Results for 'Accommodation'

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  1. Against Accommodation: Heim, van der Sandt, and the Presupposition Projection Problem.Christopher Gauker - 2008 - Philosophical Perspectives 22 (1):171 - 205.
    This paper criticizes the dominant approaches to presupposition projection and proposes an alternative. Both the update semantics of Heim and the discourse representation theory of van der Sandt have problems in explicating the presuppositions of disjunctions. Moreover, Heim's approach is committed to a conception of accommodation that founders on the problem of informative presuppositions, and van der Sandt's approach is committed to a conception of accommodation that generates over-interpretations of utterances. The present approach borrows Karttunen's idea that instead (...)
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  2.  66
    How to Establish Authority with Words: Imperative Utterances and Presupposition Accommodation.Maciej Witek - 2013 - In Anna Brożek (ed.), Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science at Warsaw University, Warszawa 2013. pp. 145-157.
    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims at providing an account of an indirect mechanism responsible for establishing one's power to issue biding directive acts; second, it is intended as a case for an externalist account of illocutionary interaction. The mechanism in question is akin to what David Lewis calls presupposition accommodation: a rule-governed process whereby the context of an utterance is adjusted to make the utterance acceptable; the main idea behind the proposed account is that (...)
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  3.  25
    The Case for Reasonable Accommodation of Conscientious Objections to Declarations of Brain Death.L. Syd M. Johnson - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-11.
    Since its inception in 1968, the concept of whole-brain death has been contentious, and four decades on, controversy concerning the validity and coherence of whole-brain death continues unabated. Although whole-brain death is legally recognized and medically entrenched in the United States and elsewhere, there is reasonable disagreement among physicians, philosophers, and the public concerning whether brain death is really equivalent to death as it has been traditionally understood. A handful of states have acknowledged this plurality of viewpoints and enacted “conscience (...)
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  4.  13
    Milking the Organization? The Effect of Breastfeeding Accommodation on Perceived Fairness and Organizational Attractiveness.Gerard H. Seijts - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 40 (1):1 - 13.
    The paper presents the results of two vignette studies that examine how company breastfeeding accommodation influences ratings of organizational attractiveness and work-related intentions. North American business students and employees engaged in long-term employment found organizations that accommodate breastfeeding to be more fair, attractive, and were more likely to apply to them, and accept jobs from them, than organizations that did not accommodate. Effects were stronger for female participants than for male participants. Female participants without children indicated lower support for (...)
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  5.  28
    Factive Presuppositions, Accommodation and Information Structure.Jennifer Spenader - 2003 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (3):351-368.
    There are three ways to refer to a fact from the complement of afactive verb: (1) Via abstract object anaphoric reference, or, witha full sentential complement that will be interpreted either (2) asa bound presupposition or (3) as triggering a presupposition of afact that will have to be accommodated. Spoken corpus examplesreveal that these three possibilities differ in relation to thetype of information they tend to contribute, and this has twoeffects. First, the information status of the fact and its role (...)
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  6.  9
    Up Against the Property Logic of Equality Law: Conservative Christian Accommodation Claims and Gay Rights. [REVIEW]Davina Cooper & Didi Herman - 2013 - Feminist Legal Studies 21 (1):61-80.
    This paper explores conservative Christian demands that religious-based objections to providing services to lesbians and gay men should be accommodated by employers and public bodies. Focusing on a series of court judgments, alongside commentators’ critical accounts, the paper explores the dominant interpretation of the conflict as one involving two groups with deeply held, competing interests, and suggests this interpretation can be understood through a social property framework. The paper explores how religious beliefs and sexual orientation are attachments whose power has (...)
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  7.  65
    Accommodation and Negotiation with Context‐Sensitive Expressions.Alex Silk - 2014 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 3 (2):115-123.
    Contextualists and relativists about predicates of personal taste, epistemic modals, and so on (“CR-expressions”) agree that the interpretation of these expressions depends, in some sense, on context. Relativists claim that the sort of context-sensitivity exhibited by CR-expressions is importantly different from that exhibited by paradigm context-sensitive expressions. This bifurcation is often motivated by the claim that the two classes of expressions behave differently in patterns of agreement and disagreement. I provide cases illustrating that the same sorts of discourse phenomena that (...)
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  8.  23
    Reasonable Accommodation and the Subjective Conception of Freedom of Con-Science and Religion.Jocelyn Maclure - 2012 - Iride: Filosofia e Discussione Pubblica 25 (2):349-368.
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  9.  7
    Accommodation and Convergence in Visual Space Perception.V. W. Grant - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (2):89.
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  10.  3
    The Speed of Monocular Accommodation.R. H. Leukart - 1939 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 25 (3):257.
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  11.  3
    Accommodation and Convergence Under Low Illumination.H. E. Israel - 1923 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 6 (3):223.
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  12.  3
    The Relation of Visual Acuity to Convergence and Accommodation.Endel Tulving - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):530.
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  13. Paternalism, Unconscionability Doctrine, and Accommodation.Seana Valentine Shiffrin - 2000 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 29 (3):205-250.
    The unconscionability doctrine in contract law enables a court to decline to enforce a contract whose terms are seriously one-sided, exploitative, or otherwise manifestly unfair. It is often criticized for being paternalist. The essay argues that the characterization of unconscionability doctrine as paternalist reflects common but misleading thought about paternalism and obscures more important issues about autonomy and social connection. The defense responds to another criticism: that unconscionability doctrine is an inappropriate, because economically inefficient, egalitarian tool. The final part discusses (...)
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  14. Prediction Versus Accommodation and the Risk of Overfitting.Christopher Hitchcock & Elliott Sober - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (1):1-34.
    an observation to formulate a theory, it is no surprise that the resulting theory accurately captures that observation. However, when the theory makes a novel prediction—when it predicts an observation that was not used in its formulation—this seems to provide more substantial confirmation of the theory. This paper presents a new approach to the vexed problem of understanding the epistemic difference between prediction and accommodation. In fact, there are several problems that need to be disentangled; in all of them, (...)
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  15. What is Presupposition Accommodation, Again?Kai von Fintel - 2008 - Philosophical Perspectives 22 (1):137--170.
    In his paper “What is a Context of Utterance?”, Christopher Gauker argues that the phenomenon of informative presuppositions is incompatible with the “pragmatic” view of presuppositions as involving requirements on the common ground, the body of shared assumptions of the participants in a conversation. This is a surprising claim since most proponents of this view have in fact dealt with informative presuppositions by appealing to a process called presupposition accommodation. Gauker’s attack shows the need to clarify the nature of (...)
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  16.  47
    Prediction and Accommodation Revisited.John Worrall - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 45 (1):54-61.
    The paper presents a further articulation and defence of the view on prediction and accommodation that I have proposed earlier. It operates by analysing two accounts of the issue-by Patrick Maher and by Marc Lange-that, at least at first sight, appear to be rivals to my own. Maher claims that the time-order of theory and evidence may be important in terms of degree of confirmation, while that claim is explicitly denied in my account. I argue, however, that when his (...)
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  17. Presupposition and Accommodation: Understanding the Stalnakerian Picture. [REVIEW]Mandy Simons - 2003 - Philosophical Studies 112 (3):251 - 278.
    This paper offers a critical analysis ofStalnaker''s work on presupposition (Stalnaker1973, 1974, 1979, 1999, 2002). The paperexamines two definitions of speakerpresupposition offered by Stalnaker – the familiar common ground view, and the earlier,less familiar, dispositional account – and howStalnaker relates this notion to the linguisticphenomenon of presupposition. Special attentionis paid to Stalnaker''s view of accommodation. Iargue that given Stalnakers views,accommodation is not rightly seen as driven bythe presuppositional requirements ofutterances, but only by the interests ofspeakers in eliminating perceived (...)
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  18.  56
    Toleration, Religion and Accommodation.Peter Jones - 2015 - European Journal of Philosophy 23 (3):542-563.
    Issues of religious toleration might be thought dead and advocacy of religious toleration a pointless exercise in preaching to the converted, at least in most contemporary European societies. This paper challenges that view. It does so principally by focusing on issues of religious accommodation as these arise in contemporary multi-faith societies. Drawing on the cases of exemption, Article 9 of the ECHR, and law governing indirect religious discrimination, it argues that issues and instances of accommodation are issues and (...)
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  19.  51
    A Theory of Religious Accommodation.Paul Bou-Habib - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (1):109–126.
    This paper examines the moral case for a right to religious accommodation, which requires that religious conduct be free of any serious burdens placed on it by the state. Two different types of normative argument for this right are outlined and rejected. The first appeals to religion as a ‘basic good’, and the second to religion as an ‘intense preference’. In place of these, I suggest that a third type of argument has greater prospects of success. Religious accommodation (...)
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  20.  7
    Prediction and Accommodation Revisited.John Worrall - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 45:54-61.
    The paper presents a further articulation and defence of the view on prediction and accommodation that I have proposed earlier. It operates by analysing two accounts of the issue-by Patrick Maher and by Marc Lange-that, at least at first sight, appear to be rivals to my own. Maher claims that the time-order of theory and evidence may be important in terms of degree of confirmation, while that claim is explicitly denied in my account. I argue, however, that when his (...)
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  21.  2
    Accommodation, Prediction and Replication: Model Selection in Scale Construction.Peterson Clayton - forthcoming - Synthese:1-22.
    In psychology, measurement instruments are constructed from scales, which are obtained on the grounds of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Looking at the literature, one can find various recommendations regarding how these techniques should be used during the scale construction process. Some authors suggest to use exploratory factor analysis on the entire data set while others advice to perform an internal cross-validation by randomly splitting the data set in two and then either perform exploratory factor analysis on both parts or (...)
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  22.  38
    The Apparent Superiority of Prediction to Accommodation as a Side Effect: A Reply to Maher.Marc Lange - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (3):575-588.
    has offered a lovely example to motivate the intuition that a successful prediction has a kind of confirmatory significance that an accommodation lacks. This paper scrutinizes Maher's example. It argues that once the example is tweaked, the intuitive difference there between prediction and accommodation disappears. This suggests that the apparent superiority of prediction to accommodation is actually a side effect of an important difference between the hypotheses that tend to arise in each case.
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  23.  33
    Presupposition and Accommodation in Update Semantics.Henk Zeevat - 1992 - Journal of Semantics 9 (4):379-412.
    A reconstruction is presented of van der Sandt's theory of presupposition in the framework of update semantics and extended to belief sentences. The resulting view is confronted with earlier approaches to presupposition (especially Heim's) in update semantics, concentrating on the approach to accommodation. It is shown in some detail that the anaphoric view of presupposition can be maintained for only a subclass of presuppositional triggers and must be given up for another class. The paper shows that the treatment of (...)
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  24. Beyond Objective and Subjective: Assessing the Legitimacy of Religious Claims to Accommodation.Daniel Weinstock - 2011 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 6 (2):155-175.
    There are at present two ways in which to evaluate religiously-based claims to accommodation in the legal context. The first, objective approach holds that these claims should be grounded in « facts of the matter » about the religions in question. The second, subjective approach, is grounded in an appreciation by the courts of the sincerity of the claimant. The first approach has the advantage of accounting for the difference between two constitutional principles : freedom of conscience on the (...)
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  25.  7
    Cultural Accommodation and Domination.Frank Lovett - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (2):243-267.
    When should burdened social practices be granted special accommodation? One issue of concern—raised by Okin and others—is that some social practices involve domination, and so the accommodation of those practices might (inadvertently, perhaps) support social injustice. Suppose one wants to take this concern very seriously. Starting from the assumption that freedom from domination is an especially important value, this article examines whether cultural accommodation would ever be advisable. Approaching the problem of multicultural accommodation from this point (...)
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  26.  51
    Accommodation and Prediction: The Case of the Persistent Head.David Harker - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (2):309-321.
    A not unpopular thesis, when it comes to the confirmation of scientific theories, is that data which were used in the construction of a theory afford poorer support for that theory than data that played no role. Some compelling thought experiments have been offered in favour of this view, not as proof but rather to add some intuitive plausibility. In this paper I consider such thought experiments and argue that they do not support the thesis; the perceived importance of prediction (...)
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  27.  80
    Why We Shouldn't Swallow Worm Slices: A Case Study in Semantic Accommodation.Mark Moyer - 2008 - Noûs 42 (1):109–138.
    A radical metaphysical theory typically comes packaged with a semantic theory that reconciles those radical claims with common sense. The metaphysical theory says what things exist and what their natures are, while the semantic theory specifies, in terms of these things, how we are to interpret everyday language. Thus may we “think with the learned, and speak with the vulgar.” This semantic accommodation of common sense, however, can end up undermining the very theory it is designed to protect. This (...)
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  28.  22
    Accommodation, Prediction and Bayesian Confirmation Theory.Colin Howson - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:381 - 392.
    This paper examines the famous doctrine that independent prediction garners more support than accommodation. The standard arguments for the doctrine are found to be invalid, and a more realistic position is put forward, that whether evidence supports or not a hypothesis depends on the prior probability of the hypothesis, and is independent of whether it was proposed before or after the evidence. This position is implicit in the subjective Bayesian theory of confirmation, and the paper ends with a brief (...)
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  29.  11
    Accommodation Dynamics for Comparing Utilities with Others.Louis Narens & Brian Skyrms - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (10):2419-2427.
    In interactive situations, agents can “learn” something that is not a preexisting truth. They can converge to an arbitrary convention, or tacit agreement. Once established they may even view it as an objective truth. Here we investigate accommodation dynamics for interpersonal comparisons of utility intervals. We show, for a large class of dynamics, convergence to a convention.
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  30. On Presupposition Accommodation.Zoltan Szabo - manuscript
    These are the comments I gave at Ohio State in October 2006 on Kai von Fintel’s paper on presupposition accommodation.
     
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  31.  9
    Accommodation and Convention.Maciej Witek - 2016 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):99-115.
    The paper develops a non-Gricean account of accommodation: a contextadjusting process guided by the assumption that the speaker’s utterance constitutes an appropriate conversational move. The paper is organized into three parts. The first one reconstructs the basic tenets of Lepore and Stone's non-Gricean model of meaningmaking, which results from integrating direct intentionalism and extended semantics. The second part discusses the phenomenon of accommodation as it occurs in conversational practice. The third part uses the tenets of the non-Gricean model (...)
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  32.  10
    The Devout and the Disabled: Religious and Cultural Accommodation‐as‐Human‐Variation.Miklos I. Zala - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (4):809-824.
    This article shows that we can identify a subset of religious and cultural accommodation cases that follow the structure of a particular disability model: the Human Variation Model. According to this model, disadvantageous disability arises because most social arrangements are tailored to the needs of individuals with typical characteristics; people with atypical features are frequently left out from these arrangements. Hence, the latter need personalised resources tailored to them, or their social and/or material environment ought to change according to (...)
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  33.  36
    Presupposition Accommodation in Local Contexts: Why Global Accommodation is Not Enough.Hazel Pearson - unknown
    It is a somewhat vexed question whether presuppositions are always accommodated into the global context of utterance of the sentence, or whether they may sometimes be accommodated into a local context - the context of some subsentential constituent. Von Fintel (2008) argues that there is no local accommodation. He shows that presuppositions in the scope of universally quantified sentences, which have traditionally been handled via local accommodation (eg Heim 1983), can be accounted for by assuming that conversational participants (...)
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  34. 1. The Accommodation Thesis.Matthew Noah Smith - unknown
    How ought we to respond to other people caring about whatever it is that they care about – even if they care about things that are obviously not careworthy?2 For example, if my neighbor cares about collecting antique decorative saltshakers and I think this is an idiotic pastime, how ought I to respond to this? My thesis is that I should respond by accommodating his cares.3 I describe accommodation as follows: [Accommodation] A accommodates B’s caring about F by (...)
     
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  35.  9
    Autism, Accommodation and Treatment: A Rejoinder to Chong‐Ming Lim's Critique.Pier Jaarsma & Stellan Welin - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (9):684-685.
    We are very grateful to Chong-Ming Lim for his thoughtful reply published in this journal on one of our articles, which motivated us to think more carefully about accommodating autistic individuals and treating autism. However we believe there are some confusions in Lim's argument. Lim uses the accommodation thesis, according to which we should accommodate autistic individuals rather than treat autism, as the starting point for his reasoning. He claims that if the accommodation thesis is right, then we (...)
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  36.  4
    Neural Network-Based Sensor Fault Accommodation in Flight Control System.T. V. Rama Murthy & Seema Singh - 2013 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 22 (3):317-333.
    This article deals with detection and accommodation of sensor faults in longitudinal dynamics of an F8 aircraft model. Both the detection of the fault and reconfiguration of the failed sensor are done with the help of neural network-based models. Detection of a sensor fault is done with the help of knowledge-based neural network fault detection. Apart from KBNNFD, another neural network model is developed in this article for the reconfiguration of the failed sensor. A model-based approach of the neural (...)
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  37.  13
    Environment and Genetic Accommodation.H. Frederik Nijhout & Yuichiro Suzuki - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (3):204-212.
    Waddington’s experiments on genetic assimilation showed that selection on environmentally induced phenotypic variants can cause inherited evolutionary changes in the phenotype. We have recently extended this work by demonstrating that it is possible to select for a polyphenism in a monophenic species . We found that a mutation in the juvenile hormone regulatory pathway in Manduca sexta enabled heat stress to reveal a hidden reaction norm of larval coloration. Artificial selection for increased color change in response to heat-shock resulted in (...)
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  38.  2
    How Physicians Lost Out to Managed Care: A Case Study of Accommodation and Resistance in a Medical Community.Cindy A. Stearns - 1997 - Journal of Medical Humanities 18 (4):261-271.
    This paper involves a case study of physicians working in an urban Midwestern region. It raises questions surrounding how physicians adapted to, encouraged and resisted the increasing presence of managed care in their work lives. The patterning of physician accommodation to managed care and the failure of physicians to mount any effective organized resistance in Metro has some important implications for theories about professional dominance and decline.
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  39.  2
    Philosophy, Religion, Race, and Queerness: A Question of Accommodation or Access.Kim Q. Hall - 2013 - Philosophical Topics 41 (2):157-173.
    In this paper I consider recent feminist critiques of the whiteness of philosophy’s secularism. Building on the distinction in disability studies between accommodation and access, I argue that, in order to effectively address philosophy’s whiteness and heteronormativity, critiques of philosophy’s secularism must be accountable to religion’s historical and contemporary role in perpetuating harm against queer people. While it is absolutely crucial to critique and work to undo the whiteness of mainstream philosophy, it is equally important to do so in (...)
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  40. Beyond Accommodation: Ethical Feminism, Deconstruction, and the Law.Drucilla Cornell - 1999 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This new edition of Drucilla Cornell's highly acclaimed book includes a substantial new introduction by the author, which situates the book within current feminist debates. In Beyond Accommodation, Drucilla Cornell offers a highly original vision of what feminist theory can give contemporary women. She challenges essentialist and naturalist accounts of feminine sexuality, arguing that any attempt to affirm woman's value and difference by either emphasizing her maternal role or repudiating the feminine only entraps women, once again, in a container (...)
     
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  41. Beyond Objective and Subjective: Assessing the Legitimacy of Religious Claims to Accommodation.Daniel Weinstock - 2011 - Les Ateliers de L’Ethique 6 (2):155-175.
    There are at present two ways in which to evaluate religiously-based claims to accommodation in the legal context. The first, objective approach holds that these claims should be grounded in « facts of the matter » about the religions in question. The second, subjective approach, is grounded in an appreciation by the courts of the sincerity of the claimant. The first approach has the advantage of accounting for the difference between two constitutional principles : freedom of conscience on the (...)
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  42. The Threat of Algocracy: Reality, Resistance and Accommodation.John Danaher - 2016 - Philosophy and Technology 29 (3):245-268.
    One of the most noticeable trends in recent years has been the increasing reliance of public decision-making processes on algorithms, i.e. computer-programmed step-by-step instructions for taking a given set of inputs and producing an output. The question raised by this article is whether the rise of such algorithmic governance creates problems for the moral or political legitimacy of our public decision-making processes. Ignoring common concerns with data protection and privacy, it is argued that algorithmic governance does pose a significant threat (...)
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  43. Against the Epistemic Value of Prediction Over Accommodation.Robin Collins - 1994 - Noûs 28 (2):210-224.
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  44.  42
    Beyond Accommodation: Ethical Feminism, Deconstruction, and the Law.Drucilla Cornell - 1991 - Routledge.
    This new edition of Drucilla Cornell's highly acclaimed book includes a substantial new introduction by the author, which situates the book within current ...
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  45.  10
    Why Medical Professionals Have No Moral Claim to Conscientious Objection Accommodation in Liberal Democracies.Udo Schuklenk & Ricardo Smalling - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (4):234-240.
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  46. Egalitarianism, Choice-Sensitivity, and Accommodation.Seana Valentine Shiffrin - 2004 - In Philip Pettit (ed.), Reason and Value: Themes from the Work of Joseph Raz. Oxford Univ. Press. pp. 270--302.
  47.  2
    Against the Accommodation of Subjective Healthcare Provider Beliefs in Medicine: Counteracting Supporters of Conscientious Objector Accommodation Arguments.Smalling Ricardo & Schuklenk Udo - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (4):253-256.
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  48.  73
    The Epistemic Advantage of Prediction Over Accommodation.Roger White - 2003 - Mind 112 (448):653-683.
    According to the thesis of Strong Predictionism, we typically have stronger evidence for a theory if it was used to predict certain data, than if it was deliberately constructed to accommodate those same data, even if we fully grasp the theory and all the evidence on which it was based. This thesis faces powerful objections and the existing arguments in support of it are seriously flawed. I offer a new defence of Strong Predictionism which overcomes the objections and provides a (...)
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  49.  56
    Prediction, Accommodation, and the Logic of Discovery.Patrick Maher - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:273 - 285.
    A widely endorsed thesis in the philosophy of science holds that if evidence for a hypothesis was not known when the hypothesis was proposed, then that evidence confirms the hypothesis more strongly than would otherwise be the case. The thesis has been thought to be inconsistent with Bayesian confirmation theory, but the arguments offered for that view are fallacious. This paper shows how the special value of prediction can in fact be given Bayesian explanation. The explanation involves consideration of the (...)
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  50.  21
    Persistence and Accommodation in Short‐Term Priming and Other Perceptual Paradigms: Temporal Segregation Through Synaptic Depression.David E. Huber & Randall C. O'Reilly - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (3):403-430.
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