Results for '*Problem Solving'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  21
    Ways of Thinking About and Teaching Ethical Problem Solving: Microethics and Macroethics in Engineering. [REVIEW]Joseph R. Herkert - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (3):373-385.
    Engineering ethics entails three frames of reference: individual, professional, and social. “Microethics” considers individuals and internal relations of the engineering profession; “macroethics” applies to the collective social responsibility of the profession and to societal decisions about technology. Most research and teaching in engineering ethics, including online resources, has had a “micro” focus. Mechanisms for incorporating macroethical perspectives include: integrating engineering ethics and science, technology and society (STS); closer integration of engineering ethics and computer ethics; and consideration of the influence of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   22 citations  
  2.  24
    Analysis of Minimal Complex Systems and Complex Problem Solving Require Different Forms of Causal Cognition.Joachim Funke - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    In the last 20 years, a stream of research emerged under the label of „complex problem solving“ (CPS). This research was intended to describe the way people deal with complex, dynamic, and intransparent situations. Complex computer-simulated scenarios were as stimulus material in psychological experiments. This line of research lead to subtle insights into the way how people deal with complexity and uncertainty. Besides these knowledge-rich, realistic, intransparent, complex, dynamic scenarios with many variables, a second line of research used more (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  3.  1
    Problem‐Solving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.J. Wiltshire Travis, E. Butner Jonathan & M. Fiore Stephen - forthcoming - Cognitive Science.
    Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  4. Virtuality as a Basis for Problem Solving?Degli Antoni Gianni & Pizzi Rita - 1991 - AI and Society 5 (3):239-245.
    This paper is an attempt to develop a paradigm in problem solving where the notion of virtuality plays a central role. Following a brief discussion on virtual simulation, the paper attempts to identify a notion of virtuality based on the identification of the self (man or computer) with the problem solver. It is shown that such an identification/distinction possibly violates some general principle of the problem environment.To deal with this violation, a new problem is generated and a new virtualization (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5.  3
    Interdisciplinary Problem- Solving: Emerging Modes in Integrative Systems Biology.Miles MacLeod & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (3):401-418.
    Integrative systems biology is an emerging field that attempts to integrate computation, applied mathematics, engineering concepts and methods, and biological experimentation in order to model large-scale complex biochemical networks. The field is thus an important contemporary instance of an interdisciplinary approach to solving complex problems. Interdisciplinary science is a recent topic in the philosophy of science. Determining what is philosophically important and distinct about interdisciplinary practices requires detailed accounts of problem-solving practices that attempt to understand how specific practices (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  6.  16
    Use of a "Coping-Modeling, Problem-Solving" Program in Business Ethics Education.Sheldene K. Simola - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (3):383 - 401.
    During the last decade, scholars have identified a number of factors that pose significant challenges to effective business ethics education. This article offers a "coping-modeling, problem-solving" (CMPS) approach (Cunningham, 2006) as one option for addressing these concerns. A rationale supporting the use of the CMPS framework for courses on ethical decisionmaking in business is provided, following which the implementation processes for this program are described. Evaluative data collected from N = 101 undergraduate business students enrolled in a third year (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  7.  24
    Humanist and Nonhumanist Aspects of Technologies as Problem Solving Physical Instruments.Sadjad Soltanzadeh - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (1):139-156.
    A form of metaphysical humanism in the field of philosophy of technology can be defined as the claim that besides technologies’ physical aspects, purely human attributes are sufficient to conceptualize technologies. Metaphysical nonhumanism, on the other hand, would be the claim that the meanings of the operative words in any acceptable conception of technologies refer to the states of affairs or events which are in a way or another shaped by technologies. In this paper, I focus on the conception of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  8.  40
    The Role of Emotions in Complex Problem-Solving.Miriam Spering, Daniel Wagener & Joachim Funke - 2005 - Cognition and Emotion 19:1252-1261.
    The assumption that positive affect leads to a better performance in simple cognitive tasks has become well established. We address the question whether positive and negative emotions differentially influence performance in complex problem-solving in the same way. Emotions were induced by positive or negative feedback in 74 participants who had to manage a computer-simulated complex problem-solving scenario. Results show that overall scenario performance is not affected, but positive and negative emotions elicit distinguishable problem-solving strategies: Participants with negative (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9.  1
    The Phenomenology of Problem Solving.Jeffrey Yoshimi - 2017 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 94 (3):391-409.
    _ Source: _Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 391 - 409 The author outlines a provisional phenomenology of problem solving. He begins by reviewing the history of problem-solving psychology, focusing on the Gestalt approach, which emphasizes the influence of prior knowledge and the occurrence of sudden insights. He then describes problem solving as a process unfolding in a field of consciousness against a background of unconscious knowledge, which encodes action patterns, schemata, and affordances. A global feeling of wrongness (...)
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  10.  19
    Is Mathematics Problem Solving or Theorem Proving?Carlo Cellucci - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (1):183-199.
    The question that is the subject of this article is not intended to be a sociological or statistical question about the practice of today’s mathematicians, but a philosophical question about the nature of mathematics, and specifically the method of mathematics. Since antiquity, saying that mathematics is problem solving has been an expression of the view that the method of mathematics is the analytic method, while saying that mathematics is theorem proving has been an expression of the view that the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11.  35
    Designing User Interfaces for Problem Solving, with Application to Hypertext and Creative Writing.Harold Thimbleby - 1994 - AI and Society 8 (1):29-44.
    Interactive computer systems can support their users in problem solving, both in Performing their work tasks and in using the systems themselves. Not only is direct support for heuristics beneficial, but to do so modifies the form of computer support provided. This Paper defines and explores the use of problem solving heuristics in user interface design.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12.  10
    The Diagnostic Power of the Stages of Critical Discussion in the Analysis and Evaluation of Problem-Solving Discussions.M. A. van Rees - 2001 - Argumentation 15 (4):457-470.
    In this article, the pragma-dialectical model of a critical discussion is demonstrated to provide a useful instrument for discovering causes of an unsatisfactory development of problem-solving discussions. First a sketch is given of the development of a problem-solving discussion which, in the opinion of the participants themselves, developed in an unsatisfactory fashion. Then it is argued that this development can be traced back to flaws in the execution of the stages of a critical discussion.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  13.  46
    Visual Models in Analogical Problem Solving.Jim Davies, Nancy J. Nersessian & Ashok K. Goel - 2005 - Foundations of Science 10 (1):133-152.
    Visual analogy is believed to be important in human problem solving. Yet, there are few computational models of visual analogy. In this paper, we present a preliminary computational model of visual analogy in problem solving. The model is instantiated in a computer program, called Galatea, which uses a language for representing and transferring visual information called Privlan. We describe how the computational model can account for a small slice of a cognitive-historical analysis of Maxwell’s reasoning about electromagnetism.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14.  33
    Pragma-Dialectical Analysis and Evaluation of Problem-Solving Discussion.M. A. van Rees - 2003 - Argumentation 17 (4):465-479.
    In this article, after arguing that present approaches to improving problem-solving discussions for various reasons are not satisfactory, I turn to the pragma-dialectic approach to argumentative discourse to derive a normative framework that can serve as a point of departure to enhance the quality of problem-solving discussions. I then show how this approach can be used as analytical and evaluative instrument that can help the analyst to establish whether participants in actual practice act in a fashion that is (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15.  32
    Observation Can Be as Effective as Action in Problem Solving.Magda Osman - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (1):162-183.
    The present study discusses findings that replicate and extend the original work of Burns and Vollmeyer (2002), which showed that performance in problem solving tasks was more accurate when people were engaged in a non-specific goal than in a specific goal. The main innovation here was to examine the goal specificity effect under both observation-based and conventional action-based learning conditions. The findings show that goal specificity affects the accuracy of problem solving in the same way, both when the (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16.  1
    Analysing and Evaluating Problem-Solving Discussions.M. Agnes Rees - 1995 - Argumentation 9 (2):343-362.
    In this article, the conceptual instrument that pragma-dialectical argumentation theory offers is elaborated for the analysis and evaluation of problem-solving discussions. The elaboration is aimed expressly at taking into account the discussion character of the discourse, in order to show how the developing process evolves and what the obstacles are therein. In addition, it focuses expressly on the verbal behaviour of the participants and on showing how this behaviour controls the evolving process. The analysis and evaluation is based on (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  17.  27
    Beyond Simon's Means-Ends Analysis: Natural Creativity and the Unanswered 'Why' in the Design of Intelligent Systems for Problem-Solving[REVIEW]Dongming Xu - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (3):327-347.
    Goal-directed problem solving as originally advocated by Herbert Simon’s means-ends analysis model has primarily shaped the course of design research on artificially intelligent systems for problem-solving. We contend that there is a definite disregard of a key phase within the overall design process that in fact logically precedes the actual problem solving phase. While systems designers have traditionally been obsessed with goal-directed problem solving, the basic determinants of the ultimate desired goal state still remain to be (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18.  5
    Problem-Solving Argumentative Patterns in Plenary Debates of the European Parliament.Bart Garssen - 2016 - Argumentation 30 (1):25-43.
    The aim of this paper is to describe the way in which argumentative patterns come into being in plenary debate over legislative issues in the European Parliament. What kind of argumentative patterns are to be expected within this macro context? It is shown that the argumentative patterns that come into being in legislative debate in the European Parliament depend for the most part on the problem-solving argumentation that is put forward in the opening speech by the rapporteur of the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19. Difference as a Resource for Thinking: An Online Dialogue Showing the Role Played by Difference in Problem Solving and Decision Making.Susanna Saracco - 2016 - Metaphilosophy 47 (3):467-476.
    Contemporary societies require citizens and workers to face unexpected challenges. This calls for a shift of emphasis from individualistic competence to the importance of collective intelligence. This article describes a plan for a project in which students who are eight to twelve years old will not only realize that difference is a crucial resource in problem solving and decision making but also live out their personal value as thinking, active beings. They will participate in an online dialogue that takes (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20.  15
    Diverse Knowledges and Competing Interests: An Essay on Socio-Technical Problem-Solving.Vincent di Norcia - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (1):83-98.
    Solving complex socio-technical problems, this paper claims, involves diverse knowledges (cognitive diversity), competing interests (social diversity), and pragmatism. To explain this view, this paper first explores two different cases: Canadian pulp and paper mill pollution and siting nuclear reactors in seismically sensitive areas of California. Solving such socio-technically complex problems involves cognitive diversity as well as social diversity and pragmatism. Cognitive diversity requires one to not only recognize relevant knowledges but also to assess their validity. Finally, it is (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  21.  4
    Learning Problem‐Solving Rules as Search Through a Hypothesis Space.Hee Seung Lee, Shawn Betts & John R. Anderson - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (5):1036-1079.
    Learning to solve a class of problems can be characterized as a search through a space of hypotheses about the rules for solving these problems. A series of four experiments studied how different learning conditions affected the search among hypotheses about the solution rule for a simple computational problem. Experiment 1 showed that a problem property such as computational difficulty of the rules biased the search process and so affected learning. Experiment 2 examined the impact of examples as instructional (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22.  3
    Learning Problem‐Solving Rules as Search Through a Hypothesis Space.Hee Seung Lee, Shawn Betts & John R. Anderson - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (1).
    Learning to solve a class of problems can be characterized as a search through a space of hypotheses about the rules for solving these problems. A series of four experiments studied how different learning conditions affected the search among hypotheses about the solution rule for a simple computational problem. Experiment 1 showed that a problem property such as computational difficulty of the rules biased the search process and so affected learning. Experiment 2 examined the impact of examples as instructional (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23.  67
    Protocol Analysis in Creative Problem-Solving.Steven James Bartlett - 1978 - Journal of Creative Behavior 12 (3):181-192.
    The use of protocol analysis in the traning of cognitive skills.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24.  26
    Specialization Effect and Its Influence on Memory and Problem Solving in Expert Chess Players.Merim Bilalić, Peter McLeod & Fernand Gobet - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (6):1117-1143.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  25.  11
    Verbal Behavior and Problem Solving: Some Effects of Labeling in a Functional Fixedness Problem.Sam Glucksberg & Robert W. Weisberg - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (5):659.
  26.  63
    An Operant Analysis of Problem Solving.B. F. Skinner - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):583.
  27.  12
    Cross‐National Comparisons of Complex Problem‐Solving Strategies in Two Microworlds.C. Dominik Güss, Ma Teresa Tuason & Christiane Gerhard - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (3):489-520.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  28. Intuition and Visualization in Mathematical Problem Solving.Valeria Giardino - 2010 - Topoi 29 (1):29-39.
    In this article, I will discuss the relationship between mathematical intuition and mathematical visualization. I will argue that in order to investigate this relationship, it is necessary to consider mathematical activity as a complex phenomenon, which involves many different cognitive resources. I will focus on two kinds of danger in recurring to visualization and I will show that they are not a good reason to conclude that visualization is not reliable, if we consider its use in mathematical practice. Then, I (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  29.  4
    Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving.Maria Kozhevnikov, Michael A. Motes & Mary Hegarty - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (4):549-579.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  30.  2
    Gesture Offers Insight Into Problem‐Solving in Adults and Children.Philip Garber & Susan Goldin‐Meadow - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (6):817-831.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  31.  24
    A Test of the Testing Effect: Acquiring Problem‐Solving Skills From Worked Examples.Tamara van Gog & Liesbeth Kester - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (8):1532-1541.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  32.  8
    A Study of the Effects of Verbalization on Problem Solving.Robert M. Gagné & Ernest C. Smith Jr - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (1):12.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  33.  3
    On the Spontaneous Discovery of a Mathematical Relation During Problem Solving.James A. Dixon & Ashley S. Bangert - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (3):433-449.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  34.  4
    Trade‐Offs Between Grounded and Abstract Representations: Evidence From Algebra Problem Solving.Kenneth R. Koedinger, Martha W. Alibali & Mitchell J. Nathan - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (2):366-397.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  35.  9
    Functional Fixedness as Related to Problem Solving: A Repetition of Three Experiments.Robert E. Adamson - 1952 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 44 (4):288.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  36.  13
    Problem Solving in Multiple-Goal Situations.Scarvia B. Anderson - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (4):297.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37.  14
    Inhibitory Set in Problem Solving as Related to Reinforcement Learning.Robert Adamson - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (4):280.
  38.  3
    Transition Probability Effects in Anagram Problem Solving.Harry Beilin & Rheba Horn - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (5):514.
  39.  4
    Modes of Representation and Problem Solving: Well Evolved is Half Solved.Steven H. Schwartz - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):347.
  40.  6
    Cognitive Factors in Student Nurses' Clinical Problem Solving.Krystyna M. Cholowski & Lorna K. S. Chan - 2004 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (1):85-95.
  41.  4
    Twenty Questions: Efficiency in Problem Solving as a Function of Size of Group.Donald W. Taylor & William L. Faust - 1952 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 44 (5):360.
  42.  8
    Effects of Prior Serial Learning of Solution Words Upon Anagram Problem Solving: A Serial Position Effect.Gary A. Davis & Mary E. Manske - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (1):101.
  43.  2
    Multiple Versus Single Problem Training in Human Problem Solving.Jack A. Adams - 1954 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (1):15.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  44.  4
    Amount of Material and Difficulty of Problem Solving. II. The Disc Transfer Problem.T. W. Cook - 1937 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 20 (3):288.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  45.  2
    A Comparison of Three Varieties of Training in Human Problem Solving.Lloyd Morrisett Jr & Carl I. Hovland - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (1):52.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  46.  6
    A Model of Knowledge Activation and Insight in Problem Solving.Matthew A. Cronin - 2004 - Complexity 9 (5):17-24.
  47.  5
    Stimulus Generalization Variables in Anagram-Problem Solving.Ernest H. LeMay - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (2):349.
  48.  3
    Problem Solving as a Function of the Situation.Melvin R. Marks - 1951 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (1):74.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49.  4
    Memory and Problem Solving: A Failure to Replicate.Morton W. Weir - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):166.
  50.  4
    Acquisition and Extinction of Problem-Solving Set.R. Allen Gardner & Willard N. Runquist - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (3):274.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 1000