This is the first paper on constructive concurrent dynamic logic . For the first time, either for concurrent or sequential dynamic logic, we give a satisfactory treatment of what statements are forced to be true by partial information about the underlying computer. Dynamic logic was developed by Pratt [V. Pratt, Semantical considerations on Floyd–Hoare logic, in: 17th Annual IEEE Symp. on Found. Comp. Sci., New York, 1976, pp. 109–121, V. Pratt, Applications of modal logic to programming, Studia Logica 39 257–274] (...) for nondeterministic sequential programs, and by Peleg [D. Peleg, Concurrent dynamic logic, Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 34 , D. Peleg, Communication in concurrent dynamic logic, Journal of Computer and System Sciences 35 ] for concurrent programs, for the purpose of proving properties of programs such as correctness. Here we define what it means for a dynamic logic formula to be forced to be true knowing only partial information about the results of assignments and tests. This informal CCDL semantics is formalized by intuitionistic Kripke frames modeling this partial information, and each such frame is interpreted as an idealized concurrent machine . In CCDL, proofs and deductions are ω-height, ω-branching, well-founded labeled subtrees of ωω. These are a generalization of the signed tableaux of Nerode [A. Nerode, Some lectures in modal logic, Technical Report, M.S.I. Cornell University, 1989, CIME Logic and Computer Science Montecatini Volume, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes, 1990, A. Nerode, Some lectures in intuitionistic logic, Technical Report, M.S.I. Cornell University, 1988, Marktoberdorf Logic and Computation NATO Summer School Volume, NATO Science Series, 1990 ] stemming from the prefix tableaux of Fitting [M.C. Fitting, Proof Methods for Modal and Intuitionistic Logic, Reidel, 1983]. We demonstrate the correctness of our tableau proofs, define consistency properties, prove that consistency properties yield models, construct systematic tableaux, prove that systematic tableaux yield a consistency property, and conclude that CCDL is complete. This infinitary semantics and proof procedure will be the primary guide for defining, in a sequel, the correct finitary CCDL based on induction principles. FCCDL is suitable for implementation in constructive logic software systems such as Constable’s NUPRL or Huet-Coquand’s CONSTRUCTIONS. Our goal is to develop a constructive logic programming tool for specification and modular verification of programs in any imperative concurrent language, and for the extraction of concurrent programs from constructive proofs. Subsequent papers will introduce analogous logics for declarative and functional concurrent languages. (shrink)
We initiate the study of computable model theory of modal logic, by proving effective completeness theorems for a variety of first-order modal logics. We formulate a natural definition of a decidable Kripke model, and show how to construct such a decidable Kripke model of a given decidable theory. Our construction is inspired by the effective Henkin construction for classical logic. The Henkin construction, however, depends in an essential way on the Deduction Theorem. In its usual form the Deduction Theorem fails (...) for modal logic. In our construction, the Deduction Theorem is replaced by a result about objects called finite Kripke diagrams. We argue that this result can be viewed as an analogue of the Deduction Theorem for modal logic. (shrink)
In this paper we introduce effectiveness into model theory of intuitionistic logic. The main result shows that any computable theory T of intuitionistic predicate logic has a Kripke model with decidable forcing such that for any sentence φ, φ is forced in the model if and only if φ is intuitionistically deducible from T.
The content of existence theorems in the calculus of variations has been explored and an effective treatment of semi-continuity has been achieved. An algorithm has been developed which captures the natural algorithmic content of the notion of a semi-continuous function and this is used to obtain an effective version of the “chattering lemma” of control theory and ordinary differential equations. This lemma reveals the main computational content of the theory of relaxed optimal control.
A number of nonmonotonic reasoning formalisms have been introduced to model the set of beliefs of an agent. These include the extensions of a default logic, the stable models of a general logic program, and the extensions of a truth maintenance system among others. In  and , the authors introduced nonmonotomic rule systems as a nonlogical generalization of all essential features of such formulisms so that theorems applying to all could be proven once and for all. In this paper, (...) we extend Rieter's normal default theories, which have a number of the nice properties which make them a desirable context for belief revision, to the setting of nonmonotonic rule systems. Reiter defined a default theory to be normal if all the rules of the default theory satisfied a simple syntatic condition. However, this simple syntatic condition has no obvious analogue in the setting of nonmonotonic rule systems. Nevertheless, an analysis of the proofs of the main results on normal default theories reveals that the proofs do not rely on the particular syntactic form of the rules but rather on the fact that all rules have a certain consistency property. This led us to extend the notion of normal default theories with respect to a general consistency property. This extended notion of normal default theories, which we call Forward Chaining normal , is easily lifted to nonmonotomic rule systems and hence applies to general logic programs and truth maintenance. (shrink)
Gelfond and Lifschitz proposed the notion of a stable model of a logic program. We establish that the set of all stable models in a Herbrand universe of a recursive logic program is, up to recursive renaming, the set of all infinite paths of a recursive, countably branching tree, and conversely. As a consequence, the problem, given a recursive logic program, of determining whether it has at least one stable model, is Σ11-complete. Due to the equivalences established in the authors' (...) previous nonmonotone rule systems papers ), this applies equally to truth maintenance systems and default logics. (shrink)
Query processing in ground definite deductive is known to correspond precisely to a linear programming problem. However, the “groundedness” requirement is a huge drawback to using linear programming techniques for logic program computations because the ground version of a logic program can be very large when compared to the original program. Furthermore, when we move from propositional logic programs to first-order logic programs, this effectively means that functions symbols may not occur in clauses. In this paper, we develop a theory (...) of “instantiate- by-need” that performs instantiations only when needed. We prove that this method is sound and complete when computing answer substitutions for non-ground logic programs including those containing function symbols. More importantly, when taken in conjunction with Colmerauer's result that unification can be viewed as linear programming, this means that resolution with unification can be completely replaced by linear programming as an operational paradigm. Additionally, our tree construction method is not rigidly tied to the linear programming paradigm-we will show that given any method M that can compute the set of atomic logical consequences of a propositional logic program, our method can use M to compute , the set of all atoms that are consequences of a first-order logic program. (shrink)
In this paper, we study the lower semilattice of NP-subspaces of both the standard polynomial time representation and the tally polynomial time representation of a countably infinite dimensional vector space V∞ over a finite field F. We show that for both the standard and tally representation of V∞, there exists polynomial time subspaces U and W such that U + V is not recursive. We also study the NP analogues of simple and maximal subspaces. We show that the existence of (...) P-simple and NP-maximal subspaces is oracle dependent in both the tally and standard representations of V∞. This contrasts with the case of sets, where the existence of NP-simple sets is oracle dependent but NP-maximal sets do not exist. We also extend many results of Nerode and Remmel concerning the relationship of P bases and NP-subspaces in the tally representation of V∞ to the standard representation of V∞. (shrink)