Results for 'ADHD'

248 found
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  1.  30
    ADHD, Comorbidity, Synaptic Gates and Re-Entrant Circuits.Florence Levy - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):434-435.
    The “dynamic developmental” theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has come full circle from Wender's (1971) reinforcement hypothesis. By specifying the principle of time constraints on reinforcement and extinction, the present theory allows for empirical validation. However, the theory implies, but does not discuss, implications for the neurophysiology of comorbidity in ADHD. The authors' attribution of comorbid oppositional behavior to parental and societal reinforcement leaves out biological factors.
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  2.  6
    Adhd as a Learned Behavioral Pattern: A Less Medicinal More Self-Reliant/Collaborative Intervention.Craig Wiener - 2007 - Upa.
    Traditional treatments of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have been designed to contain a neurobiological delay that renders individuals less capable of resisting shortsighted behaviors. This work critiques that analysis of ADHD, and proposes an alternative strategy to reduce the incidence of ADHD responses.
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  3.  21
    ADHD and Stimulant Drug Treatment: What Can the Children Teach Us?Alexandre Erler - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):357-358.
    The treatment of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder with stimulant drugs has been a subject of controversy for many years, both within and outside bioethics, and the controversy is still very much alive. In her feature article , Ilina Singh, a major contributor to that debate in recent years, brings fresh empirical evidence to bear on it. She uses new data to deal with two key ethical concerns that have been raised about the practice. First, does medicating children with (...)
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  4.  39
    ADHD Drugs: Values That Drive the Debates and Decisions. [REVIEW]Susan Hawthorne - 2007 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (2):129-140.
    Use of medication for treatment of ADHD (or its historical precursors) has been debated for more than forty years. Reasons for the ongoing differences of opinion are analyzed by exploring some of the arguments for and against considering ADHD a mental disorder. Relative to two important DSM criteria — that a mental disorder causes some sort of harm to the individual and that a mental disorder is the manifestation of a dysfunction in the individual — ADHD’s classification (...)
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  5.  2
    Adhd.Eldon Taylor - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):W17.
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  6.  28
    ADHD and the Neural Consequences of Play and Joy: A Framing Essay for the Following Empirical Paper.J. Panksepp - 2002 - Consciousness and Emotion 3 (1):1-6.
  7.  4
    ADHD a problem dysleksji u dzieci w wieku szkolnym.Elżbieta Januszewska & Izabella Januszewska - 2017 - Rocznik Filozoficzny Ignatianum 22 (2):52-74.
    Relative to their peers, learning difficulties are more often observable among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – something which may often cause a discrepancy between the “estimated” intelligence of the child and the results that they achieve at school. There are reasons to think that ADHD may be co-occurring with other learning disorders, including specific difficulties with reading and writing typical of developmental dyslexia: this would be the case for 15 to 30 percent of people with ADHD. (...)
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  8. Understanding ADHD.S. Dunn & J. Sharman - 1998 - In Daniel N. Robinson (ed.), The Mind. Oxford University Press. pp. 1--16.
     
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  9.  30
    RED: ADHD Under the “Micro-Scope” of the Rat Model.Katya Rubia - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):439-440.
    Derived from a rat model, the theory of Sagvolden et al. offers an all-explanatory model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) anatomy, behaviour, and cognition as being caused predominantly by a hypo-dopaminergic mesolimbic (affecting the mesocortical and nigrostriatal) system, leading to abnormal reward and extinction processes. This model suffers from oversimplification and reductionism, reflecting the limitations of the use of animal models to explain higher mental disorders.
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  10.  34
    ADHD, Values, and the Self.Paul Litton - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):65-67.
    *The opinions expressed are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the policy of the National Institutes of Health, the Public Health Service, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
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  11.  14
    ADHD Theories Still Need to Take More on Board: Serotonin and Pre-Executive Variability.Robert D. Oades & Hanna Christiansen - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):438-438.
    Correcting the relationship between tonic and burst firing modes in dopamine neurons may help normalise stimulus-reinforcement gradients and contingent behaviour in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. But appropriate evaluations of stimuli for developing adaptive plans and controlling impulsivity will not occur without moderating the gain-like functions of serotonin. The “dynamic theory” correctly highlights the need to account for variability in ADHD. The dysmaturation of pre-executive information processing is proposed as an explanation. At the core of the article by Sagvolden (...)
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  12.  13
    The ADHD Concomitant Difficulties Scale , a Brief Scale to Measure Comorbidity Associated to ADHD.Javier Fenollar-Cortés & Luis J. Fuentes - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  13.  28
    Understanding ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Feeling Brain. By S. K. Woods & W. H. Ploof. Pp. 208. (Sage, Thousand Oaks, California, 1997.) £35.00, Hardback; £15.50, Paperback, ISBN 0-8039-7423-X. [REVIEW]David A. Hay - 1999 - Journal of Biosocial Science 31 (3):425-432.
  14.  20
    Children, ADHD, and Citizenship.E. F. Cohen & C. P. Morley - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (2):155-180.
    The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a subject of controversy, for a host of reasons. This paper seeks to explore the manner in which children's interests may be subsumed to those of parents, teachers, and society as a whole in the course of diagnosis, treatment, and labeling, utilizing a framework for children's citizenship proposed by Elizabeth Cohen. Additionally, the paper explores aspects of discipline associated with the diagnosis, as well as distributional pathologies resulting from the application of the diagnosis (...)
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  15.  3
    ADHD Symptoms in Adults and Time Perspectives – Findings From a Czech National Sample.Simon Weissenberger, Filip Děchtěrenko, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Martina Vňuková, Phillip Zimbardo, Jiří Raboch, Martin Anders, Ellen Braaten & Radek Ptáček - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  16.  15
    ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – From Medical to Societal Intervening Factors.Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch & Michal Goetz - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  17.  59
    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Delay-of-Reinforcement Gradients and Other Behavioral Mechanisms.A. Charles Catania - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):419-424.
    Sagvolden, Johansen, Aase, and Russell (Sagvolden et al.) examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at levels of analysis ranging from neurotransmitters to behavior. At the behavioral level they attribute aspects of ADHD to anomalies of delay-of-reinforcement gradients. With a normal gradient, responses followed after a long delay by a reinforcer may share in the effects of that reinforcer; with a diminished or steepened gradient they may fail to do so. Steepened gradients differentially select rapidly emitted responses (hyperactivity), and they limit (...)
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  18.  18
    Transcultural ADHD and Bioethics: Reformulating a Doubly Dichotomized Debate.Neil Pickering & Jing-Bao Nie - 2016 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (3):249-275.
    This paper aims to explore some key methodological issues in comparative and cross-cultural bioethics, through a discussion of a particular example: childhood and adolescent Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.1 At its heart, this paper makes an argument for a transcultural approach to bioethics. The argument starts with the examination of a conceptually mistaken and empirically unsustainable belief that culture is inevitably a force for difference. This “difference presumption” appears in various guises, for example in the belief that West and East have (...)
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  19.  20
    Treatment of ADHD with Methylphenidate May Sensitize Brain Substrates of Desire: Implications for Changes in Drug Abuse Potential From an Animal Model.J. Panksepp, J. Burgdorf, N. Gordon & C. Turner - 2002 - Consciousness and Emotion 3 (1):7-19.
    Aims. Currently, methylphenidate (MPH, trade name Ritalin) is the most widely prescribed medication for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the ability of repeated MPH administration to produce a sensitized appetitive eagerness type response in laboratory rats, as indexed by 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (50-kHz USVs). We also examined the ability of MPH to reduce play behavior in rats which may be partially implicated in the clinical efficacy of MPH in ADHD. Design. 56 adolescent rats received injections of either (...)
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  20. An Update on ADHD Neuroimaging Research.David Cohen & Jonathan Leo - 2004 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 25 (2):161-166.
    Since the publication of a critical review on ADHD neuroimaging in a past issue of this journal , several relevant studies have appeared, including one study that had a subgroup of unmedicated ADHD children . In this update to our earlier review we comment on this last study’s failure to report on the crucial comparison between unmedicated and medicated ADHD subjects. The issue of prior medication exposure in ADHD subjects constitutes a serious confound in this body (...)
     
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  21. Genetics in the ADHD Clinic: How Can Genetic Testing Support the Current Clinical Practice?Lívia Balogh, Attila J. Pulay & János M. Réthelyi - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a childhood prevalence of 5%. In about two-thirds of the cases, ADHD symptoms persist into adulthood and often cause significant functional impairment. Based on the results of family and twin studies, the estimated heritability of ADHD approximates 80%, suggests a significant genetic component in the etiological background of the disorder; however, the potential genetic effects on disease risk, symptom severity, and persistence are unclear. This article provides a brief review of the (...)
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  22. The Logic of ADHD: A Brief Review of Fallacious Reasoning.Gordon Tait - 2008 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 28 (3):239-254.
    This paper has two central purposes: the first is to survey some of the more important examples of fallacious argument, and the second is to examine the frequent use of these fallacies in support of the psychological construct: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The paper divides 12 familiar fallacies into three different categories—material, psychological and logical—and contends that advocates of ADHD often seem to employ these fallacies to support their position. It is suggested that all researchers, whether into ADHD (...)
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  23.  17
    Ethical Issues in ADHD: Diagnosis and Management.Michael Herbert - 2003 - Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 8 (3):9.
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  24.  1
    Psychometric Properties of ADHD Rating Scale—5 for Children and Adolescents in Sudan—School Version.Abdulkarim Alhossein, Abdulrahman Abdullah Abaoud, David Becker, Rashed Aldabas, Salaheldin Farah Bakhiet, Mohammed Al Jaffal, Manar Alsufyani, Nagda Mohamed Abdu Elrahim & Nouf Alzrayer - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    The ADHD Rating Scale—5 for Children and Adolescents, School Version, has been adopted and validated to be used in assessing ADHD among school children within Western contexts. However, there are few assessment tools in use for identifying ADHD characteristics in children in Sudan. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of this rating scale in the context of Sudan. To accomplish this, data were collected on a sample of 3,742 school-aged children and adolescents as reported (...)
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  25.  39
    Born which Way? ADHD, Situational Self-Control, and Responsibility.Polaris Koi - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (2):205-218.
    Debates concerning whether Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder mitigates responsibility often involve recourse to its genetic and neurodevelopmental etiology. For such arguments, individuals with ADHD have diminished self-control, and hence do not fully satisfy the control condition for responsibility, when there is a genetic or neurodevelopmental etiology for this diminished capacity. In this article, I argue that the role of genetic and neurobiological explanations has been overstated in evaluations of responsibility. While ADHD has genetic and neurobiological causes, rather than embrace (...)
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  26.  86
    Spatial Awareness, Alertness, and ADHD: The Re-Emergence of Unilateral Neglect with Time-on-Task.Melanie A. George, Veronika B. Dobler, Elaine Nicholls & Tom Manly - 2005 - Brain and Cognition 57 (3):264-275.
  27. Can Brain Scans See ADHD?Sowell Second - 2004 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 25 (2):161-166.
  28. Teenagers with ADD, ADHD and Executive Function Deficits: A Guide for Parents and Professionals.[author unknown] - 2017
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  29. The Biopsychosocial Context of ADHD.Seija Sandberg - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):441-442.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) represents adaptation to defective neurotransmission – an adaptation seldom with benefit. The resulting behavioural style not only increases vulnerability to adverse experiences, but also creates a context in which encountering adversity is more likely. Furthermore, the fact that ADHD is a highly heritable condition increases the probability of a child with a compromised neurobiological disposition being raised by caregivers with suboptimal resources.
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  30.  55
    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): One Process or Many?A. Charles Catania - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):446-450.
    Some commentaries suggest that the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) theory of this condition does not explain enough. Because the theory includes parameters of the delay gradient that vary across individuals and developmental modulation of behavioral outcomes by different environments, it accommodates a wide range of manifestations of ADHD symptoms. Thus, the argument could instead be made that the theory allows too many degrees of freedom. For many purposes, behavior is better defined in terms of function (e.g., consequences) than in (...)
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  31. Institutionalized Intolerance of ADHD: Sources and Consequences.Susan C. C. Hawthorne - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (3):504 - 526.
    Diagnosable individuals, caregivers, and clinicians typically embrace a biological conception of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), finding that medical treatment is beneficial. Scientists study ADHD phenomenology, interventions to ease symptoms, and underlying mechanisms, often with an aim of helping diagnosed people. Yet current understanding of ADHD, jointly influenced by science and society, has an unintended downside. Scientific and social influences have embedded negative values in the ADHD concept, and have simultaneously dichotomized ADHD diagnosable from non-diagnosable individuals. In (...)
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  32.  17
    What Does Distractibility in ADHD Reveal About Mechanisms for Top-Down Attentional Control?Stacia R. Friedman-Hill, Meryl R. Wagman, Saskia E. Gex, Daniel S. Pine, Ellen Leibenluft & Leslie G. Ungerleider - 2010 - Cognition 115 (1):93-103.
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  33.  27
    Foster Children and ADHD: Anger, Violence, and Institutional Power. [REVIEW]Niranjan S. Karnik - 2000 - Journal of Medical Humanities 21 (4):199-214.
    This paper explores the ways in which foster children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) intersect as social and medical categories. Through the method of interpretive biography based on the official case file, this paper shows how the experiences of violence and ADHD become linked in the child's life through the emotion of anger. In this way, it is possible to see how the power dynamics of the medical, educational and welfare systems lock the diagnosis with its embedded (...)
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  34.  32
    The Inadequacy of ADHD: A Philosophical Contribution.Mattias Nilsson Sjöberg & Johan Dahlbeck - 2018 - Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties 23 (1):97-108.
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a widely spread diagnosis.The dominant paradigm of ADHD is biomedical where ADHD isdefined as a brain disorder. At the same time, the legitimacy of thediagnosis is being questioned since it is unclear whether or not ADHDcan be deemed a medical disorder in itself. The aim of this article is tocritically assess the merits of understanding the diagnosis of ADHD as amedical condition defined as a brain disorder. This is being done usingthe seventeenth (...)
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  35.  29
    Beyond Creativity: ADHD Drug Therapy as a Moral Damper on a Child's Future Success.Christian J. Krautkramer - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):52 – 53.
    *The views represented in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the American Medical Association.
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  36.  6
    Insomnia, Alcohol Consumption and ADHD Symptoms in Adults.Astri J. Lundervold, Daniel A. Jensen & Jan Haavik - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  37. Genetics on the Neurodiversity Spectrum: Genetic, Phenotypic and Endophenotypic Continua in Autism and ADHD.Polaris Koi - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 89 (October 2021):52–62.
    How we ought to diagnose, categorise and respond to spectrum disabilities such as autism and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a topic of lively debate. The heterogeneity associated with ADHD and autism is described as falling on various continua of behavioural, neural, and genetic difference. These continua are varyingly described either as extending into the general population, or as being continua within a given disorder demarcation. Moreover, the interrelationships of these continua are likewise often vague and subject to (...)
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  38.  6
    Informing the Debate around ADHD: Take Care of Zizi, directed by Karim El Shennawy, 2021.Khalid Ali & Mona El Shimi - 2022 - Journal of Medical Humanities 43 (3):513-516.
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  39.  24
    Editorial: Neurofeedback in ADHD.Martijn Arns, Hartmut Heinrich, Tomas Ros, Aribert Rothenberger & Ute Strehl - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  40.  44
    Discourse Processing in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd).Michiel van Lambalgen, Claudia van Kruistum & Esther Parigger - 2008 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (4):467-487.
    ADHD is a psychiatric disorder characterised by persistent and developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. It is known that children with ADHD tend to produce incoherent discourses, e.g. by narrating events out of sequence. Here the aetiology of ADHD becomes of interest. One prominent theory is that ADHD is an executive function disorder, showing deficiencies of planning. Given the close link between planning, verb tense and discourse coherence postulated in van Lambalgen and Hamm (The (...)
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  41.  1
    Representing Behavioral Pathology: The Importance of Modality in Medical Descriptions of Conduct, ADHD as Case Study.Sara Vilar-Lluch - unknown
    This paper examines the role of modality resources (e.g., “may”, “often”) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in representing behavioral pathology focusing, in particular, on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD diagnosis requires reports of non-practitioners (e.g., carers and teachers); an effective understanding of behavioral descriptors by the lay community is thus of paramount importance. The study combines qualitative linguistic discourse analysis and a corpus approach to study the presence and functions of modality, adopting (...)
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  42. Characterizing Cognition in ADHD: Beyond Executive Dysfunction.F. Xavier Castellanos, Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke, Michael P. Milham & Rosemary Tannock - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (3):117-123.
  43.  44
    The Four Causes of ADHD: Aristotle in the Classroom.Marino Pérez-Álvarez - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  44.  8
    Child/Adolescent’s ADHD and Parenting Stress: The Mediating Role of Family Impact and Conduct Problems.Alicia Muñoz-Silva, Rocio Lago-Urbano, Manuel Sanchez-Garcia & José Carmona-Márquez - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  45.  1
    Reconciling the Seemingly Irreconcilable: The WHO's ICF System Integrates Biological and Psychosocial Environmental Determinants of Autism and ADHD.Sven Bölte, Wenn B. Lawson, Peter B. Marschik & Sonya Girdler - 2021 - Bioessays 43 (9):2000254.
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  46. Frustration as a Consequence of Inconsistent Reward in Children with Adhd.A. Amsel, T. Wigal, Jm Swanson, Kk Fulbright & Vi Douglas - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):481-481.
  47. What Happens When Metacognition Fails? Some Implications for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).H. N. Poissant, V. M. Bekou & C. Chalfoun - 2000 - Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2):S80 - S80.
  48. The Dynamics of the Treatment-Enhancement Distinction: ADHD as a Case Study.Maartje Schermer - 2007 - Philosophica 79:25-37.
    A central issue in the ethical debate on psychopharmacological enhancers concerns the distinction between therapy and enhancement. Although from a theoretical point of view it is difficult to make a clear-cut distinction between treatment on the one hand, and enhancement on the other, in medical practice and policy debates the counter-positioning of therapy to enhancement is clearly at work. Especially pharmaceutical companies have an interest in occupying the "grey" area between normal and abnormal, treatment and enhancement. This article discusses the (...)
     
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  49.  8
    Monitoring Attention in ADHD with an Easy-to-Use Electrophysiological Index.Goded Shahaf, Uri Nitzan, Galit Erez, Shlomo Mendelovic & Yuval Bloch - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  50.  21
    Listening to Children with ADHD.Ilina Singh - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (2):S26-S26.
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