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Aaron Sloman
University of Birmingham
  1. The Computer Revolution in Philosophy: Philosophy, Science, and Models of Mind.Aaron Sloman - 1978 - Hassocks UK: Harvester Press.
    Extract from Hofstadter's revew in Bulletin of American Mathematical Society : http://www.ams.org/journals/bull/1980-02-02/S0273-0979-1980-14752-7/S0273-0979-1980-14752-7.pdf -/- "Aaron Sloman is a man who is convinced that most philosophers and many other students of mind are in dire need of being convinced that there has been a revolution in that field happening right under their noses, and that they had better quickly inform themselves. The revolution is called "Artificial Intelligence" (Al)-and Sloman attempts to impart to others the "enlighten- ment" which he clearly regrets not having (...)
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  2.  41
    Motives, Mechanisms, and Emotions.Aaron Sloman - 1987 - Cognition and Emotion 1 (3):217-233.
  3.  27
    The Computer Revolution in Philosophy.Martin Atkinson & Aaron Sloman - 1980 - Philosophical Quarterly 30 (119):178.
  4. Virtual Machines and Consciousness.Aaron Sloman & Ronald L. Chrisley - 2003 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (4-5):133-172.
    Replication or even modelling of consciousness in machines requires some clarifications and refinements of our concept of consciousness. Design of, construction of, and interaction with artificial systems can itself assist in this conceptual development. We start with the tentative hypothesis that although the word “consciousness” has no well-defined meaning, it is used to refer to aspects of human and animal informationprocessing. We then argue that we can enhance our understanding of what these aspects might be by designing and building virtual-machine (...)
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  5.  79
    Why Robots Will Have Emotions.Aaron Sloman & Monica Croucher - 1981
    Emotions involve complex processes produced by interactions between motives, beliefs, percepts, etc. E.g. real or imagined fulfilment or violation of a motive, or triggering of a 'motive-generator', can disturb processes produced by other motives. To understand emotions, therefore, we need to understand motives and the types of processes they can produce. This leads to a study of the global architecture of a mind. Some constraints on the evolution of minds are disussed. Types of motives and the processes they generate are (...)
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  6. `Ought' and `Better'.Aaron Sloman - 1970 - Mind 79 (315):385-394.
  7.  27
    What Sorts of Machines Can Understand the Symbols They Use?Aaron Sloman & L. Jonathan Cohen - 1986 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 60 (1):61-96.
  8.  96
    Phenomenal and Access Consciousness and the "Hard" Problem: A View From the Designer Stance.Aaron Sloman - 2010 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 2 (1):117-169.
  9.  76
    An Alternative to Working on Machine Consciousness.Aaron Sloman - 2010 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 2 (1):1-18.
  10.  85
    The Mind as a Control System.Aaron Sloman - 1993 - In Christopher Hookway & Donald M. Peterson (eds.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Cambridge University Press. pp. 69-110.
    This is not a scholarly research paper, but a ‘position paper’ outlining an approach to the study of mind which has been gradually evolving since about 1969 when I first become acquainted with work in Artificial Intelligence through Max Clowes. I shall try to show why it is more fruitful to construe the mind as a control system than as a computational system.
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  11.  18
    The Mind as a Control System.Aaron Sloman - 1993 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 34:69-110.
    This is not a scholarly research paper, but a ‘position paper’ outlining an approach to the study of mind which has been gradually evolving since about 1969 when I first become acquainted with work in Artificial Intelligence through Max Clowes. I shall try to show why it is more fruitful to construe the mind as a control system than as a computational system.
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  12.  6
    The Computer Revolution in Philosophy: Philosophy, Science and Models of Mind.Aaron Sloman - 1978 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 30 (3):302-304.
  13.  6
    Interactions Between Philosophy and Artificial Intelligence: The Role of Intuition and Non-Logical Reasoning in Intelligence.Aaron Sloman - 1971 - Artificial Intelligence 2 (3-4):209-225.
  14.  81
    What Sort of Architecture is Required for a Human-Like Agent?Aaron Sloman - 1996 - In Ramakrishna K. Rao (ed.), Foundations of Rational Agency. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    This paper is about how to give human-like powers to complete agents. For this the most important design choice concerns the overall architecture. Questions regarding detailed mechanisms, forms of representations, inference capabilities, knowledge etc. are best addressed in the context of a global architecture in which different design decisions need to be linked. Such a design would assemble various kinds of functionality into a complete coherent working system, in which there are many concurrent, partly independent, partly mutually supportive, partly potentially (...)
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  15.  67
    Towards a Design-Based Analysis of Emotional Episodes.Ian Wright, Aaron Sloman & Luc Beaudoin - 1996 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (2):101-126.
    he design-based approach is a methodology for investigating mechanisms capable of generating mental phenomena, whether introspectively or externally observed, and whether they occur in humans, other animals or robots. The study of designs satisfying requirements for autonomous agency can provide new deep theoretical insights at the information processing level of description of mental mechanisms. Designs for working systems (whether on paper or implemented on computers) can systematically explicate old explanatory concepts and generate new concepts that allow new and richer interpretations (...)
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  16.  30
    What Sorts of Machines Can Understand the Symbols They Use?Aaron Sloman - 1986 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 60:61-80.
  17.  35
    What Sort of Architecture is Required for a Human-Like Agent?Aaron Sloman - 1998
    This paper is about how to give human-like powers to complete agents. For this the most important design choice concerns the overall architecture. Questions regarding detailed mechanisms, forms of representations, inference capabilities, knowledge etc. are best addressed in the context of a global architecture in which different design decisions need to be linked. Such a design would assemble various kinds of functionality into a complete coherent working system, in which there are many concurrent, partly independent, partly mutually supportive, partly potentially (...)
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  18.  49
    How to Turn an Information Processor Into an Understander.Aaron Sloman & Monica Croucher - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):447-448.
  19.  55
    Developing Concepts of Consciousness.Aaron Sloman - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):694-695.
  20.  88
    The Primacy of Non-Communicative Language.Aaron Sloman - 1979 - In M. MacCafferty & Kurt Gray (eds.), The Analysis of Meaning: Informatics 5, Proceedings Aslib/Bcs Conference. Aslib.
  21.  28
    Beyond Turing Equivalence.Aaron Sloman - 1996 - In Peter Millican Andy Clark (ed.), Machines and Thought The Legacy of Alan Turing. Oxford University Press. pp. 1--179.
    What is the relation between intelligence and computation? Although the difficulty of defining `intelligence' is widely recognized, many are unaware that it is hard to give a satisfactory definition of `computational' if computation is supposed to provide a non-circular explanation for intelligent abilities. The only well-defined notion of `computation' is what can be generated by a Turing machine or a formally equivalent mechanism. This is not adequate for the key role in explaining the nature of mental processes, because it is (...)
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  22. Physicalism and the Bogey of Determinism.Aaron Sloman - unknown
    This paper rehearses some relatively old arguments about how any coherent notion of free will is not only compatible with but depends on determinism. However the mind-brain identity theory is attacked on the grounds that what makes a physical event an intended action A is that the agent interprets the physical phenomena as doing A. The paper should have referred to the monograph Intention by Elizabeth Anscombe, which discusses in detail the fact that the same physical event can have multiple (...)
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  23. The Irrelevance of Turing Machines to AI.Aaron Sloman - 2002 - In Matthias Scheutz (ed.), Computationalism: New Directions. MIT Press.
  24.  97
    Toward a General Theory of Representations.Aaron Sloman - 1994 - In D. M. Peterson (ed.), Forms of representation: an interdisciplinary theme for Cognitive Science. Exeter: Intellect Books. pp. 118-140.
    This position paper presents the beginnings of a general theory of representations starting from the notion that an intelligent agent is essentially a control system with multiple control states, many of which contain information (both factual and non-factual), albeit not necessarily in a propositional form. The paper attempts to give a general characterisation of the notion of the syntax of an information store, in terms of types of variation the relevant mechanisms can cope with. Similarly concepts of semantics pragmatics and (...)
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  25.  74
    Architecture-Based Conceptions of Mind.Aaron Sloman - 2002 - In Peter Gardenfors, Katarzyna Kijania-Placek & Jan Wolenski (eds.), In the Scope of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science (Vol Ii). Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  26.  23
    How Many Separately Evolved Emotional Beasties Live Within Us.Aaron Sloman - 2002 - In Robert Trappl (ed.), Emotions in Humans and Artifacts. Bradford Book/Mit Press. pp. 35--114.
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  27. What Cognitive Scientists Need to Know About Virtual Machines.Aaron Sloman - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1210--1215.
  28. [Book Chapter].Aaron Sloman - 1995
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  29. Virtual Machine Functionalism: The Only Form of Functionalism Worth Taking Seriously in Philosophy of Mind.Aaron Sloman -
    Most philosophers appear to have ignored the distinction between the broad concept of Virtual Machine Functionalism (VMF) described in Sloman&Chrisley (2003) and the better known version of functionalism referred to there as Atomic State Functionalism (ASF), which is often given as an explanation of what Functionalism is, e.g. in Block (1995). -/- One of the main differences is that ASF encourages talk of supervenience of states and properties, whereas VMF requires supervenience of machines that are arbitrarily complex networks of causally (...)
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  30. How to Dispose of the Free Will Issue.Aaron Sloman - 1993 - AISB Quarterlye 82:31-2.
  31.  96
    Prolegomena to a Theory of Communication and Affect.Aaron Sloman - 1992 - In Andrew Ortony, Jon Slack & Oliviero Stock (eds.), Communication from an Artificial Intelligence Perspective: Theoretical and Applied Issues. Springer.
    As a step towards comprehensive computer models of communication, and effective human machine dialogue, some of the relationships between communication and affect are explored. An outline theory is presented of the architecture that makes various kinds of affective states possible, or even inevitable, in intelligent agents, along with some of the implications of this theory for various communicative processes. The model implies that human beings typically have many different, hierarchically organized, dispositions capable of interacting with new information to produce affective (...)
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  32. The Emperor's Real Mind -- Review of Roger Penrose's The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers Minds and the Laws of Physics.Aaron Sloman - 1992 - Artificial Intelligence 56 (2-3):355-396.
    "The Emperor's New Mind" by Roger Penrose has received a great deal of both praise and criticism. This review discusses philosophical aspects of the book that form an attack on the "strong" AI thesis. Eight different versions of this thesis are distinguished, and sources of ambiguity diagnosed, including different requirements for relationships between program and behaviour. Excessively strong versions attacked by Penrose (and Searle) are not worth defending or attacking, whereas weaker versions remain problematic. Penrose (like Searle) regards the notion (...)
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  33.  62
    What Are Emotion Theories About?Aaron Sloman - manuscript
    findings from affective neuroscience research. I shall focus mainly on, but in a manner which, I hope is.
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  34. Towards a Grammar of Emotions.Aaron Sloman - 1982 - New Universities Quarterly 36 (3):230-238.
    My favourite leading question when teaching Philosophy of Mind is ‘Could a goldfish long for its mother?’ This introduces the philosophical technique of ‘conceptual analysis’, essential for the study of mind (Sloman 1978, ch. 4). By analysing what we mean by ‘A longs for B’, and similar descriptions of emotional states we see that they inv olve rich cognitive structures and processes, i.e. computations. Anything which could long for its mother, would have to hav e some sort of representation of (...)
     
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  35.  74
    The Irrelevance of Turing Machines to Artificial Intelligence.Aaron Sloman - 2002 - In Matthias Scheutz (ed.), Computationalism: New Directions. MIT Press.
    The common view that the notion of a Turing machine is directly relevant to AI is criticised. It is argued that computers are the result of a convergence of two strands of development with a long history: development of machines for automating various physical processes and machines for performing abstract operations on abstract entities, e.g. doing numerical calculations. Various aspects of these developments are analysed, along with their relevance to AI, and the similarities between computers viewed in this way and (...)
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  36.  49
    Altricial Self-Organising Information-Processing Systems ∗.Aaron Sloman - unknown
    It is often thought that there is one key design principle or at best a small set of design principles, underlying the success of biological organisms. Candidates include neural nets, ‘swarm intelligence’, evolutionary computation, dynamical systems, particular types of architecture or use of a powerful uniform learning mechanism, e.g. reinforcement learning. All of those support types of self-organising, self-modifying behaviours. But we are nowhere near understanding the full variety of powerful information-processing principles ‘discovered’ by evolution. By attending closely to the (...)
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  37.  24
    Musings on the Roles of Logical and Non-Logical Representations in Intelligence.Aaron Sloman - 1995 - In [Book Chapter].
    This paper offers a short and biased overview of the history of discussion and controversy about the role of different forms of representation in intelligent agents. It repeats and extends some of the criticisms of the `logicist' approach to AI that I first made in 1971, while also defending logic for its power and generality. It identifies some common confusions regarding the role of visual or diagrammatic reasoning including confusions based on the fact that different forms of representation may be (...)
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  38. Must Intelligent Systems Be Scruffy.Aaron Sloman - 1990 - In J. E. Tiles, G. T. McKee & G. C. Dean (eds.), Evolving Knowledge in Natural Science and Artificial Intelligence. Pitman. pp. 17.
     
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  39.  58
    Knowing and Understanding Relations Between Meaning and Truth, Meaning and Necessary Truth, Meaning and Synthetic Necessary Truth.Aaron Sloman - unknown
    The aim of the thesis is to show that there are some synthetic necessary truths, or that synthetic apriori knowledge is possible. This is really a pretext for an investigation into the general connection between meaning and truth, or between understanding and knowing, which, as pointed out in the preface, is really the first stage in a more general enquiry concerning meaning. After the preliminaries, in which the problem is stated and some methodological remarks made, the investigation proceeds in two (...)
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  40.  25
    What Sort of Control System is Able to Have a Personality?Aaron Sloman - 1996 - In [Book Chapter].
    This paper outlines a design-based methodology for the study of mind as a part of the broad discipline of Artificial Intelligence. Within that framework some architectural requirements for human-like minds are discussed, and some preliminary suggestions made regarding mechanisms underlying motivation, emotions, and personality. A brief description is given of the `Nursemaid' or `Minder' scenario being used at the University of Birmingham as a framework for research on these problems. It may be possible later to combine some of these ideas (...)
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  41.  54
    A Philosophical Encounter: An Interactive Presentation of Some of the Key Philosophical Problems in Ai and Ai Problems in Philosophy.Aaron Sloman - unknown
    This paper, along with the following paper by John McCarthy, introduces some of the topics to be discussed at the IJCAI95 event `A philosophical encounter: An interactive presentation of some of the key philosophical problems in AI and AI problems in philosophy.' Philosophy needs AI in order to make progress with many difficult questions about the nature of mind, and AI needs philosophy in order to help clarify goals, methods, and concepts and to help with several specific technical problems. Whilst (...)
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  42.  23
    Orthogonal Recombinable Competences Acquired by Altricial Species: Blankets, String and Plywood.Aaron Sloman - manuscript
    CONJECTURE: Alongside the innate physical sucking reflex for obtaining milk to be digested, decomposed and used all over the body for growth, repair, and energy, there is a genetically determined information-sucking reflex, which seeks out, sucks in, and decomposes information, which is later recombined in many ways, growing the information-processing architecture and many diverse recombinable competences.
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  43.  44
    'Necessary', 'A Priori' and 'Analytic'.Aaron Sloman - 1965 - Analysis 26 (1):12 - 16.
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  44. The Well-Designed Young Mathematician.Aaron Sloman - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence 172 (18):2015-2034.
  45.  50
    The ``Semantics'' of Evolution: Trajectories and Trade-Offs in Design Space and Niche Space.Aaron Sloman - unknown
    This paper attempts to characterise a unifying overview of the practice of software engineers, AI designers, developers of evolutionary forms of computation, designers of adaptive systems, etc. The topic overlaps with theoretical biology, developmental psychology and perhaps some aspects of social theory. Just as much of theoretical computer science follows the lead of engineering intuitions and tries to formalise them, there are also some important emerging high level cross disciplinary ideas about natural information processing architectures and evolutionary mechanisms and that (...)
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  46.  36
    How to Derive "Better" From "Is".Aaron Sloman - 1969 - American Philosophical Quarterly 6 (1):43 - 52.
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  47. Evolution: The Computer Systems Engineer Designing Minds.Aaron Sloman - 2011 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 2 (2):45–69.
    What we have learnt in the last six or seven decades about virtual machinery, as a result of a great deal of science and technology, enables us to offer Darwin a new defence against critics who argued that only physical form, not mental capabilities and consciousness could be products of evolution by natural selection. The defence compares the mental phenomena mentioned by Darwin’s opponents with contents of virtual machinery in computing systems. Objects, states, events, and processes in virtual machinery which (...)
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  48. Comments on “The Emulating Interview... With Rick Grush”.Aaron Sloman - 2011 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 2 (2):35–44.
    Author comments Rick Grush’s statements about emulation and embodied approach to representation. He proposes his modification of Grush’s definition of emulation, criticizing notion of “standing in for”. He defends of notion of representation. He claims that radical embodied theories are not applicable to all cognition.
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  49.  42
    IV—Explaining Logical Necessity.Aaron Sloman - 1969 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 69 (1):33-50.
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  50.  77
    A First Draft Analysis of Some Meta-Requirements for Cognitive Systems in Robots (An Exercise in Logical Topography Analysis. ).Aaron Sloman & David Vernon - unknown
    This is a contribution to construction of a research roadmap for future cognitive systems, including intelligent robots, in the context of the euCognition network, and UKCRC Grand Challenge 5: Architecture of Brain and Mind. -/- A meeting on the euCognition roadmap project was held at Munich Airport on 11th Jan 2007. This document was in part a response to discussions at that meeting. An explanation of why specifying requirements is a hard problem, and why it needs to be done, along (...)
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