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  1. The Relationship between Correcting Deviations in Measuring Performance and Achieving the Objectives of Control - The Islamic University as a Model.Abed Alfetah M. AlFerjany, Ashraf A. M. Salama, Youssef M. Abu Amuna, Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2018 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 2 (1):74-89.
    The study aimed to identify the relationship between correcting the deviations in the measurement of performance and achieving the objectives of control and the performance of the job at the Islamic University in the Gaza Strip. To achieve the objectives of the research, the researchers used the descriptive analytical approach to collect information. The questionnaire consisted of (20) statements distributed to three categories of employees of the Islamic University (senior management, faculty members, their assistants and members of the administrative board). (...)
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  2. The Role of Administrative Procedures and Regulations in Enhancing the Performance of The Educational Institutions - The Islamic University in Gaza is A Model.Ashraf A. M. Salama, Youssef M. Abu Amuna, Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2018 - International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) 2 (2):14-27.
    The study aimed to identify the role of administrative procedures and systems in enhancing the performance of the educational institutions in the Islamic University in Gaza. To achieve the research objectives, the researchers used the analytical descriptive approach to collect information. The researchers used the questionnaire distributed to three categories of employees at the Islamic University (senior management, faculty members, their assistants and members of the administrative board). A random sample of 314 employees was selected and 276 questionnaires were retrieved (...)
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  3. The Relationship between Performance Standards and Achieving the Objectives of Supervision at the Islamic University in Gaza.Ashraf A. M. Salama, Mazen Al Shobaki, Samy S. Abu-Naser, Abed Alfetah M. AlFerjany & Youssef M. Abu Amuna - 2018 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 1 (10):89-101.
    The aim of the research is to identify the relationship between the performance criteria and the achievement of the objectives of supervision which is represented in the performance of the job at the Islamic University in Gaza Strip. To achieve the objectives of the research, the researchers used the descriptive analytical approach to collect information. The questionnaire consisted of (22) paragraphs distributed to three categories of employees of the Islamic University (senior management, faculty members, their assistants and members of the (...)
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  4. Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory.A. A. Salama & Florentin Smarandache - 2015 - Columbus, OH, USA: Educational Publishers.
    In this book the authors introduce and study the following notions: Neutrosophic Crisp Points, Neutrosophic Crisp Relations, Neutrosophic Crisp Sets, Neutrosophic Set Generated by (Characteristic Function), alpha-cut Level for Neutrosophic Sets, Neutrosophic Crisp Continuous Function, Neutrosophic Crisp Compact Spaces, Neutrosophic Crisp Nearly Open Sets, Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals, Neutrosophic Crisp Filter, Neutrosophic Crisp Local Functions, Neutrosophic Crisp Sets via Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals, Neutrosophic Crisp L-Openness and Neutrosophic Crisp L-Continuity, Neutrosophic Topological Region, Neutrosophic Closed Set and Neutrosophic Continuous Function, etc. They compute (...)
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  5.  15
    Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory.A. A. Salama & Florentin Smarandache - 2015 - New York, NY, USA: Education Publishing.
    Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the Neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. We now introduce for the first time the notions of Neutrosophic Crisp Sets and Neutrosophic Topology on Crisp Sets. We develop the 2012 notion of Neutrosophic Topological Spaces and give many practical examples. Neutrosophic Science means development and applications of Neutrosophic Logic, Set, Measure, Integral, Probability etc., and their applications in any field. It is possible to define the neutrosophic measure and consequently the neutrosophic integral (...)
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  6. The static model of inventory management without a deficit with Neutrosophic logic.Maissam Jdid, Rafif Alhabib & A. A. Salama - 2021 - International Journal of Neutrosophic Science 16 (1):42-48.
    In this paper, we present an expansion of one of the well-known classical inventory management models, which is the static model of inventory management without a deficit and for a single substance, based on the neutrosophic logic, where we provide through this study a basis for dealing with all data, whether specific or undefined in the field of inventory management, as it provides safe environment to manage inventory without running into deficit , and give us an approximate ideal volume of (...)
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  7. Filters via Neutrosophic Crisp Sets.A. Salama & Florentin Smarandache - 2013 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 1:34-37.
    In this paper we introduce the notion of filter on the neutrosophic crisp set, then we consider a generalization of the filter’s studies. Afterwards, we present the important neutrosophic crisp filters. We also study several relations between different neutrosophic crisp filters and neutrosophic topologies. Possible applications to database systems are touched upon.
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  8.  8
    Does community and environmental responsibility affect firm risk? Evidence from UK panel data 1994–2006.A. Salama, K. Anderson & J. S. Toms - 2011 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 20 (2):192-204.
    The question of how an individual firm's social and environmental performance impacts its firm risk has not been examined in any empirical UK research. Does a company that strives to attain good environmental performance decrease its market risk or is environmental performance just a disadvantageous cost that increases such risk levels for these firms? Answers to this question have important implications for the management of companies and the investment decisions of individuals and institutions. The purpose of this paper is to (...)
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  9.  30
    Does community and environmental responsibility affect firm risk? Evidence from UK panel data 1994-2006.A. Salama, K. Anderson & J. S. Toms - 2011 - Business Ethics: A European Review 20 (2):192-204.
    The question of how an individual firm's social and environmental performance impacts its firm risk has not been examined in any empirical UK research. Does a company that strives to attain good environmental performance decrease its market risk or is environmental performance just a disadvantageous cost that increases such risk levels for these firms? Answers to this question have important implications for the management of companies and the investment decisions of individuals and institutions. The purpose of this paper is to (...)
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  10. The Role of Measuring and Evaluating Performance in Achieving Control Objectives- Case Study of "Islamic University".Mazen J. Al Shobaki, Samy S. Abu-Naser, Ashraf A. M. Salama, Abed Alfetah M. AlFerjany & Youssef M. Abu Amuna - 2018 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 2 (1):106-118.
    The study aimed to identify the role of measuring and evaluating performance in achieving the objectives of control and the performance of the job at the Islamic University in Gaza Strip. To achieve the objectives of the research, the researchers used the descriptive analytical approach to collect information which is the questionnaire that consisted of (22) phrases were distributed to three categories of employees of the Islamic University (Faculty Members and Their Assistants, Members of the Administrative Board, Senior Management). A (...)
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  11.  13
    Neutrosophic Crisp Points & Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals.A. Salama - 2013 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 1:50-53.
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  12. Introduction to Develop Some Software Programs for Dealing with Neutrosophic Sets.A. Salama, Haitham A. El-Ghareeb, Ayman M. Manie & Florentin Smarandache - 2014 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 3:51-52.
    In this paper, we have developed an Excel package to be utilized for calculating neutrosophic data and analyze them. The use of object oriented programming techniques and concepts as they may apply to the design and development a new framework to implement neutrosophic data operations, the c# programming language, NET Framework and Microsoft Visual Studio are used to implement the neutrosophic classes. We have used Excel as it is a powerful tool that is widely accepted and used for statistical analysis. (...)
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  13. The Characteristic Funcation of a Neutrosophic Set.A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache & S. A. Alblowi - 2014 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 3:14-17.
    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study the characteristic function of a neutrosophic set. After given the fundamental definitions of neutrosophic set operations generated by the characteristic function of a neutrosophic set ( Ng for short), we obtain several properties, and discussed the relationship between neutrosophic sets generated by Ng and others. Finally, we introduce the neutrosophic topological spaces generated by Ng . Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.
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  14.  4
    Filters via Neutrosophic Crisp Sets.A. A. Salama & Florentin Smarandache - 2013 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 1:34-37.
    In this paper we introduce the notion of filter on the neutrosophic crisp set, then we consider a generalization of the filter’s studies. Afterwards, we present the important neutrosophic crisp filters. We also study several relations between different neutrosophic crisp filters and neutrosophic topologies. Possible applications to database systems are touched upon.
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  15. Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory.A. Salama & Florentin Smarandache - 2014 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 5:27-35.
    The purpose of this paper is to introduce new types of neutrosophic crisp sets with three types 1, 2, 3. After given the fundamental definitions and operations, we obtain several properties, and discussed the relationship between neutrosophic crisp sets and others. Also, we introduce and study the neutrosophic crisp point and neutrosophic crisp relations. Possible applications to database are touched upon.
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  16.  16
    Neutrosophic Crisp Sets & Neutrosophic Crisp Topological Spaces.A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache & Valeri Kroumov - 2014 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 2:25-30.
    In this paper, we generalize the crisp topological spaces to the notion of neutrosophic crisp topological space, and we construct the basic concepts of the neutrosophic crisp topology.
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  17. New Neutrosophic Crisp Topological Concepts.A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache & S. A. Alblowi - 2014 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 4:50-54.
    In this paper, we introduce the concept of ""neutrosophic crisp neighborhoods system for the neutrosophic crisp point ". Added to, we introduce and study the concept of neutrosophic crisp local function, and construct a new type of neutrosophic crisp topological space via neutrosophic crisp ideals. Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.
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  18. Neutrosophic Closed Set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions.A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache & Valeri Kroumov - 2014 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 4:4-8.
    In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of" neutrosophic closed set" and" neutrosophic continuous function". Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.
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  19.  15
    Neutrosophic Approach to Grayscale Images Domain.A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache & Hewayda ElGhawalby - 2018 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 21:13-19.
    In this paper, we propose a new technique for the enhancing images. It will work on removing the noise contained in the image as well as improving its contrast based on three different enhancing transforms, we commence by embedding the image into a neutrosophic domain; where the image will be mapped in three different levels, a level of trueness, a level of falseness and a level of indeterminacy. Hence, we act separately on each level using the enhancement transforms. Finally, we (...)
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  20. Introduction to Image Processing via Neutrosophic Techniques.A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache & Mohamed Eisa - 2014 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 5:59-64.
    This paper is an attempt of proposing the processing approach of neutrosophic technique in image processing. As neutrosophic sets is a suitable tool to cope with imperfectly defined images, the properties, basic operations distance measure, entropy measures, of the neutrosophic sets method are presented here. İn this paper we, introduce the distances between neutrosophic sets: the Hamming distance, the normalized Hamming distance, the Euclidean distance and normalized Euclidean distance. We will extend the concepts of distances to the case of neutrosophic (...)
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  21.  17
    New Types of Neutrosophic Crisp Closed Sets.Ahmed B. Al-Nafee, A. A. Salama & Florentin Smarandache - 2020 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 36:175-183.
    The neutrosophic sets were known since 1999, and because of their wide applications and their great flexibility to solve the problems, we used these the concepts to define a new types of neutrosophic crisp closed sets and limit points in neutrosophic crisp topological space, namly [neutrosophic crisp Gem sets and neutrosophic crisp Turig points] respactvely, we stady their properties in details and join it with topological concepts. Finally we used [neutrosophic crisp Gem sets and neutrosophic crisp Turig points] to introduce (...)
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  22.  26
    Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure: Evidence from the US Banking Sector. [REVIEW]Mohammad Issam Jizi, Aly Salama, Robert Dixon & Rebecca Stratling - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (4):1-15.
    There is a distinct lack of research into the relationship between corporate governance and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the banking sector. This paper fills the gap in the literature by examining the impact of corporate governance, with particular reference to the role of board of directors, on the quality of CSR disclosure in US listed banks’ annual reports after the US sub-prime mortgage crisis. Using a sample of large US commercial banks for the period 2009–2011 and controlling for audit (...)
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  23.  44
    Neutrosophic Fuzzy Boundary Value Problem under Generalized Hukuhara Differentiability.Baseem Kamal, A. A. Salama, M. Shokry, Magdi S. El-Azab & Galal I. El-Baghdady - 2021 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 47:97-200.
    In this article, the main definitions and differentiation concepts of neutrosophic fuzzy environment will be reviewed. This article will introduce an analytical methodology for solving the second-order linear ordinary differential problem with neutrosophic fuzzy boundary values, this analysis will be under generalized Hukuhara differentiability to show the analytical solutions from a different point of view for the uncertain system, some of these solutions may be decreasing in uncertainty or maybe reflecting the behavior of some real-world systems better. Some applications and (...)
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  24. Studying neutrosophic variables.Rafif Alhabib & Ahmad Salama - 2020 - In Florentin Smarandache & Said Broumi (eds.), Neutrosophic Theories in Communication, Management and Information Technology. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
     
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  25.  12
    A GLIMPSE OF VIRTUAL REALITY PUBLICATIONS IN ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES.A. A. Salama, Abdul Hamid Adnan, Shimaa I. Hassan & N. M. A. Ayad - 2020 - Egyptian Journal of Applied Sciences (EJAS) 35:75-83.
    ABSTRCTIn recent times, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) hasbeen developed and widely spread around world. ICT is used in various sectorsand considered a basis in the emergence of some important technologies such asvirtual reality technology. Virtual Reality (VR) is a special technology as anadvanced technology connected to several fields, e.g. training, learning, science,engineering, medicine, military, etc. VR has great potentials which enabled toperform several phenomena and experiments. Hence, several scenarios havebecome available. The purpose of this study is to shed light (...)
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  26.  15
    Collocational semiosis in the academic discourse of the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA): The case of AFRICA.Amir H. Y. Salama - 2020 - Semiotica 2020 (235):185-227.
    The present study investigates the collocation-induced semiosis of the linguistic sign AFRICA as being used in the academic section of the Corpus of Contemporary American English (known as COCA) (Davies, Mark. 2008. The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA): one billion words, 1990-present. Available online at https://corpus.byu.edu/coca/). Drawing on a hybrid theoretical framework, the study utilizes Charles Peirce’s (1931–58) semiotic model of the sign and Roman Jakobson’s theory of “markedness” (Jakobson, Roman. 1972. Verbal communication. Scientific American (Special Issue, September 1). (...)
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  27.  9
    Introduction to Develop Some Software Programs for Dealing with Neutrosophic Sets.A. A. Salama, Haitham A. El-Ghareeb, Ayman M. Manie & Florentin Smarandache - 2014 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 3:51-52.
    In this paper, we have developed an Excel package to be utilized for calculating neutrosophic data and analyze them. The use of object oriented programming techniques and concepts as they may apply to the design and development a new framework to implement neutrosophic data operations, the c# programming language, NET Framework and Microsoft Visual Studio are used to implement the neutrosophic classes. We have used Excel as it is a powerful tool that is widely accepted and used for statistical analysis. (...)
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  28.  4
    Introduction to image processing via neutrosophic techniques.A. A. Salama & Florentin Smarandache - 2014 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 5:59-63.
    This paper is an attempt of proposing the processing approach of neutrosophic technique in image processing.
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  29. Neutrosophic Knowledge. Journal of Modern Science and Arts, vol. 1, 2020.A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache & Ibraheem Yasser (eds.) - 2020 - Gallup, NM, USA: University of New Mexico.
    “Neutrosophics Knowledge” has been created for publications on advanced studies in neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics that started in 1995 and their applications in any field, such as the neutrosophic structures developed in algebra, geometry, topology, etc. The submitted papers should be professional, in good English and Arabic, containing a brief review of a problem and obtained results. Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as (...)
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  30. Neutrosophic Local Function and Generated Neutrosophic Topology.A. A. Salama & Florentin Smarandache - 2020 - Neutrosophic Knowledge 1:1-6.
    In this paper we introduce the notion of ideals on neutrosophic set which is considered as a generalization of fuzzy and fuzzy intuitionistic ideals studies in [9,11] , the important topological neutrosophic ideals has been given in [4]. The concept of neutrosophic local function is also introduced for a neutrosophic topological space. These concepts are discussed with a view to fiind new neutrosophic topology from the original one in [8]. The basic structure, especially a basis for such generated neutrosophic topologies (...)
     
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  31.  13
    Topological Approaches for Rough Continuous Functions with Applications.A. S. Salama, A. Mhemdi, O. G. Elbarbary & T. M. Al-Shami - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-12.
    In this paper, we purposed further study on rough functions and introduced some concepts based on it. We introduced and investigated the concepts of topological lower and upper approximations of near-open sets and studied their basic properties. We defined and studied new topological neighborhood approach of rough functions. We generalized rough functions to topological rough continuous functions by different topological structures. In addition, topological approximations of a function as a relation were defined and studied. Finally, we applied our approach of (...)
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  32.  13
    The Fifth International Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University 2019 Neutrosophic Information Systems and Nursing Scientific Research.A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache & José Carlos Brandão Tiago - manuscript
    The Fifth International Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University 2019 Neutrosophic Information Systems and Nursing Scientific Research.
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  33.  16
    Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory.A. A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby & Shimaa Fathi Ali - 2017 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 15:18-21.
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  34.  5
    Whose face to be saved? Mubarak’s or Egypt’s? A pragma-semantic analysis.Amir H. Y. Salama - 2014 - Pragmatics and Society 5 (1):128-146.
    The 25th of January, 2011 witnessed a wave of political unrest all over Egypt, with repercussions that have re-shaped the future of contemporary Egypt. For the first time in the modern history of Egypt since the 1952 Nasserite revolution, grass-root protestors went to streets chanting slogans against the military regime headed by the (since then ex-) President of Egypt, Hosni Mubarak. This placed the then regime, as well as its mainstay, the National Democratic Party (NDP), in a political crisis on (...)
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