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Ardon Lyon [35]Aidan Lyon [9]Arabella Lyon [7]A. Lyon [2]
Andrea D. Lyon [1]Antony Lyon [1]Alissa Lyon [1]
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Aidan Lyon
University of Maryland, College Park
  1. The Explanatory Power of Phase Spaces.Aidan Lyon & Mark Colyvan - 2008 - Philosophia Mathematica 16 (2):227-243.
    David Malament argued that Hartry Field's nominalisation program is unlikely to be able to deal with non-space-time theories such as phase-space theories. We give a specific example of such a phase-space theory and argue that this presentation of the theory delivers explanations that are not available in the classical presentation of the theory. This suggests that even if phase-space theories can be nominalised, the resulting theory will not have the explanatory power of the original. Phase-space theories thus raise problems for (...)
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  2. Mathematical Explanations Of Empirical Facts, And Mathematical Realism.Aidan Lyon - 2012 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (3):559-578.
    A main thread of the debate over mathematical realism has come down to whether mathematics does explanatory work of its own in some of our best scientific explanations of empirical facts. Realists argue that it does; anti-realists argue that it doesn't. Part of this debate depends on how mathematics might be able to do explanatory work in an explanation. Everyone agrees that it's not enough that there merely be some mathematics in the explanation. Anti-realists claim there is nothing mathematics can (...)
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  3.  63
    The Wisdom of Collective Grading and the Effects of Epistemic and Semantic Diversity.Aidan Lyon & Michael Morreau - 2018 - Theory and Decision 85 (1):99-116.
    A computer simulation is used to study collective judgements that an expert panel reaches on the basis of qualitative probability judgements contributed by individual members. The simulated panel displays a strong and robust crowd wisdom effect. The panel's performance is better when members contribute precise probability estimates instead of qualitative judgements, but not by much. Surprisingly, it doesn't always hurt for panel members to interpret the probability expressions differently. Indeed, coordinating their understandings can be much worse.
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  4. Deterministic Probability: Neither Chance nor Credence.Aidan Lyon - 2011 - Synthese 182 (3):413-432.
    Some have argued that chance and determinism are compatible in order to account for the objectivity of probabilities in theories that are compatible with determinism, like Classical Statistical Mechanics (CSM) and Evolutionary Theory (ET). Contrarily, some have argued that chance and determinism are incompatible, and so such probabilities are subjective. In this paper, I argue that both of these positions are unsatisfactory. I argue that the probabilities of theories like CSM and ET are not chances, but also that they are (...)
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  5.  97
    How Common Standards Can Diminish Collective Intelligence: A Computational Study.Michael Morreau & Aidan Lyon - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (4):483-489.
    Making good decisions depends on having accurate information – quickly, and in a form in which it can be readily communicated and acted upon. Two features of medical practice can help: deliberation in groups and the use of scores and grades in evaluation. We study the contributions of these features using a multi-agent computer simulation of groups of physicians. One might expect individual differences in members’ grading standards to reduce the capacity of the group to discover the facts on which (...)
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  6. Why Are Normal Distributions Normal?Aidan Lyon - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (3):621-649.
    It is usually supposed that the central limit theorem explains why various quantities we find in nature are approximately normally distributed—people's heights, examination grades, snowflake sizes, and so on. This sort of explanation is found in many textbooks across the sciences, particularly in biology, economics, and sociology. Contrary to this received wisdom, I argue that in many cases we are not justified in claiming that the central limit theorem explains why a particular quantity is normally distributed, and that in some (...)
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  7.  52
    Vague Credence.Aidan Lyon - 2017 - Synthese 194 (10):3931-3954.
    It is natural to think of precise probabilities as being special cases of imprecise probabilities, the special case being when one’s lower and upper probabilities are equal. I argue, however, that it is better to think of the two models as representing two different aspects of our credences, which are often vague to some degree. I show that by combining the two models into one model, and understanding that model as a model of vague credence, a natural interpretation arises that (...)
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  8. Causality.Ardon Lyon - 1967 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 18 (1):1-20.
    In this article I try to give an account of the meaning of phrases of the form ‘A causes B’ as they are most usefully used in everyday life and the applied sciences. This account covers narrower uses of such phrases, but we find that in our usage of the term, ‘A causes B’ neither entails nor is entailed by ‘A is always followed by B’. Logically necessary and sufficient conditions of this general term can be given, however, by reference (...)
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  9. The Immutable Laws of Nature.Ardon Lyon - 1976 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 77:107 - 126.
  10.  75
    The Prediction Paradox.Ardon Lyon - 1959 - Mind 68 (272):510-517.
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  11.  1
    What Should Judas Have Done? And What Should Jesus?Ardon Lyon - 2018 - Think 17 (49):57-71.
    The gospels tell us that Judas betrayed Jesus, and that this was an incredibly wicked act. Lots of people believe that at least many of the events portrayed in the New Testament did not actually happen. I argue here that if we suppose on the contrary that they did, then Judas did not in fact act wickedly, and that the only person who acted immorally in this situation was Jesus. I refer in this article first to the wonderful story ‘Three (...)
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  12.  45
    Return of the Zombies.Ardon Lyon - 2011 - Think 10 (27):9-29.
    We're back! Actually, we've never been away, so what I really mean is that my fellow zombies and I are, I hope, about to announce to the world that we're here ! It's true I haven't yet asked anyone else to agree to expose themselves as I am now doing, but I'm hoping that my own public outing will encourage, or perhaps even shame others to come forward and join me.
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  13.  23
    The Immorality of Prayer.Ardon Lyon - 2015 - Think 14 (40):57-64.
    It's no surprise that one shouldn't pray for bad things to happen, for it's always wicked to attempt to bring about evil. But perhaps surprisingly one shouldn't pray for good things either. For if there is an Omnipotent, Omniscient and Omni-Benevolent Deity who intervenes at all in the workings of the world, then He will do whatever is best anyway, and if you pray for what He wouldn't otherwise have done then it must, perhaps unknown to you, be wrong. If (...)
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  14.  27
    Philosophy of Probablilty.Aidan Lyon - 2010 - In Fritz Allhoff (ed.), Philosophies of the Sciences: A Guide. Wiley-Blackwell.
    In the philosophy of probability there are two central questions we are concerned with. The first is: what is the correct formal theory of probability? Orthodoxy has it that Kolmogorov’s axioms are the correct axioms of probability. However, we shall see that there are good reasons to consider alternative axiom systems. The second central question is: what do probability statements mean? Are probabilities “out there”, in the world as frequencies, propensities, or some other objective feature of reality, or are probabilities (...)
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  15.  50
    Rhetorical Authority in Athenian Democracy and the Chinese Legalism of Han Fei.Arabella Lyon - 2008 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 41 (1):51-71.
  16. The Relevance of Wisdom's Work for the Philosophy of Science'.Ardon Lyon - 1974 - In Renford Bambrough (ed.), Wisdom: Twelve Essays. Blackwell.
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  17.  41
    Family Resemblance, Vagueness, and Change of Meaning.Ardon Lyon - 1968 - Theoria 34 (1):66-75.
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  18.  1
    The Paradox of the Unexpected Examination.R. Shaw, Ardon Lyon, G. C. Nerlich, Brian Medlin & Frederic B. Fitch - 1965 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 30 (1):101-102.
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  19.  12
    Criteria and Evidence.Ardon Lyon - 1974 - Mind 83 (330):211-227.
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  20.  9
    Ethics, Emotion and the Unity of the Self By Oliver Letwin London: Croom Helm, 1988, X + 132 Pp., £22.50. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1989 - Philosophy 64 (250):569-.
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  21.  8
    The Identity of the Self By Geoffrey Madell Edinburgh University Press, 1981, Vii+148 Pp., £7.50. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1983 - Philosophy 58 (223):130-.
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  22.  8
    The Logic of Real Arguments By Alec Fisher Cambridge University Press, 1988, Xi + 190 Pp., £22.50, £7.95 Paper. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1991 - Philosophy 66 (256):249-.
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  23.  4
    Relational Representation: An Agency-Based Approach to Global Justice.Antony Lyon - 2013 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 16 (2):233-248.
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  24.  7
    Locke By Michael Ayers London and New York: Routledge 1991 Vol. I, X+341 Pp., Vol. II, Vi+341 Pp., £90.00. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1995 - Philosophy 70 (271):123-.
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  25.  1
    No Title Available: New Books. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1983 - Philosophy 58 (223):130-132.
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  26.  1
    No Title Available: New Books. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1989 - Philosophy 64 (250):569-571.
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  27.  5
    On Remaining the Same Person.Ardon Lyon - 1980 - Philosophy 55 (212):167 - 182.
    People are organisms of a characteristic shape, with individual personalities, abilities and memories. Each of these features varies through time, but does not normally change very abruptly before death. Because these changes are only gradual, we are able to pick out one and the same individual through time, and refer to him, her or it by use of a proper name, just as we are able to refer to one and the same planet, animal or building. In particular, organisms change (...)
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  28.  2
    The Cloning Report: Left of Bush but Still a Ban.Alissa Lyon - 2001 - Hastings Center Report 32 (5):7-7.
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  29.  1
    Editorial: Spelling Lesson.Ardon Lyon - 1983 - Philosophy 58 (224):141-141.
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  30.  2
    Personal Identity By Godfrey Vesey London: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1974, 128 Pp., £2.50. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1975 - Philosophy 50 (191):117-.
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  31.  2
    Substance and Attribute By Michael J. Loux Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1978, 187 + Xi Pp., Dfl. 60.Ardon Lyon - 1983 - Philosophy 58 (224):267-.
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  32. Expertise and the Interpretation of Computerized Physiological Data: Implications Problems by Experts and Novices.E. Alberdi, J. C. Becher, K. Gilhooly, J. Hunter, R. Logie, A. Lyon, N. McIntosh & J. Reiss - 2001 - Cognitive Science 5:121-152.
  33. Recent Advances in Comparative Rhetoric.Sue Hum & Arabella Lyon - 2009 - In A. Lunsford, K. Wilson & R. Eberly (eds.), Sage Handbook of Rhetorical Studies. Sage Publications. pp. 153.
     
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  34. Ayers, Michael Locke. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1995 - Philosophy 70:123.
     
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  35. Booknotes.Ardon Lyon - 1983 - Philosophy 58:133.
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  36. Books Received. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1983 - Philosophy 58:135.
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  37. Explanation.Ardon Lyon - 1976 - Philosophical Books 17 (3):129-131.
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  38. FISHER, ALEC The Logic of Real Arguments. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1991 - Philosophy 66:249.
     
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  39. HACKER, P. M. S. "Insight and Illusion: Wittgenstein on Philosophy and the Metaphysics of Experience". [REVIEW]A. Lyon - 1975 - Mind 84:293.
     
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  40. Intentions: Negotiated, Contested, and Ignored.Arabella Lyon - 1998 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    The relationship between an author's and an audience's intentions is complex but need not preclude mutual engagement. This philosophical investigation challenges existing literary and rhetorical perspectives on intention and offers a new framework for understanding the negotiation of meaning. It describes how an audience's intentions affect their interpretations, shows how audiences negotiate meaning when faced with a writer's undecipherable intentions, and defines the scope of understanding within rhetorical situations. Introducing a concept of intention into literary analysis that supersedes existing rhetorical (...)
     
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  41. Intentions: Negotiated, Contested, and Ignored.Arabella Lyon - 2004 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    The relationship between an author's and an audience's intentions is complex but need not preclude mutual engagement. This philosophical investigation challenges existing literary and rhetorical perspectives on intention and offers a new framework for understanding the negotiation of meaning. It describes how an audience's intentions affect their interpretations, shows how audiences negotiate meaning when faced with a writer's undecipherable intentions, and defines the scope of understanding within rhetorical situations. Introducing a concept of intention into literary analysis that supersedes existing rhetorical (...)
     
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  42. LOUX, MICHAEL J. Substance and Attribute. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1983 - Philosophy 58:267.
     
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  43. LETWIN, OLIVER Ethics, Emotion and the Unity of the Self. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1989 - Philosophy 64:569.
     
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  44. MADELL, GEOFFREY The Identity of the Self. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1983 - Philosophy 58:130.
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  45. Notebook.Ardon Lyon - 1983 - Philosophy 58:139.
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  46. No Title Available: New Books. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1983 - Philosophy 58 (224):267-269.
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  47. No Title Available: New Books. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1975 - Philosophy 50 (191):117-118.
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  48. No Title Available: New Books. [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1991 - Philosophy 66 (256):249-252.
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  49. Philosophy of the Exact Sciences: Philosophy of Logic / Otávio Bueno. Philosophy of Mathematics / Otávio Bueno. Philosophy of Probablilty.Aidan Lyon - 2010 - In Fritz Allhoff (ed.), Philosophies of the Sciences. Wiley-Blackwell.
  50. VESEY, GODFREY "Personal Identity". [REVIEW]Ardon Lyon - 1975 - Philosophy 50:117.
     
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