Results for 'AI ethics'

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  1.  3
    AI Ethics Should Not Remain Toothless! A Call to Bring Back the Teeth of Ethics.Rowena Rodrigues & Anaïs Rességuier - 2020 - Big Data and Society 7 (2).
    Ethics has powerful teeth, but these are barely being used in the ethics of AI today – it is no wonder the ethics of AI is then blamed for having no teeth. This article argues that ‘ethics’ in the current AI ethics field is largely ineffective, trapped in an ‘ethical principles’ approach and as such particularly prone to manipulation, especially by industry actors. Using ethics as a substitute for law risks its abuse and misuse. (...)
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  2.  45
    The Ethics of AI Ethics: An Evaluation of Guidelines.Thilo Hagendorff - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (1):99-120.
    Current advances in research, development and application of artificial intelligence systems have yielded a far-reaching discourse on AI ethics. In consequence, a number of ethics guidelines have been released in recent years. These guidelines comprise normative principles and recommendations aimed to harness the “disruptive” potentials of new AI technologies. Designed as a semi-systematic evaluation, this paper analyzes and compares 22 guidelines, highlighting overlaps but also omissions. As a result, I give a detailed overview of the field of AI (...)
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  3.  7
    AI Ethics Is Not a Panacea.Stuart McLennan, Meredith M. Lee, Amelia Fiske & Leo Anthony Celi - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (11):20-22.
    From machine learning and computer vision to robotics and natural language processing, the application of data science and artificial intelligence is expected to transform health care (Ce...
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  4.  35
    From What to How: An Initial Review of Publicly Available AI Ethics Tools, Methods and Research to Translate Principles Into Practices.Jessica Morley, Luciano Floridi, Libby Kinsey & Anat Elhalal - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2141-2168.
    The debate about the ethical implications of Artificial Intelligence dates from the 1960s :741–742, 1960; Wiener in Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine, MIT Press, New York, 1961). However, in recent years symbolic AI has been complemented and sometimes replaced by Neural Networks and Machine Learning techniques. This has vastly increased its potential utility and impact on society, with the consequence that the ethical debate has gone mainstream. Such a debate has primarily focused on principles—the (...)
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  5.  8
    Overcoming Barriers to Cross-Cultural Cooperation in AI Ethics and Governance.Seán S. ÓhÉigeartaigh, Jess Whittlestone, Yang Liu, Yi Zeng & Zhe Liu - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (4):571-593.
    Achieving the global benefits of artificial intelligence will require international cooperation on many areas of governance and ethical standards, while allowing for diverse cultural perspectives and priorities. There are many barriers to achieving this at present, including mistrust between cultures, and more practical challenges of coordinating across different locations. This paper focuses particularly on barriers to cooperation between Europe and North America on the one hand and East Asia on the other, as regions which currently have an outsized impact on (...)
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  6.  19
    Organic and dynamic tool for use with knowledge base of AI ethics for promoting engineers’ practice of ethical AI design.Kaira Sekiguchi & Koichi Hori - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):51-71.
    In recent years, ethical questions related to the development of artificial intelligence are being increasingly discussed. However, there has not been enough corresponding increase in the research and development associated with AI technology that incorporates with ethical discussion. We therefore implemented an organic and dynamic tool for use with knowledge base of AI ethics for engineers to promote engineers’ practice of ethical AI design to realize further social values. Here, “organic” means that the tool deals with complex relationships among (...)
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  7.  4
    AI Ethics and the Banality of Evil.Payman Tajalli - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    In this paper, I draw on Hannah Arendt’s notion of ‘banality of evil’ to argue that as long as AI systems are designed to follow codes of ethics or particular normative ethical theories chosen by us and programmed in them, they are Eichmanns destined to commit evil. Since intelligence alone is not sufficient for ethical decision making, rather than strive to program AI to determine the right ethical decision based on some ethical theory or criteria, AI should be concerned (...)
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  8.  12
    AI Ethics: how can information ethics provide a framework to avoid usual conceptual pitfalls? An Overview.Frédérick Bruneault & Andréane Sabourin Laflamme - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-10.
    Artificial intelligence plays an important role in current discussions on information and communication technologies and new modes of algorithmic governance. It is an unavoidable dimension of what social mediations and modes of reproduction of our information societies will be in the future. While several works in artificial intelligence ethics address ethical issues specific to certain areas of expertise, these ethical reflections often remain confined to narrow areas of application, without considering the global ethical issues in which they are embedded. (...)
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  9.  14
    AI Ethics – a Review of Three Recent Publications.Johann-Christian Põder - forthcoming - AI and Society.
  10.  21
    Social Impact Under Severe Uncertainty: The Role of Neuroethicists at the Intersection of Neuroscience, AI, Ethics, and Policymaking.Kristine Bærøe & Torbjørn Gundersen - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):117-119.
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  11.  7
    Correction to: The Ethics of AI Ethics: An Evaluation of Guidelines.Thilo Hagendorff - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-5.
    In the original publication of this article, the Table 1 has been published incorrectly. Now the same has been provided in this correction.
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  12.  2
    Research and Practice of AI Ethics: A Case Study Approach Juxtaposing Academic Discourse with Organisational Reality.Bernd Stahl, Kevin Macnish, Tilimbe Jiya, Laurence Brooks, Josephina Antoniou & Mark Ryan - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-29.
    This study investigates the ethical use of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence technologies —using an empirical approach. The paper categorises the current literature and presents a multi-case study of 'on-the-ground' ethical issues that uses qualitative tools to analyse findings from ten targeted case-studies from a range of domains. The analysis coalesces identified singular ethical issues,, into clusters to offer a comparison with the proposed classification in the literature. The results show that despite the variety of different social domains, fields, and (...)
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  13.  54
    In AI We Trust: Ethics, Artificial Intelligence, and Reliability.Mark Ryan - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2749-2767.
    One of the main difficulties in assessing artificial intelligence is the tendency for people to anthropomorphise it. This becomes particularly problematic when we attach human moral activities to AI. For example, the European Commission’s High-level Expert Group on AI have adopted the position that we should establish a relationship of trust with AI and should cultivate trustworthy AI. Trust is one of the most important and defining activities in human relationships, so proposing that AI should be trusted, is a very (...)
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  14.  22
    On the Ethics of AI Ethics.Udo Schuklenk - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (2):146-147.
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  15.  31
    AI Assisted Ethics.Amitai Etzioni & Oren Etzioni - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (2):149-156.
    The growing number of ‘smart’ instruments, those equipped with AI, has raised concerns because these instruments make autonomous decisions; that is, they act beyond the guidelines provided them by programmers. Hence, the question the makers and users of smart instrument face is how to ensure that these instruments will not engage in unethical conduct. The article suggests that to proceed we need a new kind of AI program—oversight programs—that will monitor, audit, and hold operational AI programs accountable.
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  16.  4
    Introduction to AI, Ethics & Society.Jared Bielby, Rachel Fischer & Geoffrey Rockwell - 2020 - International Review of Information Ethics 28.
  17. Toward an Ethics of AI Assistants: An Initial Framework.John Danaher - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (4):629-653.
    Personal AI assistants are now nearly ubiquitous. Every leading smartphone operating system comes with a personal AI assistant that promises to help you with basic cognitive tasks: searching, planning, messaging, scheduling and so on. Usage of such devices is effectively a form of algorithmic outsourcing: getting a smart algorithm to do something on your behalf. Many have expressed concerns about this algorithmic outsourcing. They claim that it is dehumanising, leads to cognitive degeneration, and robs us of our freedom and autonomy. (...)
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  18.  26
    AI-Assisted Decision-Making in Healthcare: The Application of an Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research.Tamra Lysaght, Hannah Yeefen Lim, Vicki Xafis & Kee Yuan Ngiam - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (3):299-314.
    Artificial intelligence is set to transform healthcare. Key ethical issues to emerge with this transformation encompass the accountability and transparency of the decisions made by AI-based systems, the potential for group harms arising from algorithmic bias and the professional roles and integrity of clinicians. These concerns must be balanced against the imperatives of generating public benefit with more efficient healthcare systems from the vastly higher and accurate computational power of AI. In weighing up these issues, this paper applies the deliberative (...)
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  19.  62
    Thinking About ‘Ethics’ in the Ethics of AI.Pak-Hang Wong & Judith Simon - 2020 - IDEES 48.
    A major international consultancy firm identified ‘AI ethicist’ as an essential position for companies to successfully implement artificial intelligence (AI) at the start of 2019. It declares that AI ethicists are needed to help companies navigate the ethical and social issues raised by the use of AI. Top 5 AI hires companies need to succeed in 2019. The view that AI is beneficial but nonetheless potentially harmful to individuals and society is widely shared by the industry, academia, governments, and civil (...)
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  20.  27
    The Ethics of Medical AI and the Physician-Patient Relationship.Sally Dalton-Brown - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (1):115-121.
    :This article considers recent ethical topics relating to medical AI. After a general discussion of recent medical AI innovations, and a more analytic look at related ethical issues such as data privacy, physician dependency on poorly understood AI helpware, bias in data used to create algorithms post-GDPR, and changes to the patient–physician relationship, the article examines the issue of so-called robot doctors. Whereas the so-called democratization of healthcare due to health wearables and increased access to medical information might suggest a (...)
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  21.  7
    Getting into the engine room: a blueprint to investigate the shadowy steps of AI ethics.Johan Rochel & Florian Evéquoz - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    Enacting an AI system typically requires three iterative phases where AI engineers are in command: selection and preparation of the data, selection and configuration of algorithmic tools, and fine-tuning of the different parameters on the basis of intermediate results. Our main hypothesis is that these phases involve practices with ethical questions. This paper maps these ethical questions and proposes a way to address them in light of a neo-republican understanding of freedom, defined as absence of domination. We thereby identify different (...)
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  22.  27
    AI Assistants and the Paradox of Internal Automaticity.William A. Bauer & Veljko Dubljević - 2020 - Neuroethics 13 (3):303-310.
    What is the ethical impact of artificial intelligence assistants on human lives, and specifically how much do they threaten our individual autonomy? Recently, as part of forming an ethical framework for thinking about the impact of AI assistants on our lives, John Danaher claims that if the external automaticity generated by the use of AI assistants threatens our autonomy and is therefore ethically problematic, then the internal automaticity we already live with should be viewed in the same way. He takes (...)
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  23. AIES '19: Proceedings of the 2019 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society.Vincent Conitzer, Gillian Hadfield & Shannon Vallor (eds.) - 2019
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  24.  7
    Publisher Correction to: The Ethics of AI Ethics: An Evaluation of Guidelines.Thilo Hagendorff - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (3):457-461.
    In the original publication of this article, the Table 1 has been published in a low resolution. Now a larger version of Table 1 is published in this correction. The publisher apologizes for the error made during production.
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  25. Transparent, Explainable, and Accountable AI for Robotics.Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt & Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Science (Robotics) 2 (6):eaan6080.
    To create fair and accountable AI and robotics, we need precise regulation and better methods to certify, explain, and audit inscrutable systems.
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  26.  10
    Ethics and Bioprospecting in Antarctica.AI Guyomard - 2010 - Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 10 (1):31-45.
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  27.  14
    Primer on an Ethics of AI-Based Decision Support Systems in the Clinic.Matthias Braun, Patrik Hummel, Susanne Beck & Peter Dabrock - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2019-105860.
    Making good decisions in extremely complex and difficult processes and situations has always been both a key task as well as a challenge in the clinic and has led to a large amount of clinical, legal and ethical routines, protocols and reflections in order to guarantee fair, participatory and up-to-date pathways for clinical decision-making. Nevertheless, the complexity of processes and physical phenomena, time as well as economic constraints and not least further endeavours as well as achievements in medicine and healthcare (...)
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  28. AI Extenders and the Ethics of Mental Health.Karina Vold & Jose Hernandez-Orallo - forthcoming - In Marcello Ienca & Fabrice Jotterand (eds.), Ethics of Artificial Intelligence in Brain and Mental Health.
    The extended mind thesis maintains that the functional contributions of tools and artefacts can become so essential for our cognition that they can be constitutive parts of our minds. In other words, our tools can be on a par with our brains: our minds and cognitive processes can literally ‘extend’ into the tools. Several extended mind theorists have argued that this ‘extended’ view of the mind offers unique insights into how we understand, assess, and treat certain cognitive conditions. In this (...)
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  29. Designing AI for Social Good: Seven Essential Factors.Josh Cowls, Thomas C. King, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    The idea of Artificial Intelligence for Social Good (henceforth AI4SG) is gaining traction within information societies in general and the AI community in particular. It has the potential to address social problems effectively through the development of AI-based solutions. Yet, to date, there is only limited understanding of what makes AI socially good in theory, what counts as AI4SG in practice, and how to reproduce its initial successes in terms of policies (Cath et al. 2018). This article addresses this gap (...)
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  30.  11
    Decentered Ethics in the Machine Era and Guidance for AI Regulation.Christian Hugo Hoffmann & Benjamin Hahn - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):635-644.
    Recent advancements in AI have prompted a large number of AI ethics guidelines published by governments and nonprofits. While many of these papers propose concrete or seemingly applicable ideas, few philosophically sound proposals are made. In particular, we observe that the line of questioning has often not been examined critically and underlying conceptual problems not always dealt with at the root. In this paper, we investigate the nature of ethical AI systems and what their moral status might be by (...)
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  31.  19
    AI in the Headlines: The Portrayal of the Ethical Issues of Artificial Intelligence in the Media.Leila Ouchchy, Allen Coin & Veljko Dubljević - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (4):927-936.
    As artificial intelligence technologies become increasingly prominent in our daily lives, media coverage of the ethical considerations of these technologies has followed suit. Since previous research has shown that media coverage can drive public discourse about novel technologies, studying how the ethical issues of AI are portrayed in the media may lead to greater insight into the potential ramifications of this public discourse, particularly with regard to development and regulation of AI. This paper expands upon previous research by systematically analyzing (...)
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  32.  31
    Responsible AI: Two Frameworks for Ethical Design and Practice.Dorian Peters, Karina Vold, Diana Robinson & Rafael Calvo - 2020 - IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society 1 (1).
    In 2019, the IEEE launched the P7000 standards projects intended to address ethical issues in the design of autonomous and intelligent systems. This move came amidst a growing public concern over the unintended consequences of artificial intelligence (AI), compounded by the lack of an anticipatory process for attending to ethical impact within professional practice. However, the difficulty in moving from principles to practice presents a significant challenge to the implementation of ethical guidelines. Herein, we describe two complementary frameworks for integrating (...)
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  33. The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on Ai, Robots, and Ethics.David J. Gunkel - 2012 - MIT Press.
    One of the enduring concerns of moral philosophy is deciding who or what is deserving of ethical consideration. Much recent attention has been devoted to the "animal question" -- consideration of the moral status of nonhuman animals. In this book, David Gunkel takes up the "machine question": whether and to what extent intelligent and autonomous machines of our own making can be considered to have legitimate moral responsibilities and any legitimate claim to moral consideration. The machine question poses a fundamental (...)
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  34.  14
    Cultural Differences as Excuses? Human Rights and Cultural Values in Global Ethics and Governance of AI.Pak-Hang Wong - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (4):705-715.
    Cultural differences pose a serious challenge to the ethics and governance of artificial intelligence from a global perspective. Cultural differences may enable malignant actors to disregard the demand of important ethical values or even to justify the violation of them through deference to the local culture, either by affirming the local culture lacks specific ethical values, e.g., privacy, or by asserting the local culture upholds conflicting values, e.g., state intervention is good. One response to this challenge is the human (...)
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  35.  10
    Ethics of AI and Cybersecurity When Sovereignty is at Stake.Paul Timmers - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):635-645.
    Sovereignty and strategic autonomy are felt to be at risk today, being threatened by the forces of rising international tensions, disruptive digital transformations and explosive growth of cybersecurity incidents. The combination of AI and cybersecurity is at the sharp edge of this development and raises many ethical questions and dilemmas. In this commentary, I analyse how we can understand the ethics of AI and cybersecurity in relation to sovereignty and strategic autonomy. The analysis is followed by policy recommendations, some (...)
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  36.  8
    Ethics of AI and Cybersecurity When Sovereignty is at Stake.Paul Timmers - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):635-645.
    Sovereignty and strategic autonomy are felt to be at risk today, being threatened by the forces of rising international tensions, disruptive digital transformations and explosive growth of cybersecurity incidents. The combination of AI and cybersecurity is at the sharp edge of this development and raises many ethical questions and dilemmas. In this commentary, I analyse how we can understand the ethics of AI and cybersecurity in relation to sovereignty and strategic autonomy. The analysis is followed by policy recommendations, some (...)
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  37.  5
    Ethics of AI and Cybersecurity When Sovereignty is at Stake.Paul Timmers - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):635-645.
    Sovereignty and strategic autonomy are felt to be at risk today, being threatened by the forces of rising international tensions, disruptive digital transformations and explosive growth of cybersecurity incidents. The combination of AI and cybersecurity is at the sharp edge of this development and raises many ethical questions and dilemmas. In this commentary, I analyse how we can understand the ethics of AI and cybersecurity in relation to sovereignty and strategic autonomy. The analysis is followed by policy recommendations, some (...)
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  38. Explaining Explanations in AI.Brent Mittelstadt - forthcoming - FAT* 2019 Proceedings 1.
    Recent work on interpretability in machine learning and AI has focused on the building of simplified models that approximate the true criteria used to make decisions. These models are a useful pedagogical device for teaching trained professionals how to predict what decisions will be made by the complex system, and most importantly how the system might break. However, when considering any such model it’s important to remember Box’s maxim that "All models are wrong but some are useful." We focus on (...)
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  39.  16
    AI and Ethics: Shedding Light on the Black Box.Katrina Ingram - 2020 - International Review of Information Ethics 28.
    Artificial Intelligence is playing an increasingly prevalent role in our lives. Whether its landing a job interview, getting a bank loan or accessing a government program, organizations are using automated systems informed by AI enabled technologies in ways that have significant consequences for people. At the same time, there is a lack of transparency around how AI technologies work and whether they are ethical, fair or accurate. This paper examines a body of literature related to the ethical considerations surrounding the (...)
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  40.  10
    Ethics-Based Auditing to Develop Trustworthy AI.Jakob Mökander & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-5.
    A series of recent developments points towards auditing as a promising mechanism to bridge the gap between principles and practice in AI ethics. Building on ongoing discussions concerning ethics-based auditing, we offer three contributions. First, we argue that ethics-based auditing can improve the quality of decision making, increase user satisfaction, unlock growth potential, enable law-making, and relieve human suffering. Second, we highlight current best practices to support the design and implementation of ethics-based auditing: To be feasible (...)
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  41.  31
    How to Design AI for Social Good: Seven Essential Factors.Luciano Floridi, Josh Cowls, Thomas C. King & Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1771-1796.
    The idea of artificial intelligence for social good is gaining traction within information societies in general and the AI community in particular. It has the potential to tackle social problems through the development of AI-based solutions. Yet, to date, there is only limited understanding of what makes AI socially good in theory, what counts as AI4SG in practice, and how to reproduce its initial successes in terms of policies. This article addresses this gap by identifying seven ethical factors that are (...)
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  42.  34
    Utilising Appreciative Inquiry (AI) in Creating a Shared Meaning of Ethics in Organisations.L. J. van Vuuren & F. Crous - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (4):399-412.
    . The management of ethics within organisations typically occurs within a problem-solving frame of reference. This often results in a reactive, problem-based and externally induced approach to managing ethics. Although basing ethics management interventions on dealing with and preventing current and possible future unethical behaviour are often effective in that it ensures compliance with rules and regulations, the approach is not necessarily conducive to the creation of sustained ethical cultures. Nor does the approach afford (mainly internal) stakeholders (...)
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  43.  13
    Friendly AI.Barbro Fröding & Martin Peterson - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  44.  16
    Fully Autonomous AI.Wolfhart Totschnig - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2473-2485.
    In the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics, the term “autonomy” is generally used to mean the capacity of an artificial agent to operate independently of human guidance. It is thereby assumed that the agent has a fixed goal or “utility function” with respect to which the appropriateness of its actions will be evaluated. From a philosophical perspective, this notion of autonomy seems oddly weak. For, in philosophy, the term is generally used to refer to a stronger capacity, namely the (...)
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  45.  29
    A Misdirected Principle with a Catch: Explicability for AI.Scott Robbins - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):495-514.
    There is widespread agreement that there should be a principle requiring that artificial intelligence be ‘explicable’. Microsoft, Google, the World Economic Forum, the draft AI ethics guidelines for the EU commission, etc. all include a principle for AI that falls under the umbrella of ‘explicability’. Roughly, the principle states that “for AI to promote and not constrain human autonomy, our ‘decision about who should decide’ must be informed by knowledge of how AI would act instead of us” :689–707, 2018). (...)
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  46.  42
    Rethinking the I-You Relation Through Dialogical Philosophy in the Ethics of AI and Robotics.Kathleen Richardson - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):1-2.
  47. Health Care, Capabilities, and AI Assistive Technologies.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2010 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (2):181-190.
    Scenarios involving the introduction of artificially intelligent (AI) assistive technologies in health care practices raise several ethical issues. In this paper, I discuss four objections to introducing AI assistive technologies in health care practices as replacements of human care. I analyse them as demands for felt care, good care, private care, and real care. I argue that although these objections cannot stand as good reasons for a general and a priori rejection of AI assistive technologies as such or as replacements (...)
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  48. Ai Yu Zheng Yi: Nibuer Jidu Jiao Lun Li Si Xiang Yan Jiu = Love and Justice: A Study of Reinhold Niebuhr's Christian Ethics.Shigong Liu - 2004 - Zhongguo She Hui Ke Xue Chu Ban She.
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  49.  18
    A Misdirected Principle with a Catch: Explicability for AI.Scott Robbins - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):495-514.
    There is widespread agreement that there should be a principle requiring that artificial intelligence be ‘explicable’. Microsoft, Google, the World Economic Forum, the draft AI ethics guidelines for the EU commission, etc. all include a principle for AI that falls under the umbrella of ‘explicability’. Roughly, the principle states that “for AI to promote and not constrain human autonomy, our ‘decision about who should decide’ must be informed by knowledge of how AI would act instead of us” :689–707, 2018). (...)
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  50.  6
    Data Ethics Decision Aid (DEDA): A Dialogical Framework for Ethical Inquiry of AI and Data Projects in the Netherlands.Aline Shakti Franzke, Iris Muis & Mirko Tobias Schäfer - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    This contribution discusses the development of the Data Ethics Decision Aid, a framework for reviewing government data projects that considers their social impact, the embedded values and the government’s responsibilities in times of data-driven public management. Drawing from distinct qualitative research approaches, the DEDA framework was developed in an iterative process and has since then been applied by various Dutch municipalities, the Association of Dutch Municipalities, and the Ministry of General Affairs. We present the DEDA framework as an effective (...)
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