In the past decade, experimental philosophy---the attempt at making progress on philosophical problems using empirical methods---has thrived in a wide range of domains. However, only in recent years has aesthetics succeeded in drawing the attention of experimental philosophers. The present paper constitutes the first survey of these works and of the nascent field of 'experimental philosophy of aesthetics'. We present both recent experimental works by philosophers on topics such as the ontology of aesthetics, aesthetic epistemology, aesthetic concepts, and imagination, as (...) well as research from other disciplines that not only are relevant to philosophy of aesthetics but also open new avenues of research for experimental philosophy of aesthetics. Overall, we conclude that the birth of an experimental philosophy of aesthetics is good news not only for aesthetics but also for experimental philosophy itself, as it contributes to broaden the scope of experimental philosophy. (shrink)
The goal of this paper is to examine whether business performance is affected by the adoption of practices included under the term Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). To achieve this goal, we analyse the relation between CSR and certain accounting indicators and examine whether there exist significant differences in performance indicators between European firms that have adopted CSR and others that have not. The effects of compliance with the requirements of CSR were determined on the basis of firms included in the (...) Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI), and specific accounting indicators were applied to measure performance. For the purposes of this study, we selected one group of firms belonging to the DJSI and another comprised of firms quoted on the Dow Jones Global Index (DJGI) but not on the DJSI. The sample was made up of two groups of 55 firms, studied for the period 1998–2004. Empirical analysis supports the conclusion that differences in performance exist between firms that belong to the DJSI and to the DJGI and that these differences are related to CSR practices. We find that a short-term negative impact on performance is produced. (shrink)
This article, based on a socio-cognitive approach, deals with the professional training of student teachers in French agricultural education during their practical work experience. The main objective is to demonstrate that the student teacher’s social interaction with his academic advisor allows him to use and develop his professional knowledge relating to practical matters. Based on a qualitative analysis this study presents the results of an investigation of seven students and six academic advisors. The article studies the interrelations between the nature (...) of the professional knowledges in question and the processes of construction in the work. Cet article qui s’inscrit dans une approche sociocognitive, étudie l’apprentissage professionnel des enseignants stagiaires de l’enseignement agricole français durant le stage de pratique accompagnée . Son objectif est de montrer que l’enseignant stagiaire construit et mobilise dans l’interaction sociale avec son conseiller pédagogique des savoirs professionnels relatifs à la prise en charge des « tâches professionnelles ». A partir d’une méthodologie qualitative, cette étude présente les résultats d’une enquête menée auprès de sept stagiaires et six conseillers pédagogiques . L’article étudie les interrelations entre la nature des savoirs professionnels en question et les processus de construction à l’œuvre. (shrink)
Salvador, antiga capital colonial e contemporaneamente terceira maior metrópole brasileira, é a mais emblemática cidade do processo histórico brasileiro por sua densidade demográfica e cultural negras. Neste artigo fazemos uma análise teórica e empírica sobre as desigualdades socioeconômicas, sociorraciais por cor/raça e sexo para compreender as relações raciais e de gênero nos espaços concretos e simbólicos que marcaram nossa forma de organização do espaço. Os dados estatísticos e cartográficos foram baseados no Censo do IBGE 2000 e analisados socioespacialmente. Na pesquisa (...) qualitativa, utilizamos entrevistas com diversos sujeitos sociais da cidade para analisar a percepção das pessoas sobre a dinâmica social-urbana, sobre racismo, sexismo, discriminação, etc. Assim, articulamos classe, gênero, raça e espaço como categorias centrais de análise nas suas interseccionalidades para compreender como o sexismo, racismo e classismo, ao hierarquizar os indivíduos segundo atributos físicos em superiores e inferiores, são determinantes na formação sócio-histórica no Brasil. Busca-se compreender esses fenômenos como estruturantes das desigualdades socioeconômicas e sociorraciais e culturais como se expressam no espaço urbano, particularmente as territorialidades negras e femininas e seus múltiplos significados, para pensar os processos coletivos, os processos libertários, o Direito à Cidade nas perspectivas feminista, anti-racista e anti-classista. (shrink)
Why is it that most fictions present one and only one ending, rather than multiple ones? Fictions presenting multiple endings are possible, because a few exist; but they are very rare, and this calls for an explanation. We argue that such an explanation is likely to shed light on our engagement with fictions, for fictions having one and only one ending seem to be ubiquitous. After dismissing the most obvious explanations for this phenomenon, we compare the scarcity of multiple endings (...) in traditional kinds of fiction to their profusion in the case of interactive fictions. This contrast poses a challenge to accounts of our engagement with fictions in terms of games of make-believe. We conclude that solving this puzzle is likely to improve our philosophical understanding of fictions. (shrink)
We propose a revision operator on a stratified belief base, i.e., a belief base that stores beliefs in different strata corresponding to the value an agent assigns to these beliefs. Furthermore, the operator will be defined as to perform the revision in such a way that information is never lost upon revision but stored in a stratum or layer containing information perceived as having a lower value. In this manner, if the revision of one layer leads to the rejection of (...) some information to maintain consistency, instead of being withdrawn it will be kept and introduced in a different layer with lower value. Throughout this development we will follow the principle of minimal change, being one of the important principles proposed in belief change theory, particularly emphasized in the AGM model. Regarding the reasoning part from the stratified belief base, the agent will obtain the inferences using an argumentative formalism. Thus, the argumentation framework will decide which information prevails when sentences of different layers are used for entailing conflicting beliefs. We will also illustrate how inferences are changed and how the status of arguments can be modified after a revision process. (shrink)
Final value accrues to objects that are good for their own sakes, while instrumental value accrues to objects that are good for the sake of their effects. The following paper aims to show that this distinction cuts across some surprising areas of the evaluative domain. This means that there may be some unexpected types of value that can come in a final or instrumental form. The argument proceeds by looking at two prominent types of value, namely kind-value and personal value. (...) The former accrues to objects that are good as the kinds of things that they are, while the latter accrues to objects that are good for someone. Substantive examples are offered in support of the idea that these types of value can come in final or instrumental form. The substantive examples are then given additional support by considering the structure and behavior of fitting attitudes. (shrink)
The paper shows how relevant the relationship between theoria and the Holy Scriptures is in order to understand Alfonso de la Torre’s Visión Deleytable. The criticism of the Creation by the allegorical character “Entendimiento” agrees with the tradition of the unbelieving “Marrano” Averroism that culminates in XVIIth century Holland, since de la Torre comes across as a philosopher who dispenses with the knowledge revealed by the Scriptures. On the other hand, the objections by “Insight” concur with a philosophy that aims (...) to harmonize reason and Holy Writ, as in the case of Maimonides. This harmonization turns out perfect in the Prophet because he is inspired by the active intellect. Due to the decisive influence of Muslim and Jewish prophetology on Alfonso de la Torre’s work, we state that this text is a very relevant example of philosophical Mudejarism. (shrink)
Philosophers have applied the framework of constitutive grounds to make sense of the disagreement between subjectivism and objectivism. The framework understands the two theories as being involved in a disagreement about the extent to which value is determined by attitudes. Although the framework affords us with some useful observations about how this should be interpreted, the question how value can be determined by attitudes in the first place is left largely unanswered. Here we explore the benefits of a positive interpretation (...) which aims to address this oversight and make the framework more informative. This interpretation, which is inspired by the recent work of Schroeder and Sobel, claims that the relevant sense in which value can be determined by attitudes is discovered by seeing how facts can be endowed with the normative property of being a reason. We argue that this interpretation significantly deepens our understanding of the disagreement between subjectivism and objectivism. (shrink)
Most formalisms for representing common-sense knowledge allow incomplete and potentially inconsistent information. When strong negation is also allowed, contradictory conclusions can arise. A criterion for deciding between them is needed. The aim of this paper is to investigate an inherent and autonomous comparison criterion, based on specificity as defined in [POO 85, SIM 92]. In contrast to other approaches, we consider not only defeasible, but also strict knowledge. Our criterion is context-sensitive, i. e., preference among defeasible rules is determined dynamically (...) during the dialectical analysis. We show how specificity can be defined in terms of two different approaches: activation sets and derivation trees. This allows us to get a syntactic criterion that can be implemented in a computationally attractive way. The resulting definitions may be applied in general rulebased formalisms. We present theorems linking both characterizations. Finally we discuss other frameworks for defeasible reasoning in which preference handling is considered explicitly. (shrink)
Julián Sanz del Río, founder of the philosophical movement of Spanish krausism, evolved politically from the moderate to the progressive liberalism between 1844 and 1854. His moderate friends ignored this occurrence, and supported him, until his reviews of two french books published in the Gaceta de Madrid, denounced for heterodoxy by the traditionalist press and then by the Bishops from Barcelona and Zamora, revealed to them his true true political positions and his anticlericalism.
The idea of man in José Gaos could be explained taking in account two essential axes that make an inter-relationship between them and define man substantially: 1) antinomy love-hate-emotions and motions-expression and 2) reason-thought-language. The first is “the condition of possibility” of the second, being the element more suitable and radical that allows man to think concepts. The emotions and motions impose conditions over his will and determine the moral being that is. The man is a unity, but at the (...) same time, is an oscillation between opposites that make him take consciousness of his individuality, from the others, his historicity and intersubjectivity. The Gaos proposal is an important contribution to the anthropological reflection of the moment, because of the analysis categories that offers, of undeniable value, to the better understanding of suitable aspects of the being and acting of the Latino American man. (shrink)
A proposta do presente artigo é contextualizar, no pensamento de Schopenhauer, traços fundamentais de sua reflexão estética sobre a alegoria. Para tanto, o artigo foi desenvolvido segundo três linhas de argumentação: interpretação da alegoria no âmbito de uma reflexão simbólica da teoria da representação; a relação entre poesia e alegoria no pensamento de Schopenhauer, com destaque para uma confrontação de sua posição tanto com o primeiro romantismo quanto com o idealismo alemão; compreensão da alegoria como elemento estético de uma retórica (...) poética do engano. (shrink)
Resumen: El enfoque de máquinas nomológicas como esquema de funcionamiento de los modelos económicos supone la existencia de conjunciones constantes de eventos que tienen lugar en tanto se cumplan con determinadas cláusulasceteris paribus. Este enfoque supone causalidad del tipo lineal, una metodología del tipo macro-micro-macro, y un aislamiento respecto del entorno en el cual dicha máquina opera, lo cual lo hace congruente con el pensamiento neo-mecanicista. Consideramos que estos supuestos son cuestionables bajo el paradigma de la complejidad. En particular, dado (...) que gran parte de los fenómenos económicos responden a una causalidad no lineal, es necesario tener en consideración interacciones que no se dan en un nivel ni micro ni macro sinomeso, y que no es necesario ni conveniente hacer un aislamiento con el entorno, sino que es posible contemplarlo utilizando modelos de simulación.: The nomological machines approach as a scheme of operation of economic models presupposes the existence of constant conjunctions of events that take place as long as certain ceteris paribus clauses are fulfilled. This approach involves linear causality, a macro-micro-macro methodology, and an isolated environment in which the machine operates, which makes it consistent with the neo-mechanistic approach. We believe that these assumptions are questionable under the paradigm of complexity. Given that a large part of economic phenomena responds to non-linear causality, it is necessary to consider interactions that do not occur at a micro or macro level but rather at a meso-level, and that it is neither necessary nor desirable to isolate from the environment, but it is possible to contemplate it using simulation models. (shrink)
The most popular work of Francisco Sánchez, Quo nihil scitur (1581), transmits an absolutely sceptic thought. However, other writings like Carmen de Cometa anni M.D.LXXVII (1578), offer us different ideas about how Sánchez considers possible the scientific knowledge like, for example, his idea about the casual relations between natural objects.
Abstract This paper reports the results obtained in an aid project designed to improve transport in the municipal area of Jocotán (Guatemala). The rural road network of an area occupied by indigenous people was analysed and a road chosen for repair using the labour-intensive method–something never done before in this area. The manpower required for the project was provided by the population that would benefit from the project; the involvement of outside contractors and businesses was avoided. All payment for labour (...) went into the pockets of the local people. The small earth movements made and the use of local materials guaranteed the project’s environmental sustainability, while the on-site training of the local community prepared its members for the continued maintenance of the road, thus investing the project with social sustainability. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-24 DOI 10.1007/s11948-011-9290-2 Authors Rodrigo Ares, BIPREE Research Group, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain José-María Fuentes, BIPREE Research Group, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Eutiquio Gallego, BIPREE Research Group, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Francisco Ayuga, BIPREE Research Group, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Ana-Isabel García, BIPREE Research Group, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Journal Science and Engineering Ethics Online ISSN 1471-5546 Print ISSN 1353-3452. (shrink)
Esse artigo pretende discutir, em um primeiro momento, o sentido, para a psicologia de Nietzsche, da figura de Jesus n’_O Anticristo_. Mais precisamente, esse artigo parte de uma problematização dessa tipologia de Jesus, para, em seguida, fazer convergir essa estratégia psicológica com uma semiótica, isto é, uma análise do uso dos signos pelo tipo Jesus. Depois de contextualizar a discussão sobre o tipo Jesus como “simbolista” e “antirrealista”, mostramos como Nietzsche, estrategicamente, elabora em suas últimas obras uma efetiva confrontação simbólica (...) entre o tipo Jesus e Dioniso, e a partir disso buscamos indicar algumas conclusões. (shrink)
Luis Jiménez Moreno murió en octubre de 2007 a los 77 años de edad. Durante los últimos 30 años perteneció a la Universidad Complutense, de la que llegó a ser catedrático. Había estudiado en Salamanca, Roma, Valencia y Munich. Su tesis doctoral sobre el pensamiento antropológico de Nietzsche fue dirigida por Aranguren. Fue catedrático de instituto en Andújar, Ávila y Badalona, y profesor de universidad en Barcelona y Madrid. El presente artículo recoge los datos fundamentales de su vida, así como (...) toda su obra dividida en libros, artículos, ensayos, conferencias, ponencias y comunicaciones en congresos, seminarios, simposios, reuniones científicas, etc. (shrink)
La autora analiza algunas teorías filosóficas esenciales y muestra las diferencias entre los dos tipos actuales de constructivismo: la teoría foucaultiana y la teoría del feminismo de la igualdad, la cual forma parte del mensaje emancipador de la ilustración. Contraria a las teorías post-modernas de sujeto y genero, opta por continuar la investigación del genero y la sexualidad como construcciones políticas. Esta investigación seria la expresión teórica del movimiento feminista que lucha por la igualdad; y en consecuencia, este combate produciría (...) la disolución de los grupos de genero en una multiplicidad de individuos. (shrink)
The following dialogue is a product of the accessibility and attention of the master Raul Fornet-Betancourt (virtues that are rarely found at this level and height of thought which the philosophy of Fornet-Betancourt enjoys internationally) for students who like my self, are initiating the ac..
La evolución de la filosofía krausista, a partir de 1875, al entrar en contacto con las nuevas corrientes del pensamiento procedentes de Europa va a dar lugar a un movimiento denominado "krausopositivismo", en el que se sintetizan armónicamente dos tendencias en principio opuestas: la idealista, defensora del método especulativo-abstracto, y la positivista, partidaria del método experimental. Iniciado dicho movimiento por Nicoláss Salmerón, tiene en su discípulo urbano González Serrano al representante más cualificado dentro de la psicología y la sociología, propiciando (...) junto con Giner, Posada, Sales y Ferre, Azcárate y otros el desarrollo de las ciencias sociales en España. (shrink)
El fenómeno de la esclavitud acompañó a toda la época colonial. Un fenómeno cuyas raíces se ponen en la época clásica, de cuyo estudio se pasa normalmente al de sus manifestaciones en épocas coloniales. Inexplicablemente, suele haber un silencio casi general respecto a la esclavitud en la Edad Media: si en ella aumentó o disminuyó el número de esclavos, y por qué; si se dio -y cómo- o no se dio la esclavitud. El presente trabajo pretende aportar datos y opinión (...) a tales interrogantes.Palabras llave: Edad Media; esclavitud; siervos de la gleba.The phenomenon of slavery was current during all of the America’s colonial times. This phenomenon has its roots in classical era, and the study of its manifestations in these last times normally follows the study of it in antiquity. Unexplainably, there is usually an almost general silence with respect to slavery in the Middles Ages: if in these times the number of slaves grew o diminished and why, or even if slavery as such existed -and how- or not. This article Intend to contribuye with informations and opinions on those questions.Palabras llave: Middle ages; slavery; serfs. (shrink)