An Introduction to Islamic Philosophy: Based on the Works of Murtada Mutahhari, by Abd al-Rasul Obudiyyat, is a useful guide to the ways in which philosophy is taught in much of the Islamic world, and in particular in what is surely the center of Islamic philosophy, Iran. Mutahhari is an important twentieth-century thinker and his grasp of Islamic philosophy is displayed nicely in this volume, although it has to be said it is not actually by him. It is a (...) selection of his writings from various places, and the author makes it clear that he has gathered together Mutahhari's views and arguments and put them together here in a concise and clear way. To a large extent the style of the text reflects the fact that it is a... (shrink)
It would not be an overstatement to say that Mulla Sadra’s metaphysical system—commonly known as transcendent philosophy or transcendent wisdom (hikmat muta‘aliyyah)—is founded on the fundamentality of existence and the subjectivity of quiddity or whatness. I will begin this essay by drawing a rather simple picture of this principle under the title “A Common Error.” Then I will proceed by explaining its background and the reasoning supporting it, while offering a more detailed elucidation of the problem. The essay will end (...) by examining two recent interpretations that have gone to extremes in describing quiddity’s subjective nature. (shrink)
This paper attempts to rethink the philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal and challenge the still prevailing tendency in Iqbal scholarship to view it merely as an outcome of the influence of the ideas of various Western/European philosophers. I present Iqbal’s arguments in their particular historical and intellectual context to show that they developed in response to a specific philosophical problem and that Iqbal looked for a solution to that problem in Islamic tradition. I suggest that Iqbal’s philosophy is best understood in (...) the context of, and as a response to, the problem of nihilism as it was debated in modern German philosophy during ‘the pantheism controversy’ in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. To demonstrate this, I analyse Iqbal’s article on ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Jīlī to show his concern with the problem of nihilism, and his solution to it based on al-Jīlī’s Sufism. (shrink)
The explanation of the relationship between God and humans, as portrayed in Islam, is often influenced by the images of God and of human beings which theologians, philosophers and mystics have in mind. The early period of Islam disclose a diversity of interpretations of this relationship. Thinkers from the tenth and eleventh century had the privilege of disclosing different facets of the relationship between humans and the divine. God and Humans in Islamic Thought discusses the view of three different scholars (...) of the time: Abd al-Jabbar, Ibn Sina and Al-Ghazali. The relationships discussed in this work are: divine assistance, lu³f, according to 'Abd al-Jabbar; human love and attraction to the divine, 'ishq, according to Ibn Sina, and finally the mystical annihilation of the self in the divine unity, fana', of al-Ghazali. They introduce three approaches of looking at this relationship. In order to perceive these concepts, their perception of God and of the human nature will also be examined here. The starting-point of this research was the desire to set forth a variety of possible relationships which are all in accordance with Islamic belief, but nevertheless demonstrate diversity in understanding the relationship between the human and the divine which in turn suggests the concept of plurality within one religion. Examining these three concepts, which build firm connections between God and humans, reveals the importance of rational inquiry in medieval Islamic thought, not only because it was a source of logical arguments for Islam against its opponents but mainly because it built different bridges leading to God. God and Humans in Islamic Thought attempts to shed light on an important side of medieval rational thought in demonstrating its significance in forming the basis of an understanding of the nature of God, the nature of human beings and the construction of different bridges between them. (shrink)
In _Knowing God_, Ismail Lala investigates the nature of God and whether we can truly know Him according to the influential mystic, Muḥyī al-Dīn ibn ʿArabī, and his disciple, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī.
The present work provides a detailed account of the available data on ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-Baġdādī’s biography, an outline of his philosophical thought, and a detailed analysis of his reworking of pre-Avicennian Greek and Arabic metaphysics.
Los califas almohades afirmaron pertenecer a la tribu árabe de Qays cAylān por descendencia agnática. Qays cAylān no incluye a la tribu de Qurayš, con la que los mu'miníes afirmaban estar emparentados por línea materna. Según la doctrina clásica del califato, recogida por ejemplo por Ibn Hazm, los califas deben ser qurayšíes por línea paterna. En este artículo se analizan las ventajas que ofrecía a los califas mu'miníes esa ascendencia qaysí, de larga tradición entre las poblaciones beréberes del Norte de (...) África. Entre esas ventajas se cuentan la vinculación de parentesco con las tribus árabes de Sulaym y Hilāl, elementos fundamentales del ejército mu'miní, y con el profeta árabe pre-islámico Jālid b. Sinān al-cAbsī. (shrink)
Since Ibn Mattawayh and Mm up until George Hourani and Marie Bernand, there is an unstoppable interest among scholars towards r theory of knowledge. This interest has increased after the publication of the works of the late Mub al-Mu Ul al-D and Kitaffu al-rAbd al-Jabb and other sources from his students and the late MuAbd al-JabbAbd al-Jabbn).
A study of the opinions of a prominent tenth-century scholar pertaining to different aspects of pain, including his theological explanation of the existence of human suffering as well as a historical survey of his Bahšamiyya Mu‘tazila school.
This paper sets out to chart the fortunes of one of the most significant moral propositions in Mu'tazilite moral theory — namely, that it is evil to lie, and it is evil irrespective of the consequences of so doing. The reasons which promote this principle to significance relate to the broader context of Mu'tazilite theological orientation, which aims to vindicate God's justice through demonstrating that moral value does not derive from revelation. Yet this principle suffers the difficulties which commonly afflict (...) deontological precepts, particularly the challenges posed by their conflict with teleological moral demands in certain situations, as well as the difficulty of empirically ascertaining that a moral principle has in fact given the agent his reason for action, as the Mu'tazilites attempt to do. These were difficulties which Aš'arite critics of Mu'tazilite moral claims were quick to pick up on, and it is in the light of such hostile fire that the coherence of the Mu'tazilite position on the evilness of lies is examined. This is the principal focus of this essay, and it is complemented by an examination of how the principle carries over to the realm of divine morality: can God tell a lie? If not, why not? And what does this reveal about the ordering of moral values in Mu'tazilite thought? (shrink)