We present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency, a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency within the object language. We shall defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency are theories of logical consequence of normative and epistemic character. This approach not only allows us to make inferences in the presence of contradictions, but offers a philosophically acceptable account of paraconsistency.
Exploramos aqui as conexões do mito de Prometeu com o nascimento do iluminismo ocidental. O estudo tem como base as obras de Hesíodo e Ésquilo, a partir das interpretações de Werner Jaeger e Junito Brandão. Nos poemas de Hesíodo, Prometeu é aquele titã que roubou o fogo de Zeus para entregá-lo à humanidade. Por este gesto, Prometeu e seus protegidos são duramente castigados por Zeus. Assim, mergulhados em um mundo de incontáveis e incontornáveis males, os homens, honestos, conquistam a esperança (...) de uma boa vida através do trabalho infatigável. Na tragédia de Ésquilo, Prometeu é apresentado como o iluminador e protetor da humanidade. Multi-sábio foi ele quem deu pensamento aos homens, pois estes faziam tudo sem razão. Todas as técnicas e artes humanas são devidas a Prometeu, o previdente. Aqui o mito revela o fundo a partir do qual brota a sabedoria humana: o sofrimento e a dor. No mito, revela-se, de modo essencial, a exigência do trabalho e a presença do sofrimento como condições de uma existência humana definida e considerada do ponto de vista do iluminismo. A sabedoria é a força capaz de fazer o homem superar os obstáculos e as adversidades. Prometeu representa, dessa forma, uma imagem primordial da condição humana cuja sabedoria é conquistada pelo trabalho e pela dor. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to present and analyze the truthmaker monism , a result according to which any truthmaker makes true any true proposition. Truthmaker monism depends on the characterization of the truthmaking relation in terms of strict implication, the principle of excluded middle and the so called disjunction thesis. I will restrict the discussion to a theory of truthmakers of empirical truths and I will argue that, in the scope of such a theory, the problem does not (...) lie in the use of strict implication neither in the excluded middle but, rather, in the disjunction thesis, that must be rejected. (shrink)
This papers’ goal is to present a survey of the contemporary discussions regarding truthmakers. The emphasis will be on the characterization of the truthmaking relation and on the problems involved in universal propositions and negations.
This paper reviews the central points and presents some recent developments of the epistemic approach to paraconsistency in terms of the preservation of evidence. Two formal systems are surveyed, the basic logic of evidence (BLE) and the logic of evidence and truth (LET J ), designed to deal, respectively, with evidence and with evidence and truth. While BLE is equivalent to Nelson’s logic N4, it has been conceived for a different purpose. Adequate valuation semantics that provide decidability are given for (...) both BLE and LET J . The meanings of the connectives of BLE and LET J , from the point of view of preservation of evidence, is explained with the aid of an inferential semantics. A formalization of the notion of evidence for BLE as proposed by M. Fitting is also reviewed here. As a novel result, the paper shows that LET J is semantically characterized through the so-called Fidel structures. Some opportunities for further research are also discussed. (shrink)
The purpose of this paper is to present a paraconsistent formal system and a corresponding intended interpretation according to which true contradictions are not tolerated. Contradictions are, instead, epistemically understood as conflicting evidence, where evidence for a proposition A is understood as reasons for believing that A is true. The paper defines a paraconsistent and paracomplete natural deduction system, called the Basic Logic of Evidence, and extends it to the Logic of Evidence and Truth. The latter is a logic of (...) formal inconsistency and undeterminedness that is able to express not only preservation of evidence but also preservation of truth. LETj is anti-dialetheist in the sense that, according to the intuitive interpretation proposed here, its consequence relation is trivial in the presence of any true contradiction. Adequate semantics and a decision method are presented for both BLE and LETj, as well as some technical results that fit the intended interpretation. (shrink)
In this paper we present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency, a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency within the object language in such a way that consistency may be logically independent of non-contradiction. We defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency may be interpreted as theories of logical consequence of an epistemological character. We also argue that in order to philosophically justify (...) paraconsistency there is no need to endorse dialetheism, the thesis that there are true contradictions. Furthermore, we show that mbC, a logic of formal inconsistency based on classical logic, may be enhanced in order to express the basic ideas of an intuitive interpretation of contradictions as conflicting evidence. (shrink)
In a forthcoming paper, Walter Carnielli and Abilio Rodrigues propose a Basic Logic of Evidence whose natural deduction rules are thought of as preserving evidence instead of truth. BLE turns out to be equivalent to Nelson’s paraconsistent logic N4, resulting from adding strong negation to Intuitionistic logic without Intuitionistic negation. The Carnielli/Rodrigues understanding of evidence is informal. Here we provide a formal alternative, using justification logic. First we introduce a modal logic, KX4, in which \ can be read as asserting (...) there is implicit evidence for X, where we understand evidence to permit contradictions. We show BLE embeds into KX4 in the same way that Intuitionistic logic embeds into S4. Then we formulate a new justification logic, JX4, in which the implicit evidence motivating KX4 is made explicit. KX4 embeds into JX4 via a realization theorem. Thus BLE has both implicit and explicit possibly contradictory evidence interpretations in a formal sense. (shrink)
In a recent work, Walter Carnielli and Abilio Rodrigues present an epistemically motivated interpretation of paraconsistent logic. In their view, when there is conflicting evidence with regard to a proposition A (i.e. when there is both evidence in favor of A and evidence in favor of ￢A) both A and ￢A should be accepted without thereby accepting any proposition B whatsoever. Hence, reasoning within their system intends to mirror, and thus, should be constrained by, the way in which we reason (...) about evidence. In this article we will thoroughly discuss their position and suggest some ways in which this project can be further developed. The aim of the paper is twofold. On the one hand, we will present some philosophical critiques to the specific epistemic interpretation of paraconsistent logic proposed by Carnielli & Rodrigues. First, we will contend that Carnielli & Rodrigues’s interpretation implies a thesis about what evidence rationally justifies to accept or believe, called Extreme Permissivism, which is controversial among epistemologists. Second, we will argue that what agents should do, from an epistemic point of view, when faced with conflicting evidence, is to suspend judgment. On the other hand, despite these criticisms we do not believe that the epistemological motivation put forward by Carnielli & Rodrigues is entirely wrong. In the last section, we offer an alternative way in which one might account for the epistemic rationality of accepting contradictions and, thus, for an epistemic understanding of paraconsistency, which leads us to discuss the notion of diachronic epistemic rationality. (shrink)
There are two foundational, but not fully developed, ideas in paraconsistency, namely, the duality between paraconsistent and intuitionistic paradigms, and the introduction of logical operators that express meta-logical notions in the object language. The aim of this paper is to show how these two ideas can be adequately accomplished by the Logics of Formal Inconsistency (LFIs) and by the Logics of Formal Undeterminedness (LFUs). LFIs recover the validity of the principle of explosion in a paraconsistent scenario, while LFUs recover the (...) validity of the principle of excluded middle in a paracomplete scenario. We introduce definitions of duality between inference rules and connectives that allow comparing rules and connectives that belong to different logics. Two formal systems are studied, the logics mbC and mbD, that display the duality between paraconsistency and paracompleteness as a duality between inference rules added to a common core– in the case studied here, this common core is classical positive propositional logic (CPL + ). The logics mbC and mbD are equipped with recovery operators that restore classical logic for, respectively, consistent and determined propositions. These two logics are then combined obtaining a pair of logics of formal inconsistency and undeterminedness (LFIUs), namely, mbCD and mbCDE. The logic mbCDE exhibits some nice duality properties. Besides, it is simultaneously paraconsistent and paracomplete, and able to recover the principles of excluded middle and explosion at once. The last sections offer an algebraic account for such logics by adapting the swap-structures semantics framework of the LFIs the LFUs. This semantics highlights some subtle aspects of these logics, and allows us to prove decidability by means of finite non-deterministic matrices. (shrink)
In this paper we present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency, a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency within the object language in such a way that consistency may be logically independent of non- contradiction. We defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency may be interpreted as theories of logical consequence of an epistemological character. We also argue that in order to philosophically (...) justify paraconsistency there is no need to endorse dialetheism, the thesis that there are true contradictions. Furthermore, we argue that an intuitive reading of the bivalued semantics for the logic mbC, a logic of formal inconsistency based on classical logic, fits in well with the basic ideas of an intuitive interpretation of contradictions. On this interpretation, the acceptance of a pair of propositions A and ¬A does not mean that A is simultaneously true and false, but rather that there is conflicting evidence about the truth value of A. (shrink)
Utopía, la posibilidad de la imposibilidad: una lectura desde Thomas More, es un trabajo que muestra, por un lado, la vitalidad de la utopía; por otro lado se destaca su grado de necesidad en la sociedad contemporánea. La Utopía de Thomas More se presenta como un paradigma del pensamiento utópico, y del influjo que éste ejerce en las diferentes sociedades. Además, ésta se yergue como el epítome de toda posibilidad de visualizar un mejor mundo, es la máxima expresión de la (...) simbología del Renacimiento y es la obra cumbre del humanismo de aquel período histórico. La utopía no es la simple imposibilidad que sugiere su construcción semántica. Utopía es la posibilidad de construir el mejor mundo posible, de volver a ubicar en su perspectiva correcta la esperanza y toda la capacidad simbólica del género humano. (shrink)
Harmful but culturally cherished practices often endure in spite of the damages they cause. Meat consumption is increasingly becoming one of such cases and may provide an opportunity from which to observe these phenomena. Growing evidence indicates that current and projected production and consumption patterns are important contributors to significant environmental problems, public health degradation, and animal suffering. Our aim is to contribute to a further understanding of the psychological factors that may hinder or promote personal disposition to change food (...) habits to benefit each of these domains. Drawing from previous evidence, this study explores the proposition that some consumers are motivated to resort to moral disengagement strategies when called upon to consider the impacts of their food habits. Data were collected from six semi-structured focus groups with a sample of 40 participants. Although affirming personal duties towards preserving the environment, promoting public health, and safeguarding animal welfare, participants did not show personal disposition to change their meat consumption habits. Several patterns of response that resonate with the principles of moral disengagement theory were observed while discussing impacts and the possibility of change. Results seem to support the proposition that the process of moral disengagement may play a role in hindering openness to change food habits for the benefit of the environment, public health, and animals, and point towards the relevance of further exploring this approach. (shrink)
Resumo Neste trabalho procura-se, de forma introdutória, uma via de acesso para a compreensão da condição humana a partir da leitura crítica ao iluminismo ocidental realizada por Marx, Nietzsche e Freud. Para tanto, explora-se inicialmente o problema da emergência da subjetividade iluminista no contexto da cultura grega como fenômeno agonístico e indica-se o nascimento da tradição iluminista a partir das obras de Hesíodo e Ésquilo. Em seguida, discute-se a posição da modernidade ilustrada desde a perspectiva kantiana. Desde então, elabora-se a (...) crítica à concepção iluminista a partir das ideias nucleares de Marx, Nietzsche e Freud. Nesta crítica destaca-se o papel central das relações de produção econômicas, da vontade de poder e dos instintos na determinação e na compreensão da subjetividade humana. O legado comum dessas três filosofias magnas aponta para o desmantelamento da subjetividade iluminista e, assim, para uma compreensão da condição humana, situada no horizonte de uma nova racionalidade, na qual a razão deixa de ocupar o lugar principal. Palavras-chave : condição humana, Iluminismo, inconsciente. instintos, razão, vontade de poderThis paper searches for, in an introductory way, a path toward understanding the human condition from critical reading of the Western Enlightenment presented by Marx, Nietzsche and Freud. For this purpose, the paper initially explores the problem of emergence of Enlightenment subjectivity in the context of Greek culture as an agonistic phenomenon and indicates the birth of the Enlightenment tradition from the works of Hesiod and Aeschylus. Then the position of modernity illustrated from the Kantian perspective is discussed. After that, the paper elaborates a critique of the Enlightenment conception departing from the core ideas of Marx, Nietzsche and Freud. This critique highlights the central role of economic relations of production, the will to power and instincts in determining and understanding of human subjectivity. The common heritage of these three magna philosophies points to the dismantlement of Enlightenment subjectivity and thus to an understanding of the human condition, situated on the horizon of a new rationality, in which reason ceases to occupy main place. Keywords : Enlightenment, human condition, instinct, reason, unconscious. will to power. (shrink)
Das várias possibilidades de abordagem da sala de aula, a análise do ambiente de aprendizagem tem sido uma das opções de trabalho no campo educacional. Esta investigação tem como finalidade comprovar se o ambiente da sala de aula, bem como algumas variáveis sociodemográficas, são relevantes na explicação do rendimento acadêmico dos alunos. Para avaliar o ambiente da sala de aula foi utilizado o APSA – Escala do Ambiente Psicossociológico da Sala de Aula . Foi seleccionada uma amostra correspondente a 336 (...) alunos do ensino obrigatório português , de duas escolas públicas do norte de Portugal. O objectivo foi orientado para a comprovação da viabilidade do modelo de equações estruturais , onde foram hipotetizadas e especificadas determinadas relações causais. Constatou-se que o ambiente da sala de aula tem um impacto positivo e significativo no rendimento académico dos alunos. (shrink)