Results for 'AI ethics'

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  1.  29
    Utilising Appreciative Inquiry (AI) in Creating a Shared Meaning of Ethics in Organisations.L. J. van Vuuren & F. Crous - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (4):399-412.
    . The management of ethics within organisations typically occurs within a problem-solving frame of reference. This often results in a reactive, problem-based and externally induced approach to managing ethics. Although basing ethics management interventions on dealing with and preventing current and possible future unethical behaviour are often effective in that it ensures compliance with rules and regulations, the approach is not necessarily conducive to the creation of sustained ethical cultures. Nor does the approach afford (mainly internal) stakeholders (...)
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  2.  13
    From What to How: An Initial Review of Publicly Available AI Ethics Tools, Methods and Research to Translate Principles Into Practices.Jessica Morley, Luciano Floridi, Libby Kinsey & Anat Elhalal - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-28.
    The debate about the ethical implications of Artificial Intelligence dates from the 1960s :741–742, 1960; Wiener in Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine, MIT Press, New York, 1961). However, in recent years symbolic AI has been complemented and sometimes replaced by Neural Networks and Machine Learning techniques. This has vastly increased its potential utility and impact on society, with the consequence that the ethical debate has gone mainstream. Such a debate has primarily focused on principles—the (...)
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  3.  16
    Organic and dynamic tool for use with knowledge base of AI ethics for promoting engineers’ practice of ethical AI design.Kaira Sekiguchi & Koichi Hori - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):51-71.
    In recent years, ethical questions related to the development of artificial intelligence are being increasingly discussed. However, there has not been enough corresponding increase in the research and development associated with AI technology that incorporates with ethical discussion. We therefore implemented an organic and dynamic tool for use with knowledge base of AI ethics for engineers to promote engineers’ practice of ethical AI design to realize further social values. Here, “organic” means that the tool deals with complex relationships among (...)
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  4.  16
    The Ethics of AI Ethics: An Evaluation of Guidelines.Thilo Hagendorff - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-22.
    Current advances in research, development and application of artificial intelligence systems have yielded a far-reaching discourse on AI ethics. In consequence, a number of ethics guidelines have been released in recent years. These guidelines comprise normative principles and recommendations aimed to harness the “disruptive” potentials of new AI technologies. Designed as a semi-systematic evaluation, this paper analyzes and compares 22 guidelines, highlighting overlaps but also omissions. As a result, I give a detailed overview of the field of AI (...)
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  5. Toward an Ethics of AI Assistants: An Initial Framework.John Danaher - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (4):629-653.
    Personal AI assistants are now nearly ubiquitous. Every leading smartphone operating system comes with a personal AI assistant that promises to help you with basic cognitive tasks: searching, planning, messaging, scheduling and so on. Usage of such devices is effectively a form of algorithmic outsourcing: getting a smart algorithm to do something on your behalf. Many have expressed concerns about this algorithmic outsourcing. They claim that it is dehumanising, leads to cognitive degeneration, and robs us of our freedom and autonomy. (...)
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  6.  25
    Thinking About ‘Ethics’ in the Ethics of AI.Pak-Hang Wong & Judith Simon - 2020 - IDEES 48.
    A major international consultancy firm identified ‘AI ethicist’ as an essential position for companies to successfully implement artificial intelligence (AI) at the start of 2019. It declares that AI ethicists are needed to help companies navigate the ethical and social issues raised by the use of AI. Top 5 AI hires companies need to succeed in 2019. The view that AI is beneficial but nonetheless potentially harmful to individuals and society is widely shared by the industry, academia, governments, and civil (...)
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  7. The Debate on the Ethics of AI in Health Care: A Reconstruction and Critical Review.Jessica Morley, Caio C. V. Machado, Christopher Burr, Josh Cowls, Indra Joshi, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    Healthcare systems across the globe are struggling with increasing costs and worsening outcomes. This presents those responsible for overseeing healthcare with a challenge. Increasingly, policymakers, politicians, clinical entrepreneurs and computer and data scientists argue that a key part of the solution will be ‘Artificial Intelligence’ (AI) – particularly Machine Learning (ML). This argument stems not from the belief that all healthcare needs will soon be taken care of by “robot doctors.” Instead, it is an argument that rests on the classic (...)
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  8.  15
    On the Ethics of AI Ethics.Udo Schuklenk - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (2):146-147.
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  9.  20
    Social Impact Under Severe Uncertainty: The Role of Neuroethicists at the Intersection of Neuroscience, AI, Ethics, and Policymaking.Kristine Bærøe & Torbjørn Gundersen - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):117-119.
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  10.  12
    AI-Assisted Decision-Making in Healthcare: The Application of an Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research.Tamra Lysaght, Hannah Yeefen Lim, Vicki Xafis & Kee Yuan Ngiam - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (3):299-314.
    Artificial intelligence is set to transform healthcare. Key ethical issues to emerge with this transformation encompass the accountability and transparency of the decisions made by AI-based systems, the potential for group harms arising from algorithmic bias and the professional roles and integrity of clinicians. These concerns must be balanced against the imperatives of generating public benefit with more efficient healthcare systems from the vastly higher and accurate computational power of AI. In weighing up these issues, this paper applies the deliberative (...)
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  11.  8
    Ethics of AI and Cybersecurity When Sovereignty is at Stake.Paul Timmers - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):635-645.
    Sovereignty and strategic autonomy are felt to be at risk today, being threatened by the forces of rising international tensions, disruptive digital transformations and explosive growth of cybersecurity incidents. The combination of AI and cybersecurity is at the sharp edge of this development and raises many ethical questions and dilemmas. In this commentary, I analyse how we can understand the ethics of AI and cybersecurity in relation to sovereignty and strategic autonomy. The analysis is followed by policy recommendations, some (...)
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  12.  5
    Ethics of AI and Cybersecurity When Sovereignty is at Stake.Paul Timmers - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):635-645.
    Sovereignty and strategic autonomy are felt to be at risk today, being threatened by the forces of rising international tensions, disruptive digital transformations and explosive growth of cybersecurity incidents. The combination of AI and cybersecurity is at the sharp edge of this development and raises many ethical questions and dilemmas. In this commentary, I analyse how we can understand the ethics of AI and cybersecurity in relation to sovereignty and strategic autonomy. The analysis is followed by policy recommendations, some (...)
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  13.  8
    Ethics of AI and Cybersecurity When Sovereignty is at Stake.Paul Timmers - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):635-645.
    Sovereignty and strategic autonomy are felt to be at risk today, being threatened by the forces of rising international tensions, disruptive digital transformations and explosive growth of cybersecurity incidents. The combination of AI and cybersecurity is at the sharp edge of this development and raises many ethical questions and dilemmas. In this commentary, I analyse how we can understand the ethics of AI and cybersecurity in relation to sovereignty and strategic autonomy. The analysis is followed by policy recommendations, some (...)
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  14. The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on Ai, Robots, and Ethics.David J. Gunkel - 2012 - MIT Press.
    One of the enduring concerns of moral philosophy is deciding who or what is deserving of ethical consideration. Much recent attention has been devoted to the "animal question" -- consideration of the moral status of nonhuman animals. In this book, David Gunkel takes up the "machine question": whether and to what extent intelligent and autonomous machines of our own making can be considered to have legitimate moral responsibilities and any legitimate claim to moral consideration. The machine question poses a fundamental (...)
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  15.  23
    AI Assisted Ethics.Amitai Etzioni & Oren Etzioni - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (2):149-156.
    The growing number of ‘smart’ instruments, those equipped with AI, has raised concerns because these instruments make autonomous decisions; that is, they act beyond the guidelines provided them by programmers. Hence, the question the makers and users of smart instrument face is how to ensure that these instruments will not engage in unethical conduct. The article suggests that to proceed we need a new kind of AI program—oversight programs—that will monitor, audit, and hold operational AI programs accountable.
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  16.  6
    The Ethics of Medical AI and the Physician-Patient Relationship.Sally Dalton-Brown - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (1):115-121.
    :This article considers recent ethical topics relating to medical AI. After a general discussion of recent medical AI innovations, and a more analytic look at related ethical issues such as data privacy, physician dependency on poorly understood AI helpware, bias in data used to create algorithms post-GDPR, and changes to the patient–physician relationship, the article examines the issue of so-called robot doctors. Whereas the so-called democratization of healthcare due to health wearables and increased access to medical information might suggest a (...)
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  17. Ai Yu Zheng Yi: Nibuer Jidu Jiao Lun Li Si Xiang Yan Jiu = Love and Justice: A Study of Reinhold Niebuhr's Christian Ethics.Shigong Liu - 2004 - Zhongguo She Hui Ke Xue Chu Ban She.
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  18. Ethics of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.Vincent C. Müller - forthcoming - In Edward Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Palo Alto, Cal.: CSLI, Stanford University. pp. 1-31.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics are digital technologies that will be of major importance for the development of humanity in the near future. They have raised fundamental questions about what we should do with these systems, what the systems themselves should do, what risks they involve and how we can control these. - After the Introduction to the field (1), the main themes of this article are: (2) Ethical issues that arise with AI systems as objects, i.e. tools made and (...)
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  19. David J. Gunkel: The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics: MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2012, 272 Pp, ISBN-10: 0-262-01743-1, ISBN-13: 978-0-262-01743-5. [REVIEW]Mark Coeckelbergh - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3):235-238.
  20.  9
    Decentered Ethics in the Machine Era and Guidance for AI Regulation.Christian Hugo Hoffmann & Benjamin Hahn - forthcoming - AI and Society.
  21.  32
    Rethinking the I-You Relation Through Dialogical Philosophy in the Ethics of AI and Robotics.Kathleen Richardson - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):1-2.
  22.  10
    Questions Left Unanswered: The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics. David J. Gunkel. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012, 272 Pages, $35. [REVIEW]Jeffrey D. Gottlieb - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (2):163-166.
  23.  8
    Civic Ethics and the Implication of Moral Education in the Period of Robots and Artificial Intelligence -with Emphasis on Utilizing AI Robots-. 송선영 - 2017 - Journal of Ethics 1 (115):133-159.
  24.  3
    Questions Left Unanswered: The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics. David J. Gunkel. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012, 272 Pages, $35.Jeffrey D. Gottlieb - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (2):163-166.
  25. The Dilemma of Artificial Love: The Ethics of Love and Recognition in AI-Artificial Intelligence.L. Werner - 2005 - Film and Philosophy 9:44.
  26.  59
    The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics. By David J. Gunkel.Dominika Dzwonkowska - 2013 - International Philosophical Quarterly 53 (1):91-93.
  27.  2
    Ethics of AI in Transplant Matching: Is It Better or Just More of the Same?Dov Greenbaum & Maya Sherman - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (11):45-47.
    Volume 19, Issue 11, November 2019, Page 45-47.
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  28.  10
    Review of "The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics". [REVIEW]Peter H. Denton - 2014 - Essays in Philosophy 15 (1):179-183.
  29.  8
    Ai Nielsen's "Ethics Without God". [REVIEW]Robert A. Oakes - 1975 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 36 (2):274.
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  30. Invisible Influence: Artificial Intelligence and the Ethics of Adaptive Choice Architectures.Daniel Susser - 2019 - AIES: AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society 1.
    For several years, scholars have (for good reason) been largely preoccupied with worries about the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) tools to make decisions about us. Only recently has significant attention turned to a potentially more alarming problem: the use of AI/ML to influence our decision-making. The contexts in which we make decisions—what behavioral economists call our choice architectures—are increasingly technologically-laden. Which is to say: algorithms increasingly determine, in a wide variety of contexts, both the sets of (...)
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  31. Predictive Policing and the Ethics of Preemption.Daniel Susser - forthcoming - In Ben Jones & Eduardo Mendieta (eds.), The Ethics of Policing: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. New York, NY: NYU Press.
    The American justice system, from police departments to the courts, is increasingly turning to information technology for help identifying potential offenders, determining where, geographically, to allocate enforcement resources, assessing flight risk and the potential for recidivism amongst arrestees, and making other judgments about when, where, and how to manage crime. In particular, there is a focus on machine learning and other data analytics tools, which promise to accurately predict where crime will occur and who will perpetrate it. Activists and academics (...)
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  32. Transparent, Explainable, and Accountable AI for Robotics.Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt & Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Science (Robotics) 2 (6):eaan6080.
    To create fair and accountable AI and robotics, we need precise regulation and better methods to certify, explain, and audit inscrutable systems.
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  33. Friendly Superintelligent AI: All You Need is Love.Michael Prinzing - 2017 - In Vincent Müller (ed.), The Philosophy & Theory of Artificial Intelligence. Berlin: Springer. pp. 288-301.
    There is a non-trivial chance that sometime in the (perhaps somewhat distant) future, someone will build an artificial general intelligence that will surpass human-level cognitive proficiency and go on to become "superintelligent", vastly outperforming humans. The advent of superintelligent AI has great potential, for good or ill. It is therefore imperative that we find a way to ensure-long before one arrives-that any superintelligence we build will consistently act in ways congenial to our interests. This is a very difficult challenge in (...)
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  34.  51
    Automated Influence and the Challenge of Cognitive Security.Sarah Rajtmajer & Daniel Susser - forthcoming - HoTSoS: ACM Symposium on Hot Topics in the Science of Security.
    Advances in AI are powering increasingly precise and widespread computational propaganda, posing serious threats to national security. The military and intelligence communities are starting to discuss ways to engage in this space, but the path forward is still unclear. These developments raise pressing ethical questions, about which existing ethics frameworks are silent. Understanding these challenges through the lens of “cognitive security,” we argue, offers a promising approach.
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  35.  47
    AI Methods in Bioethics.Joshua August Skorburg, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong & Vincent Conitzer - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics: Empirical Bioethics 1 (11):37-39.
    Commentary about the role of AI in bioethics for the 10th anniversary issue of AJOB: Empirical Bioethics.
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  36.  8
    Moral Orthoses: A New Approach to Human and Machine Ethics.Marius Dorobantu & Yorick Wilks - 2019 - Zygon 54 (4):1004-1021.
  37. Rethinking Machine Ethics in the Era of Ubiquitous Technology.Jeffrey White (ed.) - 2015 - IGI.
  38.  61
    The Tragedy of the Master: Automation, Vulnerability, and Distance.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2015 - Ethics and Information Technology 17 (3):219-229.
    Responding to long-standing warnings that robots and AI will enslave humans, I argue that the main problem we face is not that automation might turn us into slaves but, rather, that we remain masters. First I construct an argument concerning what I call ‘the tragedy of the master’: using the master–slave dialectic, I argue that automation technologies threaten to make us vulnerable, alienated, and automated masters. I elaborate the implications for power, knowledge, and experience. Then I critically discuss and question (...)
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  39. Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence 2017.Vincent C. Müller (ed.) - 2017 - Berlin: Springer.
    This book reports on the results of the third edition of the premier conference in the field of philosophy of artificial intelligence, PT-AI 2017, held on November 4 - 5, 2017 at the University of Leeds, UK. It covers: advanced knowledge on key AI concepts, including complexity, computation, creativity, embodiment, representation and superintelligence; cutting-edge ethical issues, such as the AI impact on human dignity and society, responsibilities and rights of machines, as well as AI threats to humanity and AI safety; (...)
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  40.  45
    Martial Bliss: War and Peace in Popular Science Robotics. [REVIEW]Robert M. Geraci - 2011 - Philosophy and Technology 24 (3):339-354.
    In considering how to best deploy robotic systems in public and private sectors, we must consider what individuals will expect from the robots with which they interact. Public awareness of robotics—as both military machines and domestic helpers—emerges out of a braided stream composed of science fiction and popular science. These two genres influence news media, government and corporate spending, and public expectations. In the Euro-American West, both science fiction and popular science are ambivalent about the military applications for robotics, and (...)
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  41. Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence.Vincent Müller (ed.) - 2016 - Springer.
    [Müller, Vincent C. (ed.), (2016), Fundamental issues of artificial intelligence (Synthese Library, 377; Berlin: Springer). 570 pp.] -- This volume offers a look at the fundamental issues of present and future AI, especially from cognitive science, computer science, neuroscience and philosophy. This work examines the conditions for artificial intelligence, how these relate to the conditions for intelligence in humans and other natural agents, as well as ethical and societal problems that artificial intelligence raises or will raise. The key issues this (...)
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  42.  38
    Strange Loops: Apparent Versus Actual Human Involvement in Automated Decision-Making.Kiel Brennan-Marquez, Karen Levy & Daniel Susser - forthcoming - Berkeley Technology Law Journal.
    The era of AI-based decision-making fast approaches, and anxiety is mounting about when, and why, we should keep “humans in the loop” (“HITL”). Thus far, commentary has focused primarily on two questions: whether, and when, keeping humans involved will improve the results of decision-making (making them safer or more accurate), and whether, and when, non-accuracy-related values—legitimacy, dignity, and so forth—are vindicated by the inclusion of humans in decision-making. Here, we take up a related but distinct question, which has eluded the (...)
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  43. Supporting Human Autonomy in AI Systems.Rafael Calvo, Dorian Peters, Karina Vold & Richard M. Ryan - forthcoming - In Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi (eds.), Ethics of Digital Well-being: A Multidisciplinary Approach.
    Autonomy has been central to moral and political philosophy for millenia, and has been positioned as a critical aspect of both justice and wellbeing. Research in psychology supports this position, providing empirical evidence that autonomy is critical to motivation, personal growth and psychological wellness. Responsible AI will require an understanding of, and ability to effectively design for, human autonomy (rather than just machine autonomy) if it is to genuinely benefit humanity. Yet the effects on human autonomy of digital experiences are (...)
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  44. When is a Robot a Moral Agent.John P. Sullins - 2006 - International Review of Information Ethics 6 (12):23-30.
    In this paper Sullins argues that in certain circumstances robots can be seen as real moral agents. A distinction is made between persons and moral agents such that, it is not necessary for a robot to have personhood in order to be a moral agent. I detail three requirements for a robot to be seen as a moral agent. The first is achieved when the robot is significantly autonomous from any programmers or operators of the machine. The second is when (...)
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  45.  41
    What’s Wrong with Designing People to Serve?Bartek Chomanski - 2019 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 22 (4):993-1015.
    In this paper I argue, contrary to recent literature, that it is unethical to create artificial agents possessing human-level intelligence that are programmed to be human beings’ obedient servants. In developing the argument, I concede that there are possible scenarios in which building such artificial servants is, on net, beneficial. I also concede that, on some conceptions of autonomy, it is possible to build human-level AI servants that will enjoy full-blown autonomy. Nonetheless, the main thrust of my argument is that, (...)
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  46. Do Machines Have Prima Facie Duties?Gary Comstock - 2015 - In Machine Medical Ethics. London: Springer. pp. 79-92.
    A properly programmed artificially intelligent agent may eventually have one duty, the duty to satisfice expected welfare. We explain this claim and defend it against objections.
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  47.  71
    Social choice ethics in artificial intelligence.Seth D. Baum - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):165-176.
    A major approach to the ethics of artificial intelligence is to use social choice, in which the AI is designed to act according to the aggregate views of society. This is found in the AI ethics of “coherent extrapolated volition” and “bottom–up ethics”. This paper shows that the normative basis of AI social choice ethics is weak due to the fact that there is no one single aggregate ethical view of society. Instead, the design of social (...)
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  48.  20
    The Methods of Neuroethics: Is the Neuroscience of Ethics Really a New Challenge to Moral Philosophy?Sarah Songhorian - 2019 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 10 (1):1-15.
    : Within the otherwise lively debate on neuroethics, little attention has been devoted to the peculiar methodological issues and challenges it faces. My aim is to track down its methodological specificities. Firstly, I will investigate to which traditional debates neuroethics bears similarity and to what extent it actually represents a novelty in ethical thinking. While the ethics of neuroscience is akin to bioethics, the neuroscience of ethics seems akin to moral psychology. And yet they differ as far as (...)
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  49. Computing and Philosophy: Selected Papers From IACAP 2014.Vincent C. Müller (ed.) - 2016 - Springer.
    This volume offers very selected papers from the 2014 conference of the “International Association for Computing and Philosophy” (IACAP) - a conference tradition of 28 years. - - - Table of Contents - 0 Vincent C. Müller: - Editorial - 1) Philosophy of computing - 1 Çem Bozsahin: - What is a computational constraint? - 2 Joe Dewhurst: - Computing Mechanisms and Autopoietic Systems - 3 Vincenzo Fano, Pierluigi Graziani, Roberto Macrelli and Gino Tarozzi: - Are Gandy Machines really local? (...)
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  50. Conceptualizing Policy in Value Sensitive Design: A Machine Ethics Approach.Steven Umbrello - manuscript
    The value sensitive design (VSD) approach to designing transformative technologies for human values is taken as the object of study in this chapter. VSD has traditionally been conceptualized as another type of technology or instrumentally as a tool. The various parts of VSD’s principled approach would then aim to discern the various policy requirements that any given technological artifact under consideration would implicate. Yet, little to no consideration has been given to how laws, regulations, policies and social norms engage within (...)
     
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