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Arif Ahmed [29]A. Ahmed [11]Asad Ahmed [3]Ashraf Uddin Ahmed [2]
A. Karim Ahmed [2]Aziza Ahmed [2]Asad Q. Ahmed [1]A. H. Ahmed [1]

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Arif Ahmed
Cambridge University
Asma Ahmed
Royal Holloway University of London
Ardashir Ahmed
University of Manchester
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  1.  66
    Sequential Choice and the Agent's Perspective.Arif Ahmed - manuscript
    Causal Decision Theory reckons the choice-worthiness of an option to be completely independent of its evidential bearing on its non-effects. But after one has made a choice this bearing is relevant to future decisions. Therefore it is possible to construct problems of sequential choice in which Causal Decision Theory makes a guaranteed loss. So Causal Decision Theory is wrong. The source of the problem is the idea that agents have a special perspective on their own contemplated actions, from which evidential (...)
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  2.  29
    The Meaning of Belief: Religion From an Atheist’s Point of View, by Tim Crane. [REVIEW]Arif Ahmed - forthcoming - Mind:fzy018.
    The Meaning of Belief: Religion from an Atheist’s Point of View, by CraneTim. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2017. Pp. xiv + 203.
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  3.  23
    The Impact of Information Technology Used on the Nature of Administrators Work at Al-Azhar University in Gaza.Adel A. Ahmed, Samy S. Abu-Naser, Suliman A. El Talla & Mazen J. Al Shobaki - 2018 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 2 (6):1-20.
    The study aimed to examine the Information Technology used and its effect on the nature of the work of the administrators at Al-Azhar University in Gaza. The researchers used the analytical descriptive method through a questionnaire randomly distributed among the employees of Al-Azhar University in Gaza. The study was conducted on a sample of 77 employees the response rate was 92.20%. The study reached a number of results, the most important of which is that there is a high degree of (...)
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  4. Causal Decision Theory: A Counterexample.A. Ahmed - 2013 - Philosophical Review 122 (2):289-306.
    The essay presents a novel counterexample to Causal Decision Theory (CDT). Its interest is that it generates a case in which CDT violates the very principles that motivated it in the first place. The essay argues that the objection applies to all extant formulations of CDT and that the only way out for that theory is a modification of it that entails incompatibilism. The essay invites the reader to find this consequence of CDT a reason to reject it.
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  5. Causal Decision Theory and EPR Correlations.Arif Ahmed & Adam Caulton - 2014 - Synthese 191 (18):4315-4352.
    The paper argues that on three out of eight possible hypotheses about the EPR experiment we can construct novel and realistic decision problems on which (a) Causal Decision Theory and Evidential Decision Theory conflict (b) Causal Decision Theory and the EPR statistics conflict. We infer that anyone who fully accepts any of these three hypotheses has strong reasons to reject Causal Decision Theory. Finally, we extend the original construction to show that anyone who gives any of the three hypotheses any (...)
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  6.  30
    Evidence, Decision and Causality.Arif Ahmed - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    Most philosophers agree that causal knowledge is essential to decision-making: agents should choose from the available options those that probably cause the outcomes that they want. This book argues against this theory and in favour of evidential or Bayesian decision theory, which emphasises the symptomatic value of options over their causal role. It examines a variety of settings, including economic theory, quantum mechanics and philosophical thought-experiments, where causal knowledge seems to make a practical difference. The arguments make novel use of (...)
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  7.  36
    Don’T Look Now.Bernhard Salow & Arif Ahmed - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Good’s theorem is the apparent platitude that it is always rational to ‘look before you leap’: to gather information before making a decision when doing so is free. We argue that Good’s theorem is not platitudinous and may be false. And we argue that the correct advice is rather to ‘make your act depend on the answer to a question’. Looking before you leap is rational when, but only when, it is a way to do this.
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  8.  36
    Rationality and Future Discounting.Arif Ahmed - 2018 - Topoi:1-12.
    The best justification of time-discounting is roughly that it is rational to care less about your more distant future because there is less of you around to have it. I argue that the standard version of this argument, which treats both psychological continuity and psychological connectedness as reasons to care about your future, can only rationalize an irrational—because exploitable—form of future discounting.
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  9. Hume and the Independent Witnesses.Arif Ahmed - 2015 - Mind 124 (496):1013-1044.
    The Humean argument concerning miracles says that one should always think it more likely that anyone who testifies to a miracle is lying or deluded than that the alleged miracle actually occurred, and so should always reject any single report of it. A longstanding and widely accepted objection is that even if this is right, the concurring and non-collusive testimony of many witnesses should make it rational to believe in whatever miracle they all report. I argue that on the contrary, (...)
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  10. Causal Decision Theory and the Fixity of the Past.Arif Ahmed - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (4):665-685.
    Causal decision theory (CDT) cares only about the effects of a contemplated act, not its causes. The article constructs a case in which CDT consequently recommends a bet that the agent is certain to lose, rather than a bet that she is certain to win. CDT is plainly giving wrong advice in this case. It therefore stands refuted. 1 The Argument2 The Argument in More Detail2.1 The betting mechanism2.2 Soft determinism2.3 The content of P 2.4 The argument again3 The Descriptive (...)
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  11. Walters on Conjunction Conditionalization.Arif Ahmed - 2011 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 111 (1pt1):115-122.
    This discussion note examines a recent argument for the principle that any counterfactual with true components is itself true. That argument rests upon two widely accepted principles of counterfactual logic to which the paper presents counterexamples. The conclusion speculates briefly upon the wider lessons that philosophers should draw from these examples for the semantics of counterfactuals.
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  12. Out of the Closet.A. Ahmed - 2011 - Analysis 71 (1):77-85.
  13. Arntzenius on “Why Ain’Cha Rich?”.Arif Ahmed & Huw Price - 2012 - Erkenntnis 77 (1):15-30.
    The best-known argument for Evidential Decision Theory (EDT) is the ‘Why ain’cha rich?’ challenge to rival Causal Decision Theory (CDT). The basis for this challenge is that in Newcomb-like situations, acts that conform to EDT may be known in advance to have the better return than acts that conform to CDT. Frank Arntzenius has recently proposed an ingenious counter argument, based on an example in which, he claims, it is predictable in advance that acts that conform to EDT will do (...)
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  14. Dicing with Death.Arif Ahmed - 2014 - Analysis 74 (4):587-592.
    You should rather play hide-and-seek against someone who cannot predict where you hide than against someone who can, as the article illustrates in connection with a high-stakes example. Causal Decision Theory denies this. So Causal Decision Theory is false.
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  15. Modality: Metaphysics, Logic, and Epistemology, Bob Hale and Aviv Hoffmann (Eds). [REVIEW]Arif Ahmed - 2012 - Mind 121 (483):817-822.
  16. Signaling Systems and the Transcendental Deduction.A. Ahmed - forthcoming - In T. Goldschmidt K. Pearce (ed.), Idealism: New Essays in Metaphysics.
    The paper offers a model of Kant's claim that unity of consciousness entails objectivity of experience. This claim has nothing especially to do with thought, language or the categories but is a general truth about arbitrary signaling systems of the sort modeled in the paper. In conclusion I draw some consequences for various forms of idealism.
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  17. Push the Button.Arif Ahmed - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (3):386-395.
    Opponents of Causal Decision Theory (CDT) sometimes claim (i) that it gives the wrong advice in Egan-style cases, where the CDT-endorsed act brings news that it causes a bad outcome; (ii) that CDT gives the right advice in Newcomb cases, where it is known in advance that the CDT-act causes you to be richer than the alternative. This paper argues that (i) and (ii) cannot both be true if rational preference over acts is transitive.
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  18.  39
    Consenting Options for Posthumous Organ Donation: Presumed Consent and Incentives Are Not Favored. [REVIEW]Muhammad M. Hammami, Hunaida M. Abdulhameed, Kristine A. Concepcion, Abdullah Eissa, Sumaya Hammami, Hala Amer, Abdelraheem Ahmed & Eman Al-Gaai - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):32-.
    Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable) the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, (...)
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  19. Evidential Decision Theory and Medical Newcomb Problems.Arif Ahmed - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (2):191-198.
    has offered evidential decision theorists a defence against the charge that they make unintuitive recommendations for cases like Newcomb's Problem. He says that when conditional probabilities are assessed from the agent's point of view, evidential decision theory makes the same recommendation as intuition. I argue that calculating the probabilities in Price's way leads to no recommendation. It condemns the agent to perpetual oscillation between different options. Price's Argument Instability Objections Conclusion.
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  20.  54
    Exploiting Cyclic Preference.Arif Ahmed - 2017 - Mind 126 (504):975-1022.
    Probably many people have cyclic preferences: they prefer A to B, B to C and C to A for some objects of choice A, B and C. Recent work has resurrected the objection to cyclic preference that agents possessing them are open to exploitation by means of ‘money pumps’. The paper briefly reviews this work and proposes a general approach to problems of sequential choice that makes cyclic preference immune to exploitation by means of these new mechanisms.
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  21. Infallibility in the Newcomb Problem.Arif Ahmed - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (2):261-273.
    It is intuitively attractive to think that it makes a difference in Newcomb’s problem whether or not the predictor is infallible, in the sense of being certainly actually correct. This paper argues that that view is irrational and manifests a well-documented cognitive illusion.
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  22. Review: John McDowell. [REVIEW]Arif Ahmed - 2006 - Mind 115 (458):403-409.
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  23.  69
    Rigidity and Essentiality: Reply to Gomez-Torrente.A. Ahmed - 2009 - Mind 118 (469):121-133.
    Mario Gómez-Torrente (2006) says that whilst theoretical identifications (e.g. 'All lightning is electrical discharge') do not entail their own necessitations, they do entail the necessitation of a weaker statement. And he claims that this weaker entailment serves Kripke's purposes as well as the stronger one would have. I argue that this is false. Section 1 says what the weaker entailment is; section 2 says why it matters. Section 3 argues that the entailment identified at section 1 does not meet the (...)
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  24. From Game Theoretical Accounts of Cooperation to Meta-Ethical Choices.Arif Ahmed - 2013 - Studies in Christian Ethics 26 (2):176-183.
  25. Hale on Some Arguments for the Necessity of Necessity.Arif Ahmed - 2000 - Mind 109 (433):81-91.
    The paper argues against Bob Hale's (1999) argument that enquirers must regard some truths as necessary truths. Hale's argument against Quinean skepticism. like many similar arguments due to McFetridge, Wright and others, involves a quantifier shift fallacy.
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  26. Smokers and Psychos: Egan Cases Don't Work.Arif Ahmed - manuscript
    Andy Egan's Smoking Lesion and Psycho Button cases are supposed to be counterexamples to Causal Decision Theory. This paper argues that they are not: more precisely, it argues that if CDT makes the right call in Newcomb's problem then it makes the right call in Egan cases too.
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  27.  31
    Delays and Diversity in the Practice of Local Research Ethics Committees.A. H. Ahmed & K. G. Nicholson - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (5):263-266.
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the practices of local research ethics committees and the time they take to obtain ethical approval for a multi-centre study. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of outcome of applications for a multi-centre study to local research ethics committees. SETTING: Thirty-six local research ethics committees covering 38 district health authorities in England. MAIN MEASURES: Response of chairmen and women, the time required to obtain approval, and questions asked in application forms. RESULTS: We received replies from all 36 chairmen contacted: (...)
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  28. Causation and Decision.Arif Ahmed - 2010 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 110 (2pt2):111-131.
    Sophisticated ‘tickle’-style defences of Evidential Decision Theory take your motivational state to screen off your act from any state that is causally independent of it, thus ensuring that EDT and CDT converge. That leads to unacceptable instability in cases in which the correct action is obvious. We need a more liberal conception of what the agent controls. It follows that an ordinary deliberator should sometimes consider the past and not only the future to be subject to her present choice.
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  29.  41
    Saul Kripke.Arif Ahmed - 2007 - London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Saul Kripke is one of the most important and original post-war analytic philosophers. His work has undeniably had a profound impact on the philosophy of language and the philosophy of mind. Yet his ideas are amongst the most challenging frequently encountered by students of philosophy. In this informative and accessible book, Arif Ahmed provides a clear and thorough account of Kripke's philosophy, his major works and ideas, providing an ideal guide to the important and complex thought of this key philosopher. (...)
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  30.  82
    Review: David Pears: Paradox and Platitude in Wittgenstein's Philosophy. [REVIEW]A. Ahmed - 2009 - Mind 118 (469):200-203.
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  31.  76
    W.V. Quine.Arif Ahmed - 2008 - In C. J. Misak (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of American Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 290-338.
    The paper summarizes the main points of Quine's epistemology and philosophy of language: empiricism, holism, semantic behaviourism, inscrutability of reference, indterminacy of translation and the rejection of analyticity.
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  32. Wittgenstein on Seeing Aspects.Arif Ahmed - 2017 - In Hans-Johann Glock & John Hyman (eds.), A Companion to Wittgenstein. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 517-532.
    A resolution must give “seeing it differently” a sense that makes it clear that it is seeing that one is doing differently and not something else that is going on at the same time. The Berlin school of gestalt psychology took the view that alongside the colors and shapes traditionally thought to compose the visual field was a similarly perceptible aspect of “organization”. Wittgenstein considers the possibility of a physiological explanation of aspect change. This chapter details the Wittgenstein's account that (...)
     
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  33.  24
    Avicenna on Animal Self-Awareness, Cognition and Identity.Alwishah Ahmed - 2016 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 26 (1):73-96.
  34.  20
    Agency and Causation.Arif Ahmed - 2007 - In Huw Price & Richard Corry (eds.), Causation, Physics, and the Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic Revisited. Oxford University Press.
    The paper distinguishes versions of the 'Agency theory of causation' and defends some of them against the charge of circularity.
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  35.  8
    Factors Affecting Desired Family Size in Bangladesh.M. Kabir, Ruhul Amin, Ashraf Uddin Ahmed & Jamir Chowdhury - 1994 - Journal of Biosocial Science 26 (3):369-75.
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  36.  13
    Causality, Chaos, and Consciousness.A. Karim Ahmed - 1998 - Process Studies 27 (3/4):255-266.
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  37.  10
    Informed Decision Making and Abortion: Crisis Pregnancy Centers, Informed Consent, and the First Amendment.Aziza Ahmed - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):51-58.
    Shifting laws and regulations increasingly displace the centrality of women's health concerns in the provision of abortion services. This is exemplified by the growing presence of deceptive Crisis Pregnancy Centers alongside new informed consent laws designed to dissuade women from seeking abortions. Litigation on informed consent is further complicated in the clinical context due to the increased mobilization of facts – such as the gestational age or sonogram of the fetus – delivered with the intent to dissuade women from accessing (...)
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  38.  10
    The Asquith Tradition, the Ashby Reform, and the Development of Higher Education in Nigeria.Ajuji Ahmed - 1989 - Minerva 27 (1):1-20.
  39.  7
    Deductive Inference and Aspect Perception.Arif Ahmed - 2010 - In Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
    Deductive inference seems to reveal semantic connections between their premise(s) and conclusion that were there all along. This looks inconsistent with Wittgenstein's later views on meaning. The paper argues that W's treatment of aspects suggests a Wittgensteinian treatment of deduction that accommodates the troublesome phenomenon without conceding its force.
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  40.  4
    Holistic Human Resource Development: Balancing the Equation Through the Inclusion of Spiritual Quotient.A. Ahmed, M. A. Arshad, A. Mahmood & S. Akhtar - 2016 - Journal of Human Values 22 (3):165-179.
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  41.  6
    Recent Evidence on Trends and Differentials in Bangladesh Fertility: An Update.R. Amin, A. Ahmed, J. Chowdhury, M. Kabir & R. Hill - 1994 - Journal of Biosocial Science 26 (2):235-241.
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  42.  6
    Factors Affecting Acceptability of Long-Acting Contraceptive Injections in a Rural Egyptian Community.M. N. Younis, N. El Messeri Nadeem, H. I. Salem, A. F. Hamed, A. Ahmed, G. El-Masry & A. Hamza - 1987 - Journal of Biosocial Science 19 (3):305.
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  43.  2
    Dual Subordination: Muslim Sexuality in Secular and Religious Legal Discourse in India.Aziza Ahmed - 2007 - Muslim World Journal of Human Rights 4 (1).
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  44.  2
    British Policy and the Muslims in Bengal 1757-1856.A. F. S. Ahmed & A. R. Mallick - 1963 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 83 (3):383.
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  45.  3
    Socioeconomic Determinants of Age at First Marriage in Bangladesh.Ashraf Uddin Ahmed - 1986 - Journal of Biosocial Science 18 (1):35-42.
  46. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning Java Objects.S. Abu-Naser, A. Ahmed, N. Al-Masri, A. Deeb, E. Moshtaha & M. AbuLamdy - 2011 - International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Applications 2 (2).
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  47. Causality, Chaos, and Consciousness: Steps Toward a Normative Cosmological Principle in an Evolving Universe.A. Karim Ahmed - 1998 - Process Studies 27 (3/4):255-266.
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  48. Humanist and Syncretic Tradtion in South Asian Social Thought.Af Salahuddin Ahmed - 1992 - In A. B. M. Mafizul Islam Patwari (ed.), Humanism and Human Rights in the Third World. Distributors, Aligarh Library.
     
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  49. Modern Approach to Political Campaign Strategies and Tactics in Nigeria.A. T. Ahmed - 1997 - Murphy Publishing Co.
     
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  50. Newcomb's Problem.Arif Ahmed (ed.) - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    Newcomb's Problem is a controversial paradox of decision theory. It is easily explained and easily understood, and there is a strong chance that most of us have actually faced it in some form or other. And yet it has proven as thorny and intractable a puzzle as much older and better-known philosophical problems of consciousness, scepticism and fatalism. It brings into very sharp and focused disagreement several long-standing philosophical theories on practical rationality, on the nature of free will, and on (...)
     
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