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Adina Roskies
Dartmouth College
  1. Bringing Moral Responsibility Down to Earth.Adina L. Roskies & Shaun Nichols - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy 105 (7):371-388.
    Thought experiments have played a central role in philosophical methodology, largely as a means of elucidating the nature of our concepts and the implications of our theories.1 Particular attention is given to widely shared “folk” intuitions – the basic untutored intuitions that the layperson has about philosophical questions.2 The folk intuition is meant to underlie our core metaphysical concepts, and philosophical analysis is meant to explicate or sometimes refine these naïve concepts. Consistency with the deliverances of folk intuitions is a (...)
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  2. Neuroethics for the New Millennium.Adina L. Roskies - 2002 - Neuron 35 (1):21-23.
    ics. Each of these can be pursued independently to a large extent, but perhaps most intriguing is to contem- plate how progress in each will affect the other. The past several months have seen heightened interest <blockquote> _<b>The Ethics of Neuroscience</b>_ </blockquote> in the intersection of ethics and neuroscience. In the The ethics of neuroscience can be roughly subdivided popular press, the topic grabbed headlines in a May.
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  3. Neuroimaging and Inferential Distance.Adina L. Roskies - 2008 - Neuroethics 1 (1):19-30.
    Brain images are used both as scientific evidence and to illustrate the results of neuroimaging experiments. These images are apt to be viewed as photographs of brain activity, and in so viewing them people are prone to assume that they share the evidential characteristics of photographs. Photographs are epistemically compelling, and have a number of characteristics that underlie what I call their inferential proximity. Here I explore the aptness of the photography analogy, and argue that although neuroimaging does bear important (...)
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  4. Are Neuroimages Like Photographs of the Brain?Adina L. Roskies - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):860-872.
    Images come in many varieties, but for evidential purposes, photographs are privileged. Recent advances in neuroimaging provide us with a new type of image that is used as scientific evidence. Brain images are epistemically compelling, in part because they are liable to be viewed as akin to photographs of brain activity. Here I consider features of photography that underlie the evidential status we accord it, and argue that neuroimaging diverges from photography in ways that seriously undermine the photographic analogy. While (...)
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  5. .Adina L. Roskies - 2011
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  6. A New Argument for Nonconceptual Content.Adina L. Roskies - 2008 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 76 (3):633-659.
    This paper provides a novel argument against conceptualism, the claim that the content of human experience, including perceptual experience, is entirely conceptual. Conceptualism entails that the content of experience is limited by the concepts that we possess and deploy. I present an argument to show that such a view is exceedingly costly---if the nature of our experience is entirely conceptual, thenwe cannot account for concept learning: all perceptual concepts must be innate. The version of nativism that results is incompatible with (...)
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  7. Moral Motivation.Timothy Schroeder, Adina L. Roskies & Shaun Nichols - 2010 - In John Doris (ed.), Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter, we begin with a discussion of motivation itself, and use that discussion to sketch four possible theories of distinctively moral motivation: caricature versions of familiar instrumentalist, cognitivist, sentimentalist, and personalist theories about morally worthy motivation. To test these theories, we turn to a wealth of scientific, particularly neuroscientific, evidence. Our conclusions are that (1) although the scientific evidence does not at present mandate a unique philosophical conclusion, it does present formidable obstacles to a number of popular philosophical (...)
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  8. The Binding Problem.Adina L. Roskies - 1999 - Neuron 24:7--9.
    (von der Malsburg, 1981), “the binding problem” has with the visual percept of it, so that both are effortlessly captured the attention of researchers across many disci- perceived as being aspects of a single event. I like to plines, including psychology, neuroscience, computa- refer to these sorts of problems as perceptual binding tional modeling, and even philosophy. Despite the is- problems, since they involve unifying aspects of per- sue’s prominence in these fields, what “binding” means cepts. In addition, there are (...)
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    Don’T Panic: Self-Authorship Without Obscure Metaphysics1.Adina L. Roskies - 2012 - Philosophical Perspectives 26 (1):323-342.
    In this paper I attempt to respond to the worries of the source incompatibilist, and try to sketch a naturalistically plausible, compatibilist notion of self-authorship and control that I believe captures important aspects of the folk intuitions regarding freedom and responsibility. It is my hope to thus offer those moved by source incompatibilist worries a reason not to adopt what P.F. Strawson called “the obscure and panicky metaphysics of Libertarianism” (P. F. Strawson, 1982) or the panic-inducing moral austerity of the (...)
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  10. Why Libet's Studies Don't Pose a Threat to Free Will.Adina L. Roskies - 2011 - In L. Nadel & W. Sinnott-Armstrong (eds.), Conscious Will and Responsibility. A Tribute to Benjamin Libet. Oxford University Press. pp. 11--22.
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    Readiness Potentials Driven by Non-Motoric Processes.Prescott Alexander, Alexander Schlegel, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Adina L. Roskies, Thalia Wheatley & Peter Ulric Tse - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 39:38-47.
  12. Brain‐Mind and Structure‐Function Relationships: A Methodological Response to Coltheart.Adina L. Roskies - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):927-939.
    In some recent papers, Max Coltheart has questioned the ability of neuroimaging techniques to tell us anything interesting about the mind and has thrown down the gauntlet before neuroimagers, challenging them to prove he is mistaken. Here I analyze Coltheart ’s challenge, show that as posed its terms are unfair, and reconstruct it so that it is addressable. I argue that, so modified, Coltheart ’s challenge is able to be met and indeed has been met. In an effort to delineate (...)
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    Saving Subtraction: A Reply to Van Orden and Paap.Adina L. Roskies - 2010 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (3):635-665.
    Van Orden and Paap argue that subtractive functional neuroimaging is fundamentally flawed, unfalsifiable, and cannot bear upon the nature of mind. In this they are mistaken, although their criticisms interestingly illuminate the scientific problems we confront in investigating the material basis of mind. Here, I consider the criticisms of Van Orden and Paap and discuss where they are mistaken and where justified. I then consider the picture of imaging science that Van Orden and Paap seem to espouse and sketch an (...)
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  14. ‘That’ Response Doesn't Work: Against a Demonstrative Defense of Conceptualism.Adina L. Roskies - 2010 - Noûs 44 (1):112-134.
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    A Strawsonian Look at Desert.Adina L. Roskies & Bertram F. Malle - 2013 - Philosophical Explorations 16 (2):1-20.
    P.F. Strawson famously argued that reactive attitudes and ordinary moral practices justify moral assessments of blame, praise, and punishment. Here we consider whether Strawson's approach can illuminate the concept of desert. After reviewing standard attempts to analyze this concept and finding them lacking, we suggest that to deserve something is to justifiably receive a moral assessment in light of certain criteria – in particular, eligibility criteria and assignment criteria. Strawson's analysis of the ordinary attitudes and practices of moral assessment hints (...)
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  16.  50
    Neuroimages in Court: Less Biasing Than Feared.Adina L. Roskies, N. J. Schweitzer & Michael J. Saks - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (3):99-101.
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    Robustness and the New Riddle Revived.Adina L. Roskies - 2008 - Ratio 21 (2):218–230.
    The problem of induction is perennially important in epistemology and the philosophy of science. In response to Goodman's 'New Riddle of Induction', Frank Jackson made a compelling case for there being no new riddle, by arguing that there are no nonprojectible properties. Although Jackson's denial of nonprojectible properties is correct, I argue here that he is mistaken in thinking that he thereby shows that there is no new riddle of induction, and demonstrate that his solution to the grue paradox fails (...)
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    Cinema 1-2-Many of the Mind.Adina L. Roskies & C. C. Wood - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):221-223.
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    A Puzzle About Empathy.Adina L. Roskies - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):378-280.
    Is empathy important for moral behavior? To answer this we will have to be conceptually clearer, empirically more detailed, and pay attention to the neural mechanisms underlying empathy-related phenomena.
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    The Illusion of Personhood.Adina L. Roskies - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (1):55-57.
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  21. Visualizing Human Brain Function.Steven E. Petersen & Adina L. Roskies - 2001 - In E. Bizzi, P. Calissano & V. Volterra (eds.), Frontiers of Life, Vol Iii: The Intelligent Systems, Part One: The Brain of Homo Sapiens. Academic Press.
    Running head: Functional neuroimaging Abstract Several recently developed techniques enable the investigation of the neural basis of cognitive function in the human brain. Two of these, PET and fMRI, yield whole-brain images reflecting regional neural activity associated with the performance of specific tasks. This article explores the spatial and temporal capabilities and limitations of these techniques, and discusses technical, biological, and cognitive issues relevant to understanding the goals and methods of neuroimaging studies. The types of advances in understanding cognitive and (...)
     
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  22.  4
    Memory Deletion Threatens Authenticity by Destabilizing Values.Colton G. W. Hayse & Adina L. Roskies - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):52-54.
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    Can the Law Do Without Retributivism? Comments on Erin Kelly’s The Limits of Blame.Adina L. Roskies - forthcoming - Criminal Law and Philosophy.
    Erin Kelly’s The Limits of Blame presents a critique of our current overly-punitive legal system and champions a system of criminal justice that does not traffic in moral blame and is free of retributivist elements. This commentary questions the viability of such a system, and ultimately suggests that there is not much distance between a more perfect retributivist system and the kind of nuanced and humane system of criminal justice that Kelly envisions.
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    Dimensions of Agency: Conceptual and Data-Driven Approaches.Adina L. Roskies - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):189-191.
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    Neuroethics Fifteen Years On.Adina L. Roskies - 2019 - The Philosophers' Magazine 84:22-28.
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    Neuroethics in the Shadow of a Pandemic.Adina L. Roskies & Ashley Walton - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (3):W1-W4.
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    Rationalization and the Status of Folk Psychology.Adina L. Roskies - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman's theory has implications for the philosophical debate about the nature of folk psychological states, for it entails realism about propositional attitudes. I point out a tension within his view and suggest a different view upon which rationalization emerges as a consequence of the adaptiveness of mentalizing. This alternative avoids the strong metaphysical implications of Cushman's theory.
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    Representational similarity analysis in neuroimaging: proxy vehicles and provisional representations.Adina L. Roskies - forthcoming - Synthese:1-19.
    Functional neuroimaging is sometimes criticized as showing only where in the brain things happen, not how they happen, and thus being unable to inform us about questions of mental and neural representation. Novel analytical methods increasingly make clear that imaging can give us access to constructs of interest to psychology. In this paper I argue that neuroimaging can give us an important, if limited, window into the large-scale structure of neural representation. I describe Representational Similarity Analysis, increasingly used in neuroimaging (...)
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    Response to Sie and Wouters: A Neuroscientific Challenge to Free Will and Responsibility?Adina L. Roskies - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (1):4.
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    What Is the Readiness Potential?Aaron Schurger, Pengbo 'Ben' Hu, Joanna Pak & Adina L. Roskies - forthcoming - Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
    The readiness potential (RP), a slow buildup of electrical potential recorded at the scalp using electroencephalography, has been associated with neural activity involved in movement preparation. It became famous thanks to Benjamin Libet (Brain 1983;106:623–642), who used the time difference between the RP and self-reported time of conscious intention to move to argue that we lack free will. The RP’s informativeness about self-generated action and derivatively about free will has prompted continued research on this neural phenomenon. Here, we argue that (...)
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