targets of Histone Acetyltransferases in Mammals.Anne K. Voss & Tim Thomas - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (10):1800078.
    Histone acetylation has been recognized as an important post‐translational modification of core nucleosomal histones that changes access to the chromatin to allow gene transcription, DNA replication, and repair. Histone acetyltransferases were initially identified as co‐activators that link DNA‐binding transcription factors to the general transcriptional machinery. Over the years, more chromatin‐binding modes have been discovered suggesting direct interaction of histone acetyltransferases and their protein complex partners with histone proteins. While much progress has been made in characterizing histone acetyltransferase complexes biochemically, cell‐free (...)
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  28.  28
    Advances in Molecular Biology of Hibernation in Mammals.Matthew T. Andrews - 2007 - Bioessays 29 (5):431-440.
  29.  1
    Admixture in Mammals and How to Understand Its Functional Implications.Claudia Fontsere, Marc de Manuel, Tomas Marques‐Bonet & Martin Kuhlwilm - forthcoming - Bioessays.
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  30.  8
    Early Origins of Modern Birds and Mammals: Molecules Vs. Morphology.Michael J. Benton - 1999 - Bioessays 21 (12):1043-1051.
  31.  10
    Dental Enamel as a Dietary Indicator in Mammals.Peter Lucas, Paul Constantino, Bernard Wood & Brian Lawn - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (4):374-385.
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  32.  10
    A Novel Signalling Mechanism for Generating Ca2+ Oscillations at Fertilization in Mammals.Karl Swann & F. A. Lai - 1997 - Bioessays 19 (5):371-378.
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  33.  5
    Molecular Evidence for the Early Divergence of Placental Mammals.Simon Easteal - 1999 - Bioessays 21 (12):1052-1058.
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  34.  3
    Attachment Behavior of Mammals.Robert B. Cairns - 1966 - Psychological Review 73 (5):409-426.
  35.  9
    Cetacean Brains Have a Structure Similar to the Brains of Primitive Mammals; Does This Imply Limits in Function?John F. Eisenberg - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):92-92.
  36.  26
    Influenza Type A in Humans, Mammals and Birds: Determinants of Virus Virulence, Host‐Range and Interspecies Transmission.Susan J. Baigent & John W. McCauley - 2003 - Bioessays 25 (7):657-671.
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  37.  4
    Scrambled or Bisected Mouse Eggs and the Basis of Patterning in Mammals.Richard L. Gardner - 1999 - Bioessays 21 (4):271-274.
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  38.  15
    Mitochondrial Dna Analyses for the Molecular Taxonomy of South African Mammals.M. F. Essop, M. Emmanuel & E. H. Harley - 1988 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 46 (4):291-293.
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  39.  5
    Mitotic Recombination in Mammals.Jean-Jacques Panthier & Hubert Condamine - 1991 - Bioessays 13 (7):351-356.
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  40.  14
    Non-Exotic Sex determinationSex Determination, Differentiation and Intersexuality in Placental Mammals. By R. H. F. Hunter. Cambridge University Press. Xxi+310 Pp. £80/$79.95 Hardback. ISBN 0 521 46218 5. [REVIEW]R. V. Short - 1996 - Bioessays 18 (6):520-521.
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  41.  16
    Regulation of Meiotic Recombination and Prophase I Progression in Mammals.Paula E. Cohen & Jeffrey W. Pollard - 2001 - Bioessays 23 (11):996-1009.
  42.  10
    Filling the Gaps on the Maps: Historical Distribution Patterns of Some Larger Mammals in Part of Southern Africa.André Boshoff, Marietjie Landman & Graham Kerley - 2016 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 71 (1):23-87.
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  43.  28
    Individual Foraging Specializations in Marine Mammals: Culture and Ecology.Richard C. Connor - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):329-330.
    Rendell and Whitehead argue persuasively that individual foraging specializations, if socially learned, are examples of cetacean culture. However, they discount ecological variation experienced by individuals within a population as a factor in such behavior. I suggest that ecological variation may play an important role in individual foraging specializations and describe several ecological parameters that may help us understand the high frequency of this interesting behavior in the marine habitat.
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  44.  9
    Michael Novacek. Time Traveler: In Search of Dinosaurs and Ancient Mammals From Montana to Mongolia. 352 Pp., Figs., Notes, Index. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 2002. $26. [REVIEW]David E. Fastovsky - 2003 - Isis 94 (2):410-411.
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  45.  4
    On the Genesis of the Ovum of Mammals and of Man.Karl Ernst von Baer & Charles Donald O'Malley - 1956 - Isis 47 (2):117-153.
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  46.  8
    Large Mammals Inside and Outside Protected Areas in the Kalahari.C. R. Thouless - 1998 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 53 (2):245-255.
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  47.  9
    Encephalization and Gestation in Placental Mammals.Jon Tolaas - 1983 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 27 (1):39-47.
  48.  9
    Sexual Behaviour in Mammals.R. V. Short - 1996 - Global Bioethics 9 (1-4):3-10.
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  49.  7
    Pelagic Birds and Mammals of the Southern Benguela Region.J. Cooper - 1981 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 44 (3):373-378.
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  50.  7
    The Effects of Different Grazing Regimes on the Population Dynamics of Small Mammals in the Eastern Cape.Q. Nyako-Lartey & R. M. Baxter - 1995 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 50 (2):143-151.
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