Results for 'A. Goldfinch'

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  1.  19
    The Greek for a Goldfinch.D'arcy W. Thompson - 1924 - The Classical Review 38 (1-2):7-11.
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  2.  58
    Evidence‐Based Policy : Where is Our Theory of Evidence?N. Cartwright, A. Goldfinch & J. Howick - 2009 - Journal of Children’s Services 4 (4):6--14.
    This article critically analyses the concept of evidence in evidence‐based policy, arguing that there is a key problem: there is no existing practicable theory of evidence, one which is philosophically‐grounded and yet applicable for evidence‐based policy. The article critically considers both philosophical accounts of evidence and practical treatments of evidence in evidence‐based policy. It argues that both fail in different ways to provide a theory of evidence that is adequate for evidence‐based policy. The article contributes to the debate about how (...)
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  3.  11
    Making the Best of Austin’s Goldfinch.Martin Gustafsson - forthcoming - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism:1-19.
    This paper discusses Austin’s goldfinch example from “Other Minds,” which plays a central role in Kaplan’s Austin’s Way with Skepticism. The paper aims to clarify the obscure distinction Austin makes in connection with this example, between cases in which we know and can prove and cases in which we know but can’t prove. By discussing a couple of remarks that Austin makes in passing, a view is extracted from his text that stands in conflict with Kaplan’s reading at a (...)
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  4.  9
    Austin’s Way with Skepticism Revisited.Mark Kaplan - forthcoming - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism:1-27.
    In “Other Minds,” Austin maintained that, unless there is a special reason to suspect the bird he saw is stuffed, he does not need to do enough to show it is not stuffed in order to be credited with knowing what he has just claimed to know: that the bird he saw is a goldfinch. But suppose Austin were presented with the following argument: You don’t know the bird is not a stuffed goldfinch. If you don’t know the (...)
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  5.  34
    Austin and the Scope of Our Knowledge.Adam Leite - forthcoming - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism:1-12.
    In ordinary circumstances in which we know there is a goldfinch on a branch in the garden, do we know that the thing on the branch isn’t stuffed? Austin’s methodology is perfectly compatible with holding both that we do and that we wouldn’t know it’s a goldfinch if we didn’t. Moreover, Austin’s methodology supports the claim that if we had no information whatsoever about whether it is stuffed, we wouldn’t know the thing on the branch is a (...). Finally, Mark Kaplan’s claim that P is part of your evidence if and only if you know that P leaves him with good reason to agree that in ordinary circumstances, you do know that the goldfinch isn’t stuffed. This result suggests a distinctive way of approaching arguments for external world skepticism with the structure of the so-called Argument from Ignorance. And it highlights just how much can be learned from approaching epistemological issues in an Austinian spirit. (shrink)
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  6.  69
    Solving the Problem of Nearly Convergent Knowledge.Chris Tweedt - 2018 - Social Epistemology 32 (4):219-227.
    The Problem of Nearly Convergent Knowledge is an updated and stronger version of the Problem of Convergent Knowledge, which presents a problem for the traditional, binary view of knowledge in which knowledge is a two-place relation between a subject and the known proposition. The problem supports Knowledge Contrastivism, the view that knowledge is a three-place relation between a subject, the known proposition, and a proposition that disjoins the alternatives relevant to what the subject knows. For example, if knowledge is contrastive, (...)
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  7.  84
    Duplicating Thoughts.Kirk Ludwig - 1996 - Mind and Language 11 (1):92-102.
    Suppose that a physical duplicate of me, right down to the arrangements of subatomic particles, comes into existence at the time at which I finish this sentence. Suppose that it comes into existence by chance, or at least by a causal process entirely unconnected with me. It might be so situated that it, too, is seated in front of a computer, and finishes this paragraph and paper, or a corresponding one, just as I do. (i) Would it have the same (...)
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  8.  20
    Making Sense of the Relationship Between Adaptive Thinking and Heuristics in Evolutionary Psychology.Shunkichi Matsumoto - 2021 - Biological Theory 16 (1):16-29.
    In recent years, quite a few evolutionary psychologists have come to embrace a heuristic interpretation of the discipline. They claim that, no matter how methodologically incomplete, adaptive thinking works fine as a good heuristic that effectively reduces the hypothesis space by generating novel and promising hypotheses that can eventually be empirically tested. The purpose of this article is to elucidate the use of heuristics in evolutionary psychology, thereby clarifying the role adaptive thinking has to play. To that end, two typical (...)
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  9. Biochemical Kinds.Jordan Bartol - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (2):axu046.
    Chemical kinds (e.g. gold) are generally treated as having timelessly fixed identities. Biological kinds (e.g. goldfinches) are generally treated as evolved and/or evolving entities. So what kind of kind is a biochemical kind? This paper defends the thesis that biochemical molecules are clustered chemical kinds, some of which–namely, evolutionarily conserved units–are also biological kinds.On this thesis, a number of difficulties that have recently occupied philosophers concerned with proteins and kinds are shown to be resolved or dissolved.
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  10.  10
    ‘Nonsense’ in Comic Scholia.Stephen E. Kidd - 2017 - Classical Quarterly 67 (2):507-521.
    In 1968 E.K. Borthwick, with a brilliant conjecture, cleared up a passage from Aristophanes’Peacethat had been considered ‘nonsense’ since antiquity. ‘Bell goldfinch’ the line seemed to be saying: a jumbled idea at best, gibberish at worst. The scholium reads ad loc.: ταῦτα δὲ πάντα ἐπίτηδες ἀδιανοήτως ἔφρασεν, ‘all this is said as deliberate nonsense’, and later scholars generally follow suit. But Borthwick showed that this was not the case: ‘even nonsense expressions in Aristophanes’, he writes, ‘are not haphazard collocations (...)
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  11.  68
    Seeing and Hearing Directly.Hannes Ole Matthiessen - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (1):91-103.
    According to Paul Snowdon, one directly perceives an object x iff one is in a position to make a true demonstrative judgement of the form “That is x”. Whenever one perceives an object x indirectly (or dependently , as Snowdon puts it) it is the case that there exists an item y (which is not identical to x) such that one can count as demonstrating x only if one acknowledges that y bears a certain relation to x. In this paper (...)
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  12.  34
    Causation: A User’s Guide.L. A. Paul & Ned Hall - 2013 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Causation is at once familiar and mysterious. Neither common sense nor extensive philosophical debate has led us to anything like agreement on the correct analysis of the concept of causation, or an account of the metaphysical nature of the causal relation. Causation: A User's Guide cuts a clear path through this confusing but vital landscape. L. A. Paul and Ned Hall guide the reader through the most important philosophical treatments of causation, negotiating the terrain by taking a set of examples (...)
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  13. A Puzzle About Belief.Saul A. Kripke - 1979 - In A. Margalit (ed.), Meaning and Use. Reidel. pp. 239--83.
  14. The Emotions: A Philosophical Introduction.Julien A. Deonna & Fabrice Teroni - 2012 - Routledge.
    The emotions are at the centre of our lives and, for better or worse, imbue them with much of their significance. The philosophical problems stirred up by the existence of the emotions, over which many great philosophers of the past have laboured, revolve around attempts to understand what this significance amounts to. Are emotions feelings, thoughts, or experiences? If they are experiences, what are they experiences of? Are emotions rational? In what sense do emotions give meaning to what surrounds us? (...)
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  15. A Proof of Gamma.Saul A. Kripke - 2022 - In Katalin Bimbó (ed.), Relevance Logics and other Tools for Reasoning. Essays in Honor of J. Michael Dunn. London: College Publications. pp. 261-265.
    This paper is dedicated to the memory of Mike Dunn. His untimely death is a loss not only to logic, computer science, and philosophy, but to all of us who knew and loved him. The paper gives an argument for closure under γ in standard systems of relevance logic (first proved by Meyer and Dunn 1969). For definiteness, I chose the example of R. The proof also applies to E and to the quantified systems RQ and EQ. The argument uses (...)
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  16.  69
    A Unified Framework for Addiction: Vulnerabilities in the Decision Process.A. David Redish, Steve Jensen & Adam Johnson - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):415-437.
    The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) (...)
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  17.  13
    Science and Partial Truth: A Unitary Approach to Models and Scientific Reasoning.Newton C. A. da Costa & Steven French - 2003 - Oup Usa.
    Da Costa and French explore the consequences of adopting a 'pragmatic' notion of truth in the philosophy of science. Their framework sheds new light on issues to do with belief, theory acceptance, and the realism-antirealism debate, as well as the nature of scientific models and their heuristic development.
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  18.  58
    Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell.A. Zee - 2010 - Princeton University Press.
    Since it was first published, Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell has quickly established itself as the most accessible and comprehensive introduction to this profound and deeply fascinating area of theoretical physics. Now in this fully revised and expanded edition, A. Zee covers the latest advances while providing a solid conceptual foundation for students to build on, making this the most up-to-date and modern textbook on quantum field theory available. -/- This expanded edition features several additional chapters, as well as (...)
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  19.  2
    Hobbes a Biography.A. P. Martinich - 1999 - Cambridge University Press.
    Thomas Hobbes is recognized as one of the fathers of modern philosophy and political theory. In his own time he was as famous for his work in physics, geometry, and religion. He associated with some of the greatest writers, scientists, and politicians of his age. Martinich has written a complete and accessible biography of Hobbes. The book takes full account of the historical and cultural context in which Hobbes lived, drawing on both published and unpublished sources. It will be a (...)
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  20.  16
    A Manual of Intensional Logic.Johan F. A. K. Van Benthem - 1985 - Stanford, CA, USA: Center for the Study of Language and Information Publications.
    Intensional logic is the technical study of such intensional phenomena in human reasoning as modality, knowledge, or flow of time. These all require a richer semantic picture than standard truth values in one static environment. Such a picture is provided by so-called possible worlds semantics, a paradigm which is surveyed in this book, both as to its external sources of motivation and as to the internal dynamics of the resulting program. In particular, Manual of Intensional Logic presents the major classical (...)
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  21. A Common Sky: Philosophy and the Literary Imagination.A. D. Nuttall - 2020 - University of California Press.
    This title is part of UC Press's Voices Revived program, which commemorates University of California Press’s mission to seek out and cultivate the brightest minds and give them voice, reach, and impact. Drawing on a backlist dating to 1893, Voices Revived makes high-quality, peer-reviewed scholarship accessible once again using print-on-demand technology. This title was originally published in 1974.
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  22. A Critical Relation Between Mind and Logic in the Philosophy of Wittgenstein: An Analytical Study.Mudasir A. Tantray - 2017 - Lokayata Journal of Positive Philosophy 7 (2):45-57.
    This paper deals with the study of the nature of mind, its processes and its relations with the other filed known as logic, especially the contribution of most notable contemporary analytical philosophy Ludwig Wittgenstein. Wittgenstein showed a critical relation between the mind and logic. He assumed that every mental process is logical. Mental field is field of space and time and logical field is a field of reasoning (inductive and deductive). It is only with the advancement in logic, we are (...)
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  23.  72
    Fittingness: A User’s Guide.Chris Howard & R. A. Rowland - forthcoming - In Chris Howard & R. A. Rowland (eds.), Fittingness. Oxford University Press.
    The chapter introduces and characterizes the notion of fittingness. It charts the history of the relation and its relevance to contemporary debates in normative and metanormative philosophy and proceeds to survey issues to do with fittingness covered in the volume’s chapters, including the nature and epistemology of fittingness, the relations between fittingness and reasons, the normativity of fittingness, fittingness and value theory, and the role of fittingness in theorizing about responsibility. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of issues to (...)
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  24. A History of Pythagoreanism.Carl A. Huffman (ed.) - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a comprehensive, authoritative and innovative account of Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism, one of the most enigmatic and influential philosophies in the West. In twenty-one chapters covering a timespan from the sixth century BC to the seventeenth century AD, leading scholars construct a number of different images of Pythagoras and his community, assessing current scholarship and offering new answers to central problems. Chapters are devoted to the early Pythagoreans, and the full breadth of Pythagorean thought is explored including politics, religion, (...)
     
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  25. Skepticism and Cognitivism: A Study in the Foundations of Knowledge.Oliver A. Johnson - 2022 - University of California Press.
    _Skepticism and Cognitivism_ addresses the fundamental question of epistemology: Is knowledge possible? It approaches this query with an evaluation of the skeptical tradition in Western philosophy, analyzing thinkers who have claimed that we can know nothing. After an introductory chapter lays out the central issues, chapter 2 focuses on the classical skeptics of the Academic and Pyrrhonistic schools and then on the skepticism of David Hume. Chapters 3 through 5 are devoted to contemporary defenders of skepticism—Keith Lehrer, Arne Næss, and (...)
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  26.  53
    A Psychologically Based Taxonomy of Magicians’ Forcing Techniques: How Magicians Influence Our Choices, and How to Use This to Study Psychological Mechanisms.Alice Pailhès, Ronald A. Rensink & Gustav Kuhn - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 86:103038.
    “Pick a card, any card. This has to be a completely free choice.” the magician tells you. But is it really? Although we like to think that we are using our free will to make our decisions, research in psychology has shown that many of our behaviours are automatic and unconsciously influenced by external stimuli (Ariely, 2008; Bargh & Chartrand, 1999; Newell & Shanks, 2014; Nisbett & Wilson, 1977), and that we are often oblivious to the cognitive mechanisms that underpin (...)
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  27.  24
    A Companion to Rawls.Jon Mandle & David A. Reidy (eds.) - 2013 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Wide ranging and up to date, this is the single most comprehensive treatment of the most influential political philosopher of the 20th century, John Rawls. An unprecedented survey that reflects the surge of Rawls scholarship since his death, and the lively debates that have emerged from his work Features an outstanding list of contributors, including senior as well as “next generation” Rawls scholars Provides careful, textually informed exegesis and well-developed critical commentary across all areas of his work, including non-Rawlsian perspectives (...)
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  28. A Study on Proposition and Sentence in English Grammar.Mudasir A. Tantray - 2016 - International Journal Of Humanities and Social Studies 4 (02):20-25.
    Proposition and sentence are two separate entities indicating their specific purposes, definitions and problems. A proposition is a logical entity. A proposition asserts that something is or not the case, any proposition may be affirmed or denied, all proportions are either true (1’s) or false (0’s). All proportions are sentences but all sentences are not propositions. Propositions are factual contains three terms: subject, predicate and copula and are always in indicative or declarative mood. While sentence is a grammatical entity, a (...)
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  29.  2
    From a Realist Point of View: Essays on the Philosophy of Science.William A. Wallace - 1979 - University Press of America, Inc..
  30.  18
    A History of Sociology in Britain: Science, Literature, and Society.A. H. Halsey - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    This is the first-ever critical history of sociology in Britain, written by one of the world's leading scholars in the field. A. H. Halsey presents a vivid and authoritative picture of the neglect, expansion, fragmentation, and explosion of the discipline during the past century. The book examines the literary and scientific contributions to the origin of the discipline, and the challenges faced by the discipline at the dawn of a new century.
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  31. A General Structure for Legal Arguments About Evidence Using Bayesian Networks.Norman Fenton, Martin Neil & David A. Lagnado - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (1):61-102.
    A Bayesian network (BN) is a graphical model of uncertainty that is especially well suited to legal arguments. It enables us to visualize and model dependencies between different hypotheses and pieces of evidence and to calculate the revised probability beliefs about all uncertain factors when any piece of new evidence is presented. Although BNs have been widely discussed and recently used in the context of legal arguments, there is no systematic, repeatable method for modeling legal arguments as BNs. Hence, where (...)
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  32.  46
    The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis.Richard A. Richards - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    There is long-standing disagreement among systematists about how to divide biodiversity into species. Over twenty different species concepts are used to group organisms, according to criteria as diverse as morphological or molecular similarity, interbreeding and genealogical relationships. This, combined with the implications of evolutionary biology, raises the worry that either there is no single kind of species, or that species are not real. This book surveys the history of thinking about species from Aristotle to modern systematics in order to understand (...)
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  33.  8
    Philosophy of Education in a New Key: A Collective Project of the PESA Executive.Michael A. Peters, Sonja Arndt, Marek Tesar, Liz Jackson, Ruyu Hung, Carl Mika, Janis T. Ozolins, Christoph Teschers, Janet Orchard, Rachel Buchanan, Andrew Madjar, Rene Novak, Tina Besley, Sean Sturm, Peter Roberts & Andrew Gibbons - 2022 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 54 (8):1061-1082.
    Michael Peters, Sonja Arndt & Marek TesarThis is a collective writing experiment of PESA members, including its Executive Committee, asking questions of the Philosophy of Education in a New Key. Co...
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  34.  80
    A Just Global Economy: In Defense of Rawls.David A. Reidy - 2007 - The Journal of Ethics 11 (2):193-236.
    In The Law of Peoples, John Rawls does not discuss justice and the global economy at great length or in great detail. What he does say has not been well-received. The prevailing view seems to be that what Rawls says in The Law of Peoples regarding global economic justice is both inconsistent with and a betrayal of his own liberal egalitarian commitments, an unexpected and unacceptable defense of the status quo. This view is, I think, mistaken. Rawls’s position on global (...)
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  35. A Behavioral Analysis of Degree of Reinforcement and Ease of Shifting to New Responses in a Weigl-Type Card-Sorting Problem.David A. Grant & Esta Berg - 1948 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (4):404.
  36.  57
    A National Study of Ethics Committees.Glenn McGee, Joshua P. Spanogle, Arthur L. Caplan & David A. Asch - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (4):60-64.
    Conceived as a solution to clinical dilemmas, and now required by organizations for hospital accreditation, ethics committees have been subject only to small-scale studies. The wide use of ethics committees and the diverse roles they play compel study. In 1999 the University of Pennsylvania Ethics Committee Research Group (ECRG) completed the first national survey of the presence, composition, and activities of U.S. healthcare ethics committees (HECs). Ethics committees are relatively young, on average seven years in operation. Eighty-six percent of ethics (...)
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  37.  1
    Aristotle, Rhetoric I a Commentary.William M. A. Grimaldi - 1980 - Fordham Univ Press.
    Aristotle, Rhetoric I: A Commentary begins the acclaimed work undertaken by the author, later completed in the second (1988) volume on Aristotle's Rhetoric. The first Commentary on the Rhetoric in more than a century, it is not likely to be superseded for at least another hundred years.
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  38.  80
    Toward a Political Philosophy of Race.Falguni A. Sheth - 2009 - State University of New York Press.
    Examines how liberal society enables racism and other forms of discrimination.
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  39. Psikhologii͡a I Metafizika Obraznoĭ Sfery Cheloveka.A. A. Gostev - 2008 - Baltiĭskai͡a Pedagog. Akademii͡a.
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  40. Filosofii͡a Kanta V Rossii V Kont͡se Xviii--Pervoĭ Polovine Xix Vekov.A. N. Kruglov - 2009
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  41. Idei͡a Estestvennogo Prava: Istorii͡a I Teorii͡a.A. M. Mikhaĭlov - 2010
    Пособие посвящено историческому и теоретическому исследованию естественно-правовых концепций. Для студентов, аспирантов и преподавателей юридических вузов.
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  42. Rossii͡a I I͡aponii͡a: Dinamika Nravov.A. D. Palkin - 2010
    В книге на материале психолингвистических экспериментов рассматриваются этические взгляды современных русских и японцев, причем этика русских прослеживается в динамике: на рубежах начала 1990-х гг. и начала XXI века.
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  43. Refleksii͡a I Vnutrenniĭ Dialog V Izmenennykh Sostoi͡anii͡akh Soznanii͡a: Intersoznanie V Psikhoanalize.A. V. Rossokhin - 2010
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  44. Religii͡a Kak Obʺekt Nauchnogo Poznanii͡a: Monografii͡a.A. N. Shvechikov - 2008 - Spgutd.
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  45. Filosofii͡a Istorii Li͡an Shumina.A. B. Starostina - 2009
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  46. Sochinenii͡a.A. I. Subetto - 2006
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  47.  1
    A History of Science, Technology, and Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century. 2d. Ed. Rev. By D. Mckie.A. Wolf - 1952 - Allen & Unwin.
  48.  9
    Self and Community in a Changing World.D. A. Masolo - 2010 - Indiana University Press.
    Revisiting African philosophy’s classic questions, D. A. Masolo advances understandings of what it means to be human—whether of African or other origin. Masolo reframes indigenous knowledge as diversity: How are we to understand the place and structure of consciousness? How does the everyday color the world we know? Where are the boundaries between self and other, universal and particular, and individual and community? From here, he takes a dramatic turn toward Africa’s current political situation and considers why individual rights and (...)
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  49.  3
    A Research Ethics Framework for the Clinical Translation of Healthcare Machine Learning.Melissa D. McCradden, James A. Anderson, Elizabeth A. Stephenson, Erik Drysdale, Lauren Erdman, Anna Goldenberg & Randi Zlotnik Shaul - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (5):8-22.
    The application of artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies in healthcare have immense potential to improve the care of patients. While there are some emerging practices surro...
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  50.  28
    A Right to Health Care? Participatory Politics, Progressive Policy, and the Price of Loose Language.David A. Reidy - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (4):323-342.
    This article begins by clarifying and noting various limitations on the universal reach of the human right to health care under positive international law. It then argues that irrespective of the human right to health care established by positive international law, any system of positive international law capable of generating legal duties with prima facie moral force necessarily presupposes a universal moral human right to health care. But the language used in contemporary human rights documents or human rights advocacy is (...)
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