This article is intended to appraise the insights gained from Critical Race Theory (CRT) in Education. It is particularly interested in CRT's relationship with Marxist discourse, which falls under two questions. One, how does CRT understand Marxist concepts, such as capital, which show up in the way CRT appropriates them? The article argues that Marxist concepts, such as historical classes, class-for-itself, are useful for race analysis as it sets parameters around the conceptual use of historical races and a race-for-itself. Two, (...) how does CRT understand the role of capitalism, therefore shedding light on its position regarding the class problem? It is no doubt attentive to class power, but this is not the same as performing an immanent critique of capitalism. As a result, within CRT class achieves a color whereby class becomes a variant of race, better known as classism. Race becomes the theory with class vocabulary superimposed on it. Last, I suggest areas where CRT could combine with Marxism in order to forge a Critical Raceclass Theory of Education. (shrink)
Arturo Roig inscribe el ejercicio del filosofar en la geografía de su función crítica. Crítica que es comprendida como una forma de pensamiento que se cuestiona a sí mismo y que considera no sólo los límites y posibilidades de la razón, sino también la realidad humana e histórica de un sujeto que se constituye en un "nosotros". La filosofía, así entendida, es un saber de vida. La función utópica se presenta como tarea para este saber de conjetura y para una (...) filosofía que sirve a la vida. Roig devuelve con ello el valor epistémico que tiene el plus lo axiológico, no verificable como hipótesis científica. Arturo Roig inscribes the exercise of philosophizing in the geography of its critical function. Critique that is understood as a form of thought that questions itself and considers not only the limits and possibilities of reason, but also the human and historical reality of a subject that becomes a "we". Philosophy, thus understood, is a knowledge of life. The utopian function arises as a task for this knowledge of conjecture that serves to life. Thus Roig gives back an axiological dimension as epistemic value to this knowledge. (shrink)
En el artículo se analiza la naturaleza dialéctica del libro III de la Metafísica de Aristóteles a la luz del contenido, procedimiento y utilidad del método dialéctico expuestos por el Estagirita en los Tópicos.
RESUMO: Os intérpretes dos manuscritos de Leonardo da Vinci partilham dos mesmos sentimentos de espanto e de fascínio quando examinam sua contribuição para a ciência moderna. Podemos, contudo, perceber uma constante tentativa em prol de uma revisão histórica acerca do papel desempenhado por Leonardo. Observando a história dessas revisões, é possível detectar aspectos significativos das perspectivas históricas e historiográficas dos envolvidos nessa discussão. É o que pretendemos fazer neste trabalho, focando a controvérsia entre Duhem, por um lado, e (...) Sarton, Koyré e Rossi, por outro. Ao fazer isso, buscamos discutir alguns traços que marcam a distinção entre uma historiografia mais antiga e a nova historiografia da ciência, tal como exposta por Thomas Kuhn. ABSTRACT: Interpreters of Leonardo da Vinci's manuscripts share the same feelings of astonishment and fascination when they examine his contribution to modern science. However, it is possible to perceive an ongoing attempt towards a historical revision of the role played by Leonardo. Observing the history of this ongoing revision, it is possible to detect significant aspects of the historical and historiographical perspectives of those involved in this discussion. This article deals with the controversy between Duhem's point of view, on the one hand, and the views of Sarton, Koyré, and Rossi on the other. It aims to show some features that distinguish an older historiography from the new historiography of science as presented by Thomas Kuhn. (shrink)
Modernism has provided a strong case for technoprogressivism, innovation and speculation on future possibilities. However, drastic and often devastating consequences have followed modernism such as global warming and mass biodiversity loss. In Leonardo Caffo and Azzurra Muzzonigro’s new book, a case for posthumanism as a means for envisioning and rethinking futures studies is argued and practical means by which those futures can be realized are outlined.
The Vitruvian Man of Leonardo da Vinci is one of the most famous and most studied drawings over the world as well as one of the most reproduced ones, e.g. in coins, space suit patches, books and movies. The aim of the present work is to discuss the Vitruvian Man as a figurative representation of the Leonardo’s scientific method. Our analysis is based on scientific elements both present in the drawing and provided by Leonardo in his approach (...) to this drawing. Our thesis is that the square symbolizes the measurable physical world and that the man inscribed within the square refers to the physics measurement process based on the operational definition of quantities, including the measurement unit system and the quantities conversion factors. Therefore, the measurement process is fundamental for the Leonardo’s approach to the scientific knowledge, albeit, the drawing also suggests that this latter does not correspond with the true knowledge. The circle, which has a different center with respect to the square, symbolizes the truth, to which the man inscribed in the square yearns, without ever achieving it, the truth being reachable only by the man inscribed within the circle. (shrink)
Sigmund Freud was already internationally acclaimed as the principal founder of psychoanalysis when he turned his attention to the life of Leonardo da Vinci. It remained Freud’s favourite composition. Compressing many of his insights into a few pages, the result is a fascinating picture of some of Freud’s fundamental ideas, including human sexuality, dreams, and repression. It is an equally compelling – and controversial – portrait of Leonardo and the creative forces that according to Freud lie behind some (...) of his great works, including the Mona Lisa. With a new foreword by Maria Walsh.  . (shrink)
A reconstruction of Leonardo's emotional life from his earliest years, it represents Freud's first sustained venture into biography from a psychoanalytic perspective, and also his effort to trace one route that homosexual development can take.
Don Isaac Abravanel was one of the first Jewish thinkers to express republican positions, yet very little is known about his knowledge of humanistic republican conceptions. Had he read Leonardo Bruni’s republican writings? Had he even heard of them? In this essay I attempt to address this philological gap by comparing Abravanel’s republican commentary on 1 Samuel 8 with Bruni’s Laudatio florentinae Urbis, especially the motif of the plea to God to authorize a political regime. This comparison is particularly (...) useful for illuminating their respective positions on republicanism, their shared interests and conceptions, as well as their divergent attitudes to their own political and historical environment. This divergence, I argue, sheds light on the early modern Christian and Jewish receptions of ancient republicanism. (shrink)
Historians have recently paid increasing attention to the role of the disputation in Italian universities and humanist circles. By contrast, the role of disputations as forms of entertainment at fifteenth-century Italian courts has been somewhat overlooked. In this article, the Milanese "scientific duel" described in Luca Pacioli's De divina proportione is taken as a vantage point for the study of the dynamics of scientific patronage and social advancement as reflected in Renaissance courtly disputes. Pacioli names Leonardo da Vinci as (...) one of the participants in the Milanese dispute. In this paper I argue that Leonardo's Paragone and Pacioli's De divina proportione are likewise the outcome of the Milanese "scientific duel." By challenging the traditional hierarchy of the arts, they both exemplify the dynamics of social and intellectual promotion of mathematicians and artists in the privileged setting of Renaissance courts, where courtly patronage could subvert the traditional disciplinary rankings. (shrink)
This article responds to Leonardo Ambasciano's review of The Scientification of Religion: An Historical Study of Discursive Change, 1800–2000 by Kocku von Stuckrad. It criticizes a narrative that presents naturalism and science as the ultimate system of knowledge. Contesting this rhetoric, the article underscores the plurality and hybridity of knowledge systems, which is the main topic of the book under review.
Se presenta el concepto del Cristo cósmico en el teólogo Leonardo Boff, como realidad que trasciende a los seres humanos, sus adscripciones religiosas, incluso la soteriología. Se aborda, particularmente, la consecuencia de esta idea en la superación del antropocentrismo y en una espiritualidad que considera la importancia de la relación entre Cristo y el universo. El artículo es, además, una lectura crítica desde la tradición reformacional como alternativa a las principales teologías evangélicas de los últimos siglos, que desde el (...) escolasticismo protestante, carecen de una reflexión cosmológica consistente. This article presents Leonardo Boff´s theological concept of cosmic Christ as a reality which transcends human being and their religious and soteriological views. The consequences of this concept in the overcoming of anthropocentrism and a spirituality which considers the importance of relation between Christ and the universe are particularly regarded. Moreover, this article offers a critic view from the reformational tradition as an alternative to the main alternatives among the evangelical theology of the last centuries, especially the scholastic Protestantism which according to the author does not have a consistence cosmic thought. (shrink)
The relation between seeing, knowledge, and language has concerned philosophers and artists throughout history. The current article examines the relation between word, image, and knowledge in some prominent Renaissance artworks. It is argued that the shift from revelatory truth in the word to evidence in “seeing the real” as Leonardo da Vinci (1452 -1519) argues in his writings, marks a moment in history in which the human being takes center stage as the interpreter of knowledge. In the search for (...) perfect proportionality and beautiful harmony, Renaissance artists, therefore, did not just create an aesthetic dimension yet were central in a process leading to a reevaluation and alternative modes of knowledge about the human being. (shrink)
Este texto assinala características e implicações teóricas presentes na referência crítica que faz Winnicott às interpretações psicanalíticas da obra e da vida de Leonardo da Vinci em termos de pulsão sexual, complexo de Édipo e sublimação. Tal referência supõe, ao contrário, o papel fundamental que desempenha para o autor, na compreensão da experiência de arte, a noção de elemento feminino puro que, anterior à constituição de uma área de jogo, encontra-se primariamente relacionado ao impulso criativo, ao olhar da mãe (...) e ao sentimento de continuidade de ser, base para que se instaure uma identidade outra, capaz tanto de integrar processos de identificação como de retornar a estados informes.This text points to theoretical characteristics and implications present in the critical references that Winnicott makes to psychoanalytic interpretations of the work and life of Leonardo da Vinci in terms of sexual impulses, Oedipal Complex and sublimation. Such references suppose, on the contrary, the fundamental role that the author plays in the understanding of the experience of art, the notion of the pure feminine element that, before the constitution of an area of play, finds itself primarily related to the creative impulse, in the gaze of the mother and in the feeling of continuity of being, the basis for that which installs the identity of the other and is capable of integrating processes of identification and the return to unformed states. (shrink)
Xavier Zubiri y Leonardo Polo son partidarios del realismo gnoseológico. Ambos reflexionan sobre lo que es propio del acto cognoscitivo, en cuanto acto cognoscitivo. Zubiri afirma que conocer es actualización de realidad, pues en el conocer está presente la actualidad de la realidad, no de modo intencional, está como realidad en su estricto de suyo. La superación del objeto se da por la riqueza en que queda la realidad actualizada, en su contenido y su formalidad. Para Polo, lo propio (...) del acto cognoscitivo es ser operación, praxis perfecta o inmanente, co-actualidad de acto y objeto; pero la presencia propia del objeto manifiesta su límite desde el conocimiento habitual. (shrink)
This article offers a commentary on some passages of the Introduction to the second volume of the Antropología trascendental, where Polo proposes the act of human being according to the character of además, which is equivalent to the personal living in view of its conversion, on a transcendental level, with the personal freedom and the intimacy as higher transcendentals than those of principial being. In addition, the decrease of essential level proceeding from these personal transcendentals is equivalent to the essential (...) human life increasing without restriction, in which natural organic individual life is actively received, and which is thereby spiritually revitalized. (shrink)
Some paradoxes emerging when the universe is thought of in terms of objectivity are considered in this article, in the light of the philosophy of L. Polo. Current metaphysical speculations on the basis of modern cosmology cannot easily avoid this risk. The author examines in particular the problem of the beginning of time, with a confrontation between Polo and Aquinas. It is argued that cosmological thought must be carefully controlled in order to be referred to a metaphysical perspective.
The theory of knowledge proposed by Polo helps to clarify the neuroscientific approach to the mind-brain problem, as well as contributing towards an interesting hypothesis to keep developing it. However, his systems theory, as argumentative overture, is an obstacle so that Polo’s work could very well be recognized and assimilated by the experimental sciences. In this article I first analyze such difficulty identifying the main problem: the justification of Polo’s cybernetics from the point of view of themodynamics. Secondly, I reformulate (...) the theleology problem with the objective of acquiring a more legitimate step from one area to the other. In the conclusions, I defend that it is only possible to find a privileged access to some phenomena, which is crucial to understand intelligence, purpose and lige. (shrink)
Building on the notions of alternative, the concept of means, lack of productivity in Latinamerica and the christian sense of the technical, offered by Professor Polo, a very brief interpretation of social change in Colombian society is attempted.
This article compares the alleged ‘neo-Parmenidian’ philosophy of Severino with the ‘anti-Parmenidean’ philosopher Polo. Following Polo’s view, Severino’s fundamental method is shown to consist in taking on Parmenides’ basic notion of identity and projecting it onto Hegel’s dialectic. On using the principle of non-contradiction, Severino recurs predominately to the mental operation of negation.