Results for 'Adam J. Shriver'

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  1. The Asymmetrical Contributions of Pleasure and Pain to Animal Welfare.Adam J. Shriver - 2014 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (2):152-162.
    Recent results from the neurosciences demonstrate that pleasure and pain are not two symmetrical poles of a single scale of experience but in fact two different types of experiences altogether, with dramatically different contributions to well-being. These differences between pleasure and pain and the general finding that “the bad is stronger than the good” have important implications for our treatment of nonhuman animals. In particular, whereas animal experimentation that causes suffering might be justified if it leads to the prevention of (...)
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  2.  10
    Environmental Neuroethics: Bridging Environmental Ethics and Mental Health.Adam J. Shriver, Laura Y. Cabrera & Judy Illes - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (9):26-27.
  3.  60
    Confabulation Does Not Undermine Introspection for Propositional Attitudes.Adam J. Andreotta - 2019 - Synthese 198 (5):4851-4872.
    According to some, such as Carruthers (2009, 2010, 2011, 2015), the confabulation data (experimental data showing subjects making false psychological self-ascriptions) undermine the view that we can know our propositional attitudes by introspection. He believes that these data favour his interpretive sensory-access (ISA) theory—the view that self-knowledge of our propositional attitudes always involves self-interpretation of our sensations, behaviour, or situational cues. This paper will review some of the confabulation data and conclude that the presence and pattern of these data do (...)
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  4.  48
    The Appeal to Expert Opinion: Quantitative Support for a Bayesian Network Approach.Adam J. L. Harris, Ulrike Hahn, Jens K. Madsen & Anne S. Hsu - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (6):1496-1533.
    The appeal to expert opinion is an argument form that uses the verdict of an expert to support a position or hypothesis. A previous scheme-based treatment of the argument form is formalized within a Bayesian network that is able to capture the critical aspects of the argument form, including the central considerations of the expert's expertise and trustworthiness. We propose this as an appropriate normative framework for the argument form, enabling the development and testing of quantitative predictions as to how (...)
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  5. The Hard Problem of AI Rights.Adam J. Andreotta - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):19-32.
    In the past few years, the subject of AI rights—the thesis that AIs, robots, and other artefacts (hereafter, simply ‘AIs’) ought to be included in the sphere of moral concern—has started to receive serious attention from scholars. In this paper, I argue that the AI rights research program is beset by an epistemic problem that threatens to impede its progress—namely, a lack of a solution to the ‘Hard Problem’ of consciousness: the problem of explaining why certain brain states give rise (...)
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  6. Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics: An Empirical Investigation of the Concept of Lying.Adam J. Arico & Don Fallis - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (6):790 - 816.
    There are many philosophical questions surrounding the notion of lying. Is it ever morally acceptable to lie? Can we acquire knowledge from people who might be lying to us? More fundamental, however, is the question of what, exactly, constitutes the concept of lying. According to one traditional definition, lying requires intending to deceive (Augustine. (1952). Lying (M. Muldowney, Trans.). In R. Deferrari (Ed.), Treatises on various subjects (pp. 53?120). New York, NY: Catholic University of America). More recently, Thomas Carson (2006. (...)
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  7.  69
    Because Hitler Did It! Quantitative Tests of Bayesian Argumentation Using Ad Hominem.Adam J. L. Harris, Anne S. Hsu & Jens K. Madsen - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (3):311 - 343.
    Bayesian probability has recently been proposed as a normative theory of argumentation. In this article, we provide a Bayesian formalisation of the ad Hitlerum argument, as a special case of the ad hominem argument. Across three experiments, we demonstrate that people's evaluation of the argument is sensitive to probabilistic factors deemed relevant on a Bayesian formalisation. Moreover, we provide the first parameter-free quantitative evidence in favour of the Bayesian approach to argumentation. Quantitative Bayesian prescriptions were derived from participants' stated subjective (...)
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  8.  73
    Breaking Out of Moral Typecasting.Adam J. Arico - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (3):425-438.
    In their recent paper, Kurt Gray and Daniel Wegner offer a model of moral cognition, the “Moral Typecasting” thesis, in which they claim that perceptions of moral agency are inversely related to perceptions of moral patiency. Once we see someone as a moral agent, they claim, we cannot see them as a moral patient (and vice versa). In this paper, I want both to challenge the conception of morality on which the typecasting thesis is fundamentally based and to raise some (...)
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  9.  4
    Ethics and Education.J. W. L. Adams - 1968 - Philosophical Quarterly 18 (71):186-187.
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  10. Unintentional Punishment.Adam J. Kolber - 2012 - Legal Theory 18 (1):1-29.
    Criminal law theorists overwhelmingly agree that for some conduct to constitute punishment, it must be imposed intentionally. Some retributivists have argued that because punishment consists only of intentional inflictions, theories of punishment can ignore the merely foreseen hardships of prison, such as the mental and emotional distress inmates experience. Though such distress is foreseen, it is not intended, and so it is technically not punishment. In this essay, I explain why theories of punishment must pay close attention to the unintentional (...)
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  11. Relativism.Maria Baghramian & Adam J. Carter - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Relativism has been, in its various guises, both one of the most popular and most reviled philosophical doctrines of our time. Defenders see it as a harbinger of tolerance and the only ethical and epistemic stance worthy of the open-minded and tolerant. Detractors dismiss it for its alleged incoherence and uncritical intellectual permissiveness. Debates about relativism permeate the whole spectrum of philosophical sub-disciplines. From ethics to epistemology, science to religion, political theory to ontology, theories of meaning and even logic, philosophy (...)
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  12.  66
    The Illusion of Control: A Bayesian Perspective.Adam J. L. Harris & Magda Osman - 2012 - Synthese 189 (S1):29-38.
    In the absence of an objective contingency, psychological studies have shown that people nevertheless attribute outcomes to their own actions. Thus, by wrongly inferring control in chance situations people appear to hold false beliefs concerning their agency, and are said to succumb to an illusion of control (IoC). In the current article, we challenge traditional conceptualizations of the illusion by examining the thesis that the IoC reflects rational and adaptive decision making. Firstly, we propose that the IoC is a by-product (...)
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  13.  23
    James is Polite and Punctual (and Useless): A Bayesian Formalisation of Faint Praise.Adam J. L. Harris, Adam Corner & Ulrike Hahn - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):414-429.
  14.  11
    Unrealistic Optimism About Future Life Events: A Cautionary Note.Adam J. L. Harris & Ulrike Hahn - 2011 - Psychological Review 118 (1):135-154.
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  15.  25
    Anxiety, Anticipation and Contextual Information: A Test of Attentional Control Theory.Adam J. Cocks, Robin C. Jackson, Daniel T. Bishop & A. Mark Williams - 2016 - Cognition and Emotion 30 (6).
  16.  16
    Economic Precarity, Modern Liberal Arts and Creating a Resilient Graduate.Adam J. Smith - 2018 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 50 (11):1037-1044.
    From the perspective of a recent graduate, this article offers a critique of non-STEM higher education in England as unfit for purpose. Whilst universities blindly focus on employability, transferable skills and narrow bands of subject knowledge, the economic world around them has collapsed into absurdity. The graduate today is now faced with economic, social and cultural precarity which is unreflected in the rigid structures and narrow focus of their degree. This article seeks a radical return to the ancient principles of (...)
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  17.  22
    Estimating the Probability of Negative Events.Adam J. L. Harris, Adam Corner & Ulrike Hahn - 2009 - Cognition 110 (1):51-64.
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  18.  26
    The Limited Right to Alter Memory.Adam J. Kolber - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (10):658-659.
    We like to think we own our memories: if technology someday enables us to alter our memories, we should have certain rights to do so. But our freedom of memory has limits. Some memories are simply too valuable to society to allow individuals the unfettered right to change them. Suppose a patient regains consciousness in the middle of surgery. While traumatized by the experience and incapable of speaking, he coincidentally overhears two surgeons make plans to set fire to the hospital. (...)
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  19. Asymptotic Conditional Probabilities: The Non-Unary Case.Adam J. Grove, Joseph Y. Halpern & Daphne Koller - 1996 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (1):250-276.
    Motivated by problems that arise in computing degrees of belief, we consider the problem of computing asymptotic conditional probabilities for first-order sentences. Given first-order sentences φ and θ, we consider the structures with domain {1,..., N} that satisfy θ, and compute the fraction of them in which φ is true. We then consider what happens to this fraction as N gets large. This extends the work on 0-1 laws that considers the limiting probability of first-order sentences, by considering asymptotic conditional (...)
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  20.  18
    Shamanic Journeying Imagery, Constructivism and the Affect Bridge Technique.Adam J. Rock & Peter B. Baynes - 2005 - Anthropology of Consciousness 16 (2):50-71.
  21.  10
    Experimental Study of Ostensibly Shamanic Journeying Imagery in Naïve Participants I: Antecedents.Adam J. Rock, Peter B. Baynes & Paul J. Casey - 2005 - Anthropology of Consciousness 16 (2):72-92.
  22.  35
    On the Circumstances of Justice.Adam J. Tebble - 2016 - European Journal of Political Theory:147488511666419.
    An epistemic account of the circumstances of justice allows one to make three important claims about the Humean and Rawlsian ‘standard account’ of those circumstances. First, and contrary to Hume,...
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  23.  11
    Understanding the Coherence of the Severity Effect and Optimism Phenomena: Lessons From Attention.Adam J. L. Harris - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 50:30-44.
  24.  6
    Phenomenological Analysis of Experimentally Induced Visual Mental Imagery Associated with Shamanic Journeying to the Lower World.Adam J. Rock - 2006 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 25 (1):45-55.
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  25. Argument Content and Argument Source: An Exploration.Ulrike Hahn, Adam J. L. Harris & Adam Corner - 2009 - Informal Logic 29 (4):337-367.
    Argumentation is pervasive in everyday life. Understanding what makes a strong argument is therefore of both theoretical and practical interest. One factor that seems intuitively important to the strength of an argument is the reliability of the source providing it. Whilst traditional approaches to argument evaluation are silent on this issue, the Bayesian approach to argumentation (Hahn & Oaksford, 2007) is able to capture important aspects of source reliability. In particular, the Bayesian approach predicts that argument content and source reliability (...)
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  26.  90
    Laboratory Studies of Behavior Without Awareness.J. K. Adams - 1957 - Psychological Bulletin 54:383-405.
  27.  59
    Public Reception of Climate Science: Coherence, Reliability, and Independence.Ulrike Hahn, Adam J. L. Harris & Adam Corner - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):180-195.
    Possible measures to mitigate climate change require global collective actions whose impacts will be felt by many, if not all. Implementing such actions requires successful communication of the reasons for them, and hence the underlying climate science, to a degree that far exceeds typical scientific issues which do not require large-scale societal response. Empirical studies have identified factors, such as the perceived level of consensus in scientific opinion and the perceived reliability of scientists, that can limit people's trust in science (...)
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  28.  16
    The Problems with the Future: Educational Futurism and the Figural Child.Adam J. Greteman & Steven K. Wojcikiewicz - 2014 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 48 (4):559-573.
    This article contributes to work on temporality in education. Challenging the future-oriented focus in contemporary education, the authors question how ideas and assumptions regarding the future—centred on the Child—can set narrow boundaries around children in schools. In carrying out this task, we employ the work of Lee Edelman and John Dewey to examine the educational ramifications of the focus on the future, which we call ‘educational futurism’. The argument seeks specifically to explore how educational futurism imposes limits on educational discourse (...)
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  29.  8
    Pädagogischer Humanismus.J. W. L. Adams - 1958 - Philosophical Quarterly 8 (30):78-79.
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  30.  51
    Ego Boundaries, Shamanic-Like Techniques, and Subjective Experience: An Experimental Study.Adam J. Rock, Jessica M. Wilson, Luke J. Johnston & Janelle V. Levesque - 2008 - Anthropology of Consciousness 19 (1):60-83.
    The subjective effects and therapeutic potential of the shamanic practice of journeying is well known. However, previous research has neglected to provide a comprehensive assessment of the subjective effects of shamanic-like journeying techniques on non-shamans. Shamanic-like techniques are those that demonstrate some similarity to shamanic practices and yet deviate from what may genuinely be considered shamanism. Furthermore, the personality traits that influence individual susceptibility to shamanic-like techniques are unclear. The aim of the present study was, thus, to investigate experimentally the (...)
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  31.  15
    Schemata, CONSORT, and the Salk Polio Vaccine Trial.Charles J. Kowalski & Adam J. Mrdjenovich - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (1):64-82.
    In this essay, we defend the design of the Salk polio vaccine trial and try to put some limits on the role schemata should play in designing clinical research studies. Our presentation is structured as a response to de Freitas and Pietrobon who identified the CONSORT statement as a schema that would have, had it existed at the time, ruled out the design of the Salk polio vaccine trial of 1954 in favor of a completely randomized controlled clinical trial. We (...)
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  32.  48
    How Many Laypeople Holding a Popular Opinion Are Needed to Counter an Expert Opinion?Jos Hornikx, Adam J. L. Harris & Jordy Boekema - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (1):117-128.
    ABSTRACTIn everyday situations, people regularly receive information from large groups of people and from single experts. Although lay opinions and expert opinions have been studied extensively in isolation, the present study examined the relationship between the two by asking how many laypeople are needed to counter an expert opinion. A Bayesian formalisation allowed the prescription of this quantity. Participants were subsequently asked to assess how many laypeople are needed in different situations. The results demonstrate that people are sensitive to the (...)
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  33.  27
    Experimental Study of Ostensibly Shamanic Journeying Imagery in Naïve Participants II: Phenomenological Mapping and Modified Affect Bridge.Adam J. Rock, Paul J. Casey Rock & Peter B. Baynes - 2006 - Anthropology of Consciousness 17 (1):65-83.
  34.  1
    From Statistical Knowledge Bases to Degrees of Belief.Fahiem Bacchus, Adam J. Grove, Joseph Y. Halpern & Daphne Koller - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence 87 (1-2):75-143.
  35.  15
    Laymen, Clerics, and Documentary Practices in the Early Middle Ages: The Example of Catalonia.Adam J. Kosto - 2005 - Speculum 80 (1):44-74.
    Around 990, somewhere in Catalonia, a certain Julius was staying in the house of a certain Ramió. Unbeknownst to Ramió, Julius was stealing from him: mostly bread and wine, and perhaps other things as well. Eventually Ramió figured out what was going on, but instead of dragging Julius to the comital court, Ramió made a deal with him. As part of this deal, Ramió promised Julius not to involve the lawyers: neither he nor his descendants would get any count, viscount, (...)
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  36. ADAMS, J. - The Evolution of Educational Theory. [REVIEW]J. Edgar - 1913 - Mind 22:116.
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  37.  23
    Conventions of Naming in Cicero.J. N. Adams - 1978 - Classical Quarterly 28 (01):145-.
    The degrees of formality into which speech can be graded are in no sphere more obvious than in expressions of address and third-person reference. Methods of naming vary according to many factors: the formality of the circumstances in which naming takes place, the nature of the subject under discussion, and the ages, sex, and relative status of the speaker and addressee. Conventions of naming sometimes reflect the rigidity or otherwise of social divisions. In some societies or circles address between superior (...)
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  38. The Future is Open: A Conversation with Sir Karl Popper.Adam J. Chmielewski & Karl R. Popper - 1999 - In I. C. Jarvie & Sandra Pralong (eds.), Popper's Open Society After Fifty Years: The Continuing Relevance of Karl Popper. Routledge.
  39. The Phenomenology of Revelation in Heidegger, Marion, and Ricoeur.Adam J. Graves - 2021 - Lexington Books.
    Adam Graves presents a new framework for understanding the importance of the concept of revelation in the development of phenomenology while also charting a path towards a more fruitful understanding of the relationship between reason and revelation, one that is rooted in a deeper appreciation of the complexities of our linguistic inheritance.
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  40.  17
    How the Dual Process Model of Human Cognition Can Inform Efforts to de‐Implement Ineffective and Harmful Clinical Practices: A Preliminary Model of Unlearning and Substitution.Christian D. Helfrich, Adam J. Rose, Christine W. Hartmann, Leti Bodegom-Vos, Ian D. Graham, Suzanne J. Wood, Barbara R. Majerczyk, Chester B. Good, Leonard M. Pogach, Sherry L. Ball, David H. Au & David C. Aron - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (1):198-205.
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  41.  40
    Rational Argument, Rational Inference.Ulrike Hahn, Adam J. L. Harris & Mike Oaksford - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (1):21 - 35.
    (2013). Rational argument, rational inference. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 21-35. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2012.689327.
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  42.  3
    Scientism Recognizes Evidence Only of the Quantitative/General Variety.Charles J. Kowalski, Adam J. Mrdjenovich & Richard W. Redman - 2020 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 26 (2):452-457.
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  43.  20
    Business Ethics as Field of Teaching, Training and Research in East Africa.M. Mawa & J. Adams - 2011 - African Journal of Business Ethics 5 (2):66.
    The increase in corporate malfeasance has lead to a rising interest in Business Ethics in general and a particular focus on Business Ethics as an academic field, but the proliferation of Business Ethics as an academic field on a global scale is not yet as well known. This paper forms part of the global survey of Business Ethics that has been commissioned to gain a better understanding of the prevalence and scope of teaching, training and research in the field of (...)
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  44.  7
    Conceptual and Direct Replications Fail to Support the Stake-Likelihood Hypothesis as an Explanation for the Interdependence of Utility and Likelihood Judgments.Laura de Molière & Adam J. L. Harris - 2016 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (4):e13-e26.
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  45. Knocking Out Pain in Livestock: Can Technology Succeed Where Morality has Stalled?Adam Shriver - 2009 - Neuroethics 2 (3):115-124.
    Though the vegetarian movement sparked by Peter Singer’s book Animal Liberation has achieved some success, there is more animal suffering caused today due to factory farming than there was when the book was originally written. In this paper, I argue that there may be a technological solution to the problem of animal suffering in intensive factory farming operations. In particular, I suggest that recent research indicates that we may be very close to, if not already at, the point where we (...)
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  46.  7
    Playing with Come: A Perverse Response.Adam J. Greteman - 2018 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 50 (14):1572-1573.
  47.  4
    Beware Dichotomies.Charles J. Kowalski & Adam J. Mrdjenovich - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (4):517-535.
    That dichotomization is, at least under certain circumstances, a bad idea is not news. A well-known, early example is the biblical story of King Solomon, who used the absurdity of the procedure to help adjudicate a dispute between two women who each claimed to be the mother of a contested child. Solomon reasoned that his proposal to split the child into two, giving half to each woman, would be abhorrent to the real mother, and when one of the women objected (...)
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  48.  13
    Why Does the Universe Exist? An Advaita Vedantic Perspective.Adam J. Rock - 2005 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 24 (1):69-76.
    Debates concerning causal explanations of the universe tend to be based on a priori propositions . The present paper, however, addresses the metaphysical question, “Why does the universe exist?” from the perspective of a school of Hindu philosophy referred to as advaita vedanta and two of its a posteriori derived creation theories: the theory of simultaneous creation and the theory of non-causality . Objections to advaita vedanta are also discussed. It is concluded that advaita vedanta has the potential to make (...)
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  49. Minding Mammals.Adam Shriver - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (4):433-442.
    Many traditional attempts to show that nonhuman animals are deserving of moral consideration have taken the form of an argument by analogy. However, arguments of this kind have had notable weaknesses and, in particular, have not been able to convince two kinds of skeptics. One of the most important weaknesses of these arguments is that they fail to provide theoretical justifications for why particular physiological similarities should be considered relevant. This paper examines recent empirical research on pain and, in particular, (...)
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  50.  34
    ‘Romanitas’ and the Latin Language.J. N. Adams - 2003 - Classical Quarterly 53 (1):184-205.
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