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Arthur B. Markman [45]Arthur Markman [3]A. B. Markman [3]A. Markman [2]
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  1. In Defense of Representation.Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich - 2000 - Cognitive Psychology 40 (2):138--171.
    The computational paradigm, which has dominated psychology and artificial intelligence since the cognitive revolution, has been a source of intense debate. Recently, several cognitive scientists have argued against this paradigm, not by objecting to computation, but rather by objecting to the notion of representation. Our analysis of these objections reveals that it is not the notion of representation per se that is causing the problem, but rather specific properties of representations as they are used in various psychological theories. Our analysis (...)
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  2. Extending the Classical View of Representation.Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (12):470-475.
    Representation is a central part of models in cognitive science, but recently this idea has come under attack. Researchers advocating perceptual symbol systems, situated action, embodied cognition, and dynamical systems have argued against central assumptions of the classical representational approach to mind. We review the core assumptions of the dominant view of representation and the four suggested alternatives. We argue that representation should remain a core part of cognitive science, but that the insights from these alternative approaches must be incorporated (...)
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  3. Discrete Thoughts: Why Cognition Must Use Discrete Representations.Eric Dietrich & A. Markman - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (1):95-119.
    Advocates of dynamic systems have suggested that higher mental processes are based on continuous representations. In order to evaluate this claim, we first define the concept of representation, and rigorously distinguish between discrete representations and continuous representations. We also explore two important bases of representational content. Then, we present seven arguments that discrete representations are necessary for any system that must discriminate between two or more states. It follows that higher mental processes require discrete representations. We also argue that discrete (...)
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  4.  9
    The Empirical Case for Role-Governed Categories.Micah B. Goldwater, Arthur B. Markman & C. Hunt Stilwell - 2011 - Cognition 118 (3):359-376.
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  5.  4
    Constraints on Analogical Inference.Arthur B. Markman - 1997 - Cognitive Science 21 (4):373-418.
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  6.  35
    Knowledge Representation.Arthur B. Markman - 2002 - In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
  7.  3
    Retrospective Revaluation in Sequential Decision Making: A Tale of Two Systems.Samuel J. Gershman, Arthur B. Markman & A. Ross Otto - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (1):182-194.
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  8. Whither Structured Representation?Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):626-627.
    The perceptual symbol system view assumes that perceptual representations have a role-argument structure. A role-argument structure is often incorporated into amodal symbol systems in order to explain conceptual functions like abstraction and rule use. The power of perceptual symbol systems to support conceptual functions is likewise rooted in its use of structure. On Barsalou's account, this capacity to use structure (in the form of frames) must be innate.
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  9.  1
    Referential Communication and Category Acquisition.Arthur B. Markman & Valerie S. Makin - 1998 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 127 (4):331-354.
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  10.  11
    Analogy and Creativity in the Works of Johannes Kepler.Dedre Gentner, Sarah Brem, Ron Ferguson, Philip Wolff, Arthur B. Markman & Ken Forbus - 1997 - In T. B. Ward, S. M. Smith & J. Viad (eds.), Creative Thought: An Investigation of Conceptual Structures and Processes. American Psychological Association.
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  11. The Prepared Mind: The Role of Representational Change in Chance Discovery.Eric Dietrich, Arthur B. Markman & Michael Winkley - 2003 - In Yukio Ohsawa Peter McBurney (ed.), Chance Discovery by Machines. Springer-Verlag, pp. 208-230..
    Analogical reminding in humans and machines is a great source for chance discoveries because analogical reminding can produce representational change and thereby produce insights. Here, we present a new kind of representational change associated with analogical reminding called packing. We derived the algorithm in part from human data we have on packing. Here, we explain packing and its role in analogy making, and then present a computer model of packing in a micro-domain. We conclude that packing is likely used in (...)
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  12.  32
    Processes of Similarity Judgment.Levi B. Larkey & Arthur B. Markman - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (6):1061-1076.
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  13.  3
    Licensing Novel Role-Governed Categories: An ERP Analysis.Micah B. Goldwater, Arthur B. Markman, Logan T. Trujillo & David M. Schnyer - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  14.  2
    Constructional Sources of Implicit Agents in Sentence Comprehension.Micah B. Goldwater & Arthur B. Markman - 2006 - Cognitive Linguistics 20 (4).
  15.  14
    Nonintentional Similarity Processing.Arthur B. Markman & Dedre Gentner - 2005 - In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. pp. 107--137.
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  16.  29
    There Are at Least Two Kinds of Probability Matching: Evidence From a Secondary Task.A. Ross Otto, Eric G. Taylor & Arthur B. Markman - 2011 - Cognition 118 (2):274-279.
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  17.  81
    Concepts a la Modal: An Extended Review of Prinz's Furnishing the Mind. [REVIEW]A. Markman & H. C. Stilwell - 2004 - Philosophical Psychology 17 (3):391-401.
    In Furnishing the mind, Prinz defends a view of concept representation that assumes all representations are rooted in perception. This view is attractive, because it makes clear how concepts could be learned from experience in the world. In this paper, we discuss three limitations of the view espoused by Prinz. First, the central proposal requires more detail in order to support the claim that all representations are modal. Second, it is not clear that a theory of concepts must make a (...)
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  18.  26
    Digging Beneath Rules and Similarity.Arthur B. Markman, Sergey Blok, Kyungil Kim, Levi Larkey, Lisa R. Narvaez, C. Hunt Stilwell & Eric Taylor - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):29-30.
    Pothos suggests dispensing with the distinction between rules and similarity, without defining what is meant by either term. We agree that there are problems with the distinction between rules and similarity, but believe these will be solved only by exploring the representations and processes underlying cases purported to involve rules and similarity.
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  19.  25
    Dynamical Description Versus Dynamical Modeling.Eric Dietrich & Arthur B. Markman - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (8):332.
  20.  7
    Can Developmental Psychology Provide a Blueprint for the Study of Adult Cognition?Arthur B. Markman - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):140-141.
    In order to develop sophisticated models of the core domains of knowledge that support complex cognitive processing in infants and children, developmental psychologists have mapped out the content of these knowledge domains. This research strategy may provide a blueprint for advancing research on adult cognitive processing. I illustrate this suggestion with examples from analogical reasoning and decision making.
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  21.  3
    Cognitive Systems Optimize Energy Rather Than Information.Arthur B. Markman & A. Ross Otto - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):207.
  22.  97
    Something Old, Something New: Extending the Classical View of Representation.Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (12):470-475.
    Representation is a central part of models in cognitive science, but recently this idea has come under attack. Researchers advocating perceptual symbol systems, situated action, embodied cognition, and dynamical systems have argued against central assumptions of the classical representational approach to mind. We review the core assumptions of the dominant view of representation and the four suggested alternatives. We argue that representation should remain a core part of cognitive science, but that the insights from these alternative approaches must be incorporated (...)
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  23.  15
    Are Dynamical Systems the Answer?Arthur B. Markman - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):50-51.
    The proposed model is put forward as a template for the dynamical systems approach to embodied cognition. In order to extend this view to cognitive processing in general, however, two limitations must be overcome. First, it must be demonstrated that sensorimotor coordination of the type evident in the A-not-B error is typical of other aspects of cognition. Second, the explanatory utility of dynamical systems models must be clarified.
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  24.  31
    Embodied Cognition as a Practical Paradigm: Introduction to the Topic, The Future of Embodied Cognition.Joshua Ian Davis & Arthur B. Markman - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):685-691.
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  25.  12
    Safe Takeoffs—Soft Landings.Douglas L. Medin, Woo‐Kyoung Ahn, Jeffrey Bettger, Judy Florian, Robert Goldstone, Mary Lassaline, Arthur Markman, Joshua Rubinstein & Edward Wisniewski - 1990 - Cognitive Science 14 (1):169-178.
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  26.  18
    All Information Processing Entails Computation, or, If R. A. Fisher Had Been a Cognitive Scientist . .Eric Dietrich & Arthur B. Markman - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):637-638.
    We argue that the dynamical and computational hypotheses are compatible and in fact need each other: they are about different aspects of cognition. However, only computationalism is about the information-processing aspect. We then argue that any form of information processing relying on matching and comparing, as cognition does, must use discrete representations and computations defined over them.
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  27.  24
    Using Regulatory Focus to Explore Implicit and Explicit Processing in Concept Learning.Arthur Markman, W. Maddox & G. C. Baldwin - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (s 9-10):132-155.
    Complex cognitive processes like concept learning involve a mixture of redundant explicit and implicit processes that are active simultaneously. This aspect of cognitive architecture creates difficulties in determining the influence of consciousness on processing. We propose that the interaction between an individual's regulatory focus and the reward structure of the current task influences the degree to which explicit processing is active. Thus, by manipulating people's motivational state and the nature of the task they perform, we can vary the influence of (...)
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  28. LMS Rules and the Inverse Base-Rate Effect: Comment on Gluck and Bower.Arthur B. Markman - 1989 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118 (4):417-421.
  29.  18
    Determining Transformation Distance in Similarity: Considerations for Assessing Representational Changes a Priori.Lisa R. Grimm, Jonathan R. Rein & Arthur B. Markman - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (1):59 - 80.
    The representational distortion (RD) approach to similarity (e.g., Hahn, Chater, & Richardson, 2003) proposes that similarity is computed using the transformation distance between two entities. We argue that researchers who adopt this approach need to be concerned with how representational transformations can be determined a priori. We discuss several roadblocks to using this approach. Specifically we demonstrate the difficulties inherent in determining what transformations are psychologically salient and the importance of considering the directionality of transformations.
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  30.  7
    Decision Making.Arthur B. Markman & Douglas L. Medin - 2002 - In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
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  31.  6
    Where Are Nature's Joints? Finding the Mechanisms Underlying Categorization.Arthur B. Markman - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):220-221.
    Machery argues that concepts are too heterogeneous to be a natural kind. I argue that the book does not go far enough. Theories of concepts assume that the task of categorizing warrants a unique set of cognitive constructs. Instead, cognitive science must look across tasks to find a fundamental set of cognitive mechanisms.
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  32.  11
    Culture and Individual Differences.Arthur B. Markman, Serge Blok, John Dennis, Micah Goldwater, Kyungil Kim, Jeff Laux, Lisa Narvaez & Eric Taylor - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):831-831.
    Tests of economic theory often focus on choice outcomes and find significant individual differences in these outcomes. This variability may mask universal psychological processes that lead to different choices because of differences across cultures in the information people have available when making decisions. On this view, decision making research within and across cultures must focus on the processes underlying choice.
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  33.  12
    Money and Motivational Activation.Arthur B. Markman, Serge Blok, John Dennis, Micah Goldwater, Kyungil Kim, Jeff Laux, Lisa Narvaez & Jon Rein - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):190-190.
    Different aspects of people's interactions with money are best conceptualized using the drug and tool theories. The key question is when these models of money are most likely to guide behavior. We suggest that the Drug Theory characterizes motivationally active uses of money and that the Tool Theory characterizes behavior in motivationally cool situations. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  34.  12
    An Amicus for the Defense: Relational Reasoning Magnifies the Behavioral Differences Between Humans and Nonhumans.Arthur B. Markman & C. Hunt Stilwell - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):142-142.
    Relational representation abilities are a crucial cognitive difference between human and nonhuman animals. We argue that relational reasoning and representation supports the development of culture that increases in complexity. Thus, these abilities are a force that magnifies the apparent difference in cognitive abilities between humans and nonhumans.
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  35.  10
    Analogical Inferences Are Central to Analogy.Arthur B. Markman & Jeffrey P. Laux - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):390-391.
    It is important to take a developmental approach to the problem of analogy. One limitation of this approach, however, is that it does not deal with the complexity of making analogical inferences. There are a few key principles of analogical inference that are not well captured by the analogical relational priming (ARP) model.
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  36.  9
    One Alignment Mechanism or Many?Arthur B. Markman, Kyungil Kim, Levi B. Larkey, Lisa Narvaez & C. Hunt Stilwell - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):204-205.
    Pickering & Garrod (P&G) suggest that communicators synchronize their processing at a number of linguistic levels. Whereas their explanation suggests that representations are being compared across individuals, there must be some representation of all conversation participants in each participant's head. At the level of the situation model, it is important to maintain separate representations for each participant. At other levels, it seems less crucial to have a separate representation for each participant. This analysis suggests that different mechanisms may synchronize representations (...)
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  37.  3
    A Tribute to Larry Erlbaum.Arthur B. Markman - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (1):1-1.
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  38.  8
    The Limitations of Unification.Arthur B. Markman - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):33-34.
    There are two roadblocks to using game theory as a unified theory of the behavioral sciences. First, there may not be a single explanatory framework suitable for explaining psychological processing. Second, even if there is such a framework, game theory is too limited, because it focuses selectively on decision making to the exclusion of other crucial cognitive processes. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  39.  1
    Introduction: 2016 Rumelhart Prize Issue Honoring Dedre Gentner.Jeffrey Loewenstein & Arthur B. Markman - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):670-671.
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  40.  4
    Subject Index to Volume 30.Arthur B. Markman, Thomas T. Hills, Michael P. Kaschak, Jenny R. Saffran, Jarrod Moss, Kenneth Kotovsky, Jonathan Cagan, Louise Connell, Mark T. Keane & Joyca Pw Lacroix - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30:1129-1132.
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  41.  3
    Keith J. Holyoak and Paul Thagard,Mental Leaps: Analogy in Creative Thought. [REVIEW]Dedre Gentner & Arthur B. Markman - 1996 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 4 (2):407-409.
  42.  1
    Alignability and Attribute Importance in Choice.G. Lindemann Patricia & Arthur B. Markman - 1996 - In Garrison W. Cottrell (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum.
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  43.  4
    Boundary Conditions and the Need for Multiple Forms of Representation.Arthur B. Markman & Takashi Yamauchi - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):477-478.
    Multidimensional space representations like those posited in Edelman's target article are not sufficient to capture all similarity phenomena. We discuss phenomena that are compatible with models of similarity that assume structured relational representations. An adequate model of similarity and perception will require multiple approaches to representation.
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  44.  2
    Choice Output and Choice Processing: An Analogy to Similarity.Arthur B. Markman - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):423-424.
    The target article suggests that many practices of experimental economists are preferable to those used by psychologists studying judgment and decision making. The advantages of the psychological approach become clear when the focus of research shifts from choice output to choice processes. I illustrate this point with an example from research on similarity comparisons.
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  45.  1
    Editorial Statement.Arthur B. Markman - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (1):1-2.
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  46. Analogy-Based Reasoning and Metaphor.Dedre Gentner & Arthur B. Markman - 2002 - In M. Arbib (ed.), The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. MIT Press. pp. 106--109.
  47. On Mental Leaps: Analogy in Creative Thought (Keith J. Holyoak and Paul Thagard).D. Gentner & A. B. Markman - 1996 - Pragmatics and Cognition 4:407-408.
  48. Experimental Practices in Economics: A Methodological Challenge for Psychologists?-Open Peer Commentary-Choice Output and Choice Processing: An Analogy to Similarity.R. Hertwig, A. Ortmann & A. B. Markman - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):423-423.
     
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  49. Box 1. Cognitive Grammar.A. B. Markman & E. Dietrich - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (12):470-475.
  50. From Goal-Activation to Action: How Does Preference and Use of Knowledge Intervene?Arthur B. Markman, C. Miguel Brendl & Kyungil Kim - 2009 - In Ezequiel Morsella, John A. Bargh & Peter M. Gollwitzer (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Human Action. Oxford University Press.
     
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