Results for 'Accuracy'

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  1.  41
    Accuracy and the Laws of Credence.Richard Pettigrew - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Richard Pettigrew offers an extended investigation into a particular way of justifying the rational principles that govern our credences. The main principles that he justifies are the central tenets of Bayesian epistemology, though many other related principles are discussed along the way. Pettigrew looks to decision theory in order to ground his argument. He treats an agent's credences as if they were a choice she makes between different options, gives an account of the purely epistemic utility enjoyed by different sets (...)
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  2. Bridging Rationality and Accuracy.Miriam Schoenfield - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy 112 (12):633-657.
    This paper is about the connection between rationality and accuracy. I show that one natural picture about how rationality and accuracy are connected emerges if we assume that rational agents are rationally omniscient. I then develop an alternative picture that allows us to relax this assumption, in order to accommodate certain views about higher order evidence.
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  3. Conditionalization Does Not Maximize Expected Accuracy.Miriam Schoenfield - 2017 - Mind 126 (504):1155-1187.
    Greaves and Wallace argue that conditionalization maximizes expected accuracy. In this paper I show that their result only applies to a restricted range of cases. I then show that the update procedure that maximizes expected accuracy in general is one in which, upon learning P, we conditionalize, not on P, but on the proposition that we learned P. After proving this result, I provide further generalizations and show that much of the accuracy-first epistemology program is committed to (...)
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  4. Accuracy, Risk, and the Principle of Indifference.Richard G. Pettigrew - 2014 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 92 (1):35-59.
    In Bayesian epistemology, the problem of the priors is this: How should we set our credences (or degrees of belief) in the absence of evidence? That is, how should we set our prior or initial credences, the credences with which we begin our credal life? David Lewis liked to call an agent at the beginning of her credal journey a superbaby. The problem of the priors asks for the norms that govern these superbabies. -/- The Principle of Indifference gives a (...)
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  5. What Accuracy Could Not Be.Graham Oddie - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 70 (2):551-580.
    Two different programmes are in the business of explicating accuracy—the truthlikeness programme and the epistemic utility programme. Both assume that truth is the goal of inquiry, and that among inquiries that fall short of realizing the goal some get closer to it than others. Truthlikeness theorists have been searching for an account of the accuracy of propositions. Epistemic utility theorists have been searching for an account of the accuracy of credal states. Both assume we can make cognitive (...)
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  6. Generalized Probabilism: Dutch Books and Accuracy Domi- Nation.J. Robert G. Williams - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (5):811-840.
    Jeff Paris proves a generalized Dutch Book theorem. If a belief state is not a generalized probability then one faces ‘sure loss’ books of bets. In Williams I showed that Joyce’s accuracy-domination theorem applies to the same set of generalized probabilities. What is the relationship between these two results? This note shows that both results are easy corollaries of the core result that Paris appeals to in proving his dutch book theorem. We see that every point of accuracy-domination (...)
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  7.  63
    Accuracy for Believers.Julia Staffel - 2017 - Episteme 14 (1):39-48.
    In Accuracy and the Laws of Credence Richard Pettigrew assumes a particular view of belief, which states that people don't have any other doxastic states besides credences. This is in tension with the popular position that people have both credences and outright beliefs. Pettigrew claims that such a dual view of belief is incompatible with the accuracy-first approach. I argue in this paper that it is not. This is good news for Pettigrew, since it broadens the appeal of (...)
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  8.  32
    Graded Incoherence for Accuracy-Firsters.Glauber De Bona & Julia Staffel - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (2):189-213.
    This paper investigates the relationship between two evaluative claims about agents’ de- grees of belief: (i) that it is better to have more, rather than less accurate degrees of belief, and (ii) that it is better to have less, rather than more probabilistically incoherent degrees of belief. We show that, for suitable combinations of inaccuracy measures and incoherence measures, both claims are compatible, although not equivalent; moreover, certain ways of becoming less incoherent always guarantee improvements in accuracy. Incompatibilities between (...)
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  9. Can All-Accuracy Accounts Justify Evidential Norms?Christopher J. G. Meacham - forthcoming - In Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij & Jeff Dunn (eds.), Epistemic Consequentialism. Oxford University Press.
    Some of the most interesting recent work in formal epistemology has focused on developing accuracy-based approaches to justifying Bayesian norms. These approaches are interesting not only because they offer new ways to justify these norms, but because they potentially offer a way to justify all of these norms by appeal to a single, attractive epistemic goal: having accurate beliefs. Recently, Easwaran & Fitelson (2012) have raised worries regarding whether such “all-accuracy” or “purely alethic” approaches can accommodate and justify (...)
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  10. Accuracy and Credal Imprecision.Dominik Berger & Nilanjan Das - forthcoming - Noûs.
    Many have claimed that epistemic rationality sometimes requires us to have imprecise credal states (i.e. credal states representable only by sets of credence functions) rather than precise ones (i.e. credal states representable by single credence functions). Some writers have recently argued that this claim conflicts with accuracy-centered epistemology, i.e., the project of justifying epistemic norms by appealing solely to the overall accuracy of the doxastic states they recommend. But these arguments are far from decisive. In this essay, we (...)
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  11. Lying, Accuracy and Credence.Matthew A. Benton - 2018 - Analysis 78 (2):195-198.
    Traditional definitions of lying require that a speaker believe that what she asserts is false. Sam Fox Krauss seeks to jettison the traditional belief requirement in favour of a necessary condition given in a credence-accuracy framework, on which the liar expects to impose the risk of increased inaccuracy on the hearer. He argues that this necessary condition importantly captures nearby cases as lies which the traditional view neglects. I argue, however, that Krauss's own account suffers from an identical drawback (...)
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  12. Consensus Collaboration Enhances Group and Individual Recall Accuracy.Celia Harris, Amanda Barnier & John Sutton - 2012 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (1):v.
    We often remember in groups, yet research on collaborative recall finds “collaborative inhibition”: Recalling with others has costs compared to recalling alone. In related paradigms, remembering with others introduces errors into recall. We compared costs and benefits of two collaboration procedures—turn taking and consensus. First, 135 individuals learned a word list and recalled it alone (Recall 1). Then, 45 participants in three-member groups took turns to recall, 45 participants in three-member groups reached a consensus, and 45 participants recalled alone but (...)
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  13.  21
    Accuracy and the Imps.James M. Joyce & Brian Weatherson - 2019 - Logos and Episteme 10 (3):263-282.
    Recently several authors have argued that accuracy-first epistemology ends up licensing problematic epistemic bribes. They charge that it is better, given the accuracy-first approach, to deliberately form one false belief if this will lead to forming many other true beliefs. We argue that this is not a consequence of the accuracy-first view. If one forms one false belief and a number of other true beliefs, then one is committed to many other false propositions, e.g., the conjunction of (...)
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  14. Accuracy Uncomposed: Against Calibrationism.Ben Levinstein - 2017 - Episteme 14 (1):59-69.
    Pettigrew offers new axiomatic constraints on legitimate measures of inaccuracy. His axiom called ‘Decomposition’ stipulates that legitimate measures of inaccuracy evaluate a credence function in part based on its level of calibration at a world. I argue that if calibration is valuable, as Pettigrew claims, then this fact is an explanandum for accuracy-rst epistemologists, not an explanans, for three reasons. First, the intuitive case for the importance of calibration isn’t as strong as Pettigrew believes. Second, calibration is a perniciously (...)
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  15. Accuracy and Ur-Prior Conditionalization.Nilanjan Das - 2019 - Review of Symbolic Logic 12 (1):62-96.
    Recently, several epistemologists have defended an attractive principle of epistemic rationality, which we shall call Ur-Prior Conditionalization. In this essay, I ask whether we can justify this principle by appealing to the epistemic goal of accuracy. I argue that any such accuracy-based argument will be in tension with Evidence Externalism, i.e., the view that agent's evidence may entail non-trivial propositions about the external world. This is because any such argument will crucially require the assumption that, independently of all (...)
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  16. Emotional Truth: Emotional Accuracy: Adam Morton.Adam Morton - 2002 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 76 (1):265–275.
    This is a reply to de Sousa's 'Emotional Truth', in which he argues that emotions can be objective, as propositional truths are. I say that it is better to distinguish between truth and accuracy, and agree with de Sousa to the extent of arguing that emotions can be more or less accurate, that is, based on the facts as they are.
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  17.  85
    A Phase Transition Model for the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in Response Time Experiments.Gilles Dutilh, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Ingmar Visser & Han L. J. van der Maas - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (2):211-250.
    Most models of response time (RT) in elementary cognitive tasks implicitly assume that the speed-accuracy trade-off is continuous: When payoffs or instructions gradually increase the level of speed stress, people are assumed to gradually sacrifice response accuracy in exchange for gradual increases in response speed. This trade-off presumably operates over the entire range from accurate but slow responding to fast but chance-level responding (i.e., guessing). In this article, we challenge the assumption of continuity and propose a phase transition (...)
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  18.  29
    Accuracy Monism and Doxastic Dominance: Reply to Steinberger.Matt Hewson - forthcoming - Analysis.
    Given the standard dominance conditions used in accuracy theories for outright belief, epistemologists must invoke epistemic conservatism if they are to avoid licensing belief in both a proposition and its negation. Florian Steinberger (2019) charges the committed accuracy monist — the theorist who thinks that the only epistemic value is accuracy — with being unable to motivate this conservatism. I show that the accuracy monist can avoid Steinberger’s charge by moving to a subtly different set of (...)
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  19.  83
    Repugnant Accuracy.Brian Talbot - 2019 - Noûs 53 (3):540-563.
    Accuracy‐first epistemology is an approach to formal epistemology which takes accuracy to be a measure of epistemic utility and attempts to vindicate norms of epistemic rationality by showing how conformity with them is beneficial. If accuracy‐first epistemology can actually vindicate any epistemic norms, it must adopt a plausible account of epistemic value. Any such account must avoid the epistemic version of Derek Parfit's “repugnant conclusion.” I argue that the only plausible way of doing so is to say (...)
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  20. The Adaptive Nature of Eye Movements in Linguistic Tasks: How Payoff and Architecture Shape Speed‐Accuracy Trade‐Offs.Richard L. Lewis, Michael Shvartsman & Satinder Singh - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):581-610.
    We explore the idea that eye-movement strategies in reading are precisely adapted to the joint constraints of task structure, task payoff, and processing architecture. We present a model of saccadic control that separates a parametric control policy space from a parametric machine architecture, the latter based on a small set of assumptions derived from research on eye movements in reading (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, & Kliegl, 2005; Reichle, Warren, & McConnell, 2009). The eye-control model is embedded in a decision architecture (a (...)
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  21.  48
    Speed/Accuracy Trade-Offs in Target-Directed Movements.Réjean Plamondon & Adel M. Alimi - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):279-303.
    This target article presents a critical survey of the scientific literature dealing with the speed/accuracy trade-offs in rapid-aimed movements. It highlights the numerous mathematical and theoretical interpretations that have been proposed in recent decades. Although the variety of points of view reflects the richness of the field and the high degree of interest that such basic phenomena attract in the understanding of human movements, it calls into question the ability of many models to explain the basic observations consistently reported (...)
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  22. Measurement Accuracy Realism.Paul Teller - manuscript
    This paper challenges “traditional measurement-accuracy realism”, according to which there are in nature quantities of which concrete systems have definite values. An accurate measurement outcome is one that is close to the value for the quantity measured. For a measurement of the temperature of some water to be accurate in this sense requires that there be this temperature. But there isn’t. Not because there are no quantities “out there in nature” but because the term ‘the temperature of this water’ (...)
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  23. Ideal Counterpart Theorizing and the Accuracy Argument for Probabilism.Clinton Castro & Olav Vassend - 2018 - Analysis 78 (2):207-216.
    One of the main goals of Bayesian epistemology is to justify the rational norms credence functions ought to obey. Accuracy arguments attempt to justify these norms from the assumption that the source of value for credences relevant to their epistemic status is their accuracy. This assumption and some standard decision-theoretic principles are used to argue for norms like Probabilism, the thesis that an agent’s credence function is rational only if it obeys the probability axioms. We introduce an example (...)
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  24.  45
    Is There Evidence for a Mixture of Processes in Speed‐Accuracy Trade‐Off Behavior?Leendert Maanen - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):279-290.
    The speed-accuracy trade-off effect refers to the behavioral trade-off between fast yet error-prone respones and accurate but slow responses. Multiple theories on the cognitive mechanisms behind SAT exist. One theory assumes that SAT is a consequence of strategically adjusting the amount of evidence required for overt behaviors, such as perceptual choices. Another theory hypothesizes that SAT is the consequence of the mixture of multiple categorically different cognitive processes. In this paper, these theories are disambiguated by assessing whether the fixed-point (...)
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  25.  76
    Turning Failures Into Successes: A Methodological Shortcoming in Empirical Research on Surrogate Accuracy.Mats Johansson & Linus Broström - 2008 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (1):17-26.
    Decision making for incompetent patients is a much-discussed topic in bioethics. According to one influential decision making standard, the substituted judgment standard, a surrogate decision maker ought to make the decision that the incompetent patient would have made, had he or she been competent. Empirical research has been conducted in order to find out whether surrogate decision makers are sufficiently good at doing their job, as this is defined by the substituted judgment standard. This research investigates to what extent surrogates (...)
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  26.  50
    Accuracy and the Belief-Credence Connection.Richard Pettigrew - 2015 - Philosophers' Imprint 15:1-20.
    Probabilism says an agent is rational only if her credences are probabilistic. This paper is concerned with the so-called Accuracy Dominance Argument for Probabilism. This argument begins with the claim that the sole fundamental source of epistemic value for a credence is its accuracy. It then shows that, however we measure accuracy, any non-probabilistic credences are accuracy-dominated: that is, there are alternative credences that are guaranteed to be more accurate than them. It follows that non-probabilistic credences (...)
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  27.  29
    Accuracy, Sincerity and Capabilities in the Practice of Teaching.Shirley Pendlebury - 2008 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 27 (2-3):173-183.
    This paper examines the relative strengths of two conceptions of teaching. The thinner conception, which underpins a report of the Ministerial Committee on Teacher Education in South Africa, takes the definitive purpose of teaching as the organization of systematic learning. The thicker conception draws on work by Martha Nussbaum and Bernard Williams and comes from my ongoing thinking about the conditions for trustworthy practice. I propose that educative teaching is a practice whose definitive purpose is to enable people’s flourishing by (...)
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  28.  4
    Why You Don’T Have to Choose Between Accuracy and Human Officiating.S. Seth Bordner - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):33-0.
    Debates about the role of technology in sports officiating assume that technology would, _ceteris paribus_, improve accuracy over unassisted human officiating. While this is largely true, it also presents a false dilemma: that we can have accurately officiated sports or human officials, but not both. What this alleged dilemma ignores is that the criteria by which we measure accuracy are also up for revision. We _could_ have sports that are so defined as to be easily judged by human (...)
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  29. Accuracy, Chance, and the Principal Principle.Richard Pettigrew - 2012 - Philosophical Review 121 (2):241-275.
    In ‘A Non-Pragmatic Vindication of Probabilism’, Jim Joyce attempts to ‘depragmatize’ de Finetti’s prevision argument for the claim that our partial beliefs ought to satisfy the axioms of probability calculus. In this paper, I adapt Joyce’s argument to give a non-pragmatic vindication of various versions of David Lewis’ Principal Principle, such as the version based on Isaac Levi's account of admissibility, Michael Thau and Ned Hall's New Principle, and Jenann Ismael's Generalized Principal Principle. Joyce enumerates properties that must be had (...)
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  30.  66
    Leitgeb and Pettigrew on Accuracy and Updating.Benjamin Anders Levinstein - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (3):413-424.
    Leitgeb and Pettigrew argue that (1) agents should minimize the expected inaccuracy of their beliefs and (2) inaccuracy should be measured via the Brier score. They show that in certain diachronic cases, these claims require an alternative to Jeffrey Conditionalization. I claim that this alternative is an irrational updating procedure and that the Brier score, and quadratic scoring rules generally, should be rejected as legitimate measures of inaccuracy.
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  31.  87
    Measuring Diagnostic and Predictive Accuracy in Disease Management: An Introduction to Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Analysis.Ariel Linden - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (2):132-139.
  32.  86
    Characteristics of Physicians Receiving Large Payments From Pharmaceutical Companies and the Accuracy of Their Disclosures in Publications: An Observational Study. [REVIEW]Susan L. Norris, Haley K. Holmer, Lauren A. Ogden, Brittany U. Burda & Rongwei Fu - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):24-.
    Background Financial relationships between physicians and industry are extensive and public reporting of industry payments to physicians is now occurring. Our objectives were to describe physician recipients of large total payments from these seven companies, and to examine discrepancies between these payments and conflict of interest (COI) disclosures in authors’ concurrent publications. Methods The investigative journalism organization, ProPublica, compiled the Dollars for Docs database of payments to individuals from publically available data from seven US pharmaceutical companies during the period 2009 (...)
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  33.  41
    Chancy Accuracy and Imprecise Credence.Jennifer Carr - 2015 - Philosophical Perspectives 29 (1):67-81.
  34.  15
    Speed and Accuracy of Sentence Recall: Effects of Ear of Presentation, Semantics, and Grammar.Robert J. Jarvella & Steven J. Herman - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):108.
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  35.  15
    Speed, Accuracy, and Serial Order in Sequence Production.Peter Q. Pfordresher, Caroline Palmer & Melissa K. Jungers - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (1):63-98.
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  36.  19
    Multidimensional Stimulus Differences and Accuracy of Discrimination.Charles W. Eriksen & Harold W. Hake - 1955 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 50 (3):153.
  37.  13
    The Effect of Presenting Various Numbers of Discrete Steps on Scale Reading Accuracy.Harold W. Hake & W. R. Garner - 1951 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 42 (5):358.
  38.  27
    Hick's Law and the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in Absolute Judgment.Robert G. Pachella & Dennis Fisher - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (3):378.
  39.  24
    Information Processing as a Function of Speed Versus Accuracy.James M. Swanson & George E. Briggs - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):223.
  40.  23
    Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff in Reaction Time: Effect of Discrete Criterion Times.Robert G. Pachella & Richard W. Pew - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (1p1):19.
  41.  15
    The Accuracy of Counting Repeated Short Tones.W. R. Garner - 1951 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (4):310.
  42.  14
    Accuracy of Psychophysical Judgments and Physiological Response Amplitude.Robert J. Gatchel & Peter J. Lang - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (1):175.
  43.  9
    Tendencies to Eye Movement and Perceptual Accuracy.Herbert F. Crovitz & Walter Daves - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (5):495.
  44.  18
    Accuracy of Tactual Discrimination of Letters, Numerals, and Geometric Forms.T. R. Austin & R. B. Sleight - 1952 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (3):239.
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  45.  20
    The Effect of Rate of Sequence Upon the Accuracy of Synchronization.H. Woodrow - 1932 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 15 (4):357.
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  46.  23
    Effect of Picture-Word Transfer on Accuracy and Latency of Recognition Memory.Louise M. Arthur & Terry C. Daniel - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (2):211.
  47.  20
    Factors Related to Speed and Accuracy of Tactual Discrimination.T. R. Austin & R. B. Sleight - 1952 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 44 (4):283.
  48.  10
    Effects of Interpolated Tasks on Latency and Accuracy of Intramodal and Cross-Modal Shape Recognition by Children.Susanna Miller - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):170.
  49.  18
    Accuracy of Report and Central Readiness.Frank Leavitt - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (3):542.
  50.  9
    Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off with Different Types of Stimuli.James J. Lyons & George E. Briggs - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (1):115.
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