The Latin conscius does not translate anything like mind or consciousness. Only in the mid-nineteenth century do we find the first attempts to study consciousness as its own discipline. Wundt, James, and Freud disagreed about how to approach the science of consciousness, although agreeing that psychology was a 'science of consciousness' that takes lived biological experience as its object. The behaviorists vetoed this idea. By the 1950s, for cognitive science, mind (conscious and unconscious) was considered analogous to computer software. Recently, (...) the science of consciousness has returned as Consciousness Studies, a new interdisciplinary synthesis of neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and cultural anthropology. But what is new in this renaissance of the science of consciousness? New first, second and third person approaches all propose to take consciousness itself as a variable. This approach is as controversial as the nineteenth-century science of consciousness--controversy perhaps inherent to any science of consciousness. (shrink)
We cannot talk about the role of philosophy of education in teachers' training programs without examining the relationship between philosophy and educational theories. Even when theoreticians like Kieran Egan, for example, claim that education is a normative discourse that cannot be inferred from "local" empirical psychological research, the role of philosophy seems of utmost importance because philosophy has essentially to do with norms and values. Another way of looking at the "sciences" of education that renews our comprehension of their relationship (...) is by analysing a new cognitive psychological approach named "metacognition" which rests on one's ability to understand one's own cognitive strategies and mechanisms of regulation. The well-known psychologist AdrienPinard in Quebec has been working on those concepts lately, inspired by Flavell's model of cognitive regulation. This approach is remarkably similar both to Wilson's definition of procedural criteria which he claims educational theory is all about and to the very specific method of philosophy, that of analytical and reflective thought. Philosophy or reflective thought cannot be separated from practice in teacher training since education is not only a matter of pedagogical means but also of attitudes to and relationship with another person. Thus, besides theory and practice, a third parameter should be taken into account in the elaboration of a teacher training program: the meta-practice and theory parameter, or the reflection on one's own practice, which is essentially philosophical. (shrink)
L’homme qui médite est un animal dépravé.J.-J. Rouseau Seul l’homme peut être bête de bêtise.J. Derrida Me voici seul sur la terre, n’ayant plus de frere, de prochain, d’ami, de société que moi-même. Le plus sociable et le plus aimant des humains en a été proscrit par un accord unanime. Bien que notre siècle n’ait pas encore débrouillé les paradoxes nouant la solitude superlative du « plus sociable et aimant » des promeneurs resté solitaire, les longs extraits qui suivent voudraient, (...) en cette.. (shrink)
This study assesses the impact had by institutional isomorphic pressures in the organisational fields of 185 businesses operating within the United Kingdom. The emphasis throughout is on how external institutions affect the socially and environmentally responsible aspects of an organization’s purchasing practice. Factor analyses and a linear regression model are employed to test the influence of these pressures. Initial findings suggest that what other industry participants are doing in this area is not as important in affecting the procurement practice of (...) the focal organisation as is the managers’ perception of how legitimacy is awarded by stakeholders and, indeed, if competitors with well-developed social and environmental supply chain management programs are perceived favourably in the industry. (shrink)
Deep learning and other black-box models are becoming more and more popular today. Despite their high performance, they may not be accepted ethically or legally because of their lack of explainability. This paper presents the increasing number of legal requirements on machine learning model interpretability and explainability in the context of private and public decision making. It then explains how those legal requirements can be implemented into machine-learning models and concludes with a call for more inter-disciplinary research on explainability.
ABSTRACTResearch that dissociates different types of processes within a given task using a processing tree approach suggests that attitudes may be acquired through evaluative conditioning in the absence of explicit encoding of CS-US pairings in memory. This research distinguishes explicit memory for the CS-US pairings from CS-liking acquired without encoding of CS-US pairs in explicit memory. It has been suggested that the latter effect may be due to an implicit misattribution process that is assumed to operate when US evocativeness is (...) low. In the present research, the latter assumption was supported neither by two high-powered experiments nor by complementary meta-analytic evidence, whereas evocativeness exerted an influence on explicit memory. This pattern of findings is inconsistent with the view that CS-liking acquired without encoding of CS-US pairs in explicit memory reflects an implicit misattribution process at learning. Hence, the underlying learning process is awaiting further empirical scrutiny. (shrink)
Contributions interdisciplinaires issues d'une journée d'études organisée en 2007 examinant les espaces philosophique et scientifique, d'une part, littéraire et esthétique d'autre part. Etudes de cas dessinant les enjeux sémantiques de l'ordre naturel à travers l'examen de ses mises en discours, théoriques ou imaginaires.
The Weight of the Nation™ conference was held in Washington, D.C. This article presents the issues and topics presented and discussed within the Food and Water System: Agriculture, Access and Sustainability track. Areas for opportunity are outlined in this article.
We classify actions of groups of finite Morley rank on abelian groups of Morley rank 2: there are essentially two, namely the natural actions of SL(V) and GL(V) with V a vector space of dimension 2. We also prove an identification theorem for the natural module of SL₂ in the finite Morley rank category.
Este trabalho apresenta uma pesquisa sobre a religiosidade em Mazagão Velho, expressa por meio das festas devocionais que ali ocorrem, buscando compreendê-las como um elemento histórico de coesão social. Para tanto, parte-se do estudo da mentalidade formada no Brasil colônia com sua ideologia de expansão da fé cristã. É nesse contexto que toma forma o catolicismo popular. A localidade escolhida como base para este estudo apresenta especificidades que a tornam um caso único. Ela traz a memória das antigas lutas entre (...) cristãos e mouros ainda no Marrocos, onde foi primeiramente fundada, sendo posteriormente transferida para o Brasil no século XVIII. Além disso, apresenta um rico processo de interação com os indígenas e africanos, caracterizando-a como uma sociedade multicultural. Essa história ainda é marcada pela degradação social ocorrida no final do século XVIII. Contudo, mesmo passando por diversos reveses, a comunidade subsistiu e mantém-se viva até os dias atuais. Como principal prática social, destacam-se as festas devocionais, que são eventos coletivos que congregam elementos, como as crenças e os rituais que expressam a vida em sociedade. Também fazem parte dessas festas as manifestações culturais surgidas a partir do encontro das culturas ali presentes. Para entender essa longa história, a ideia de coesão social foi essencial. Neste sentido, a pesquisa buscou mostrar que essa comunidade manteve sua existência graças à coesão social ali formada e sustentada pela religiosidade que se manifesta, de maneira mais efetiva, por meio das festas em devoção aos santos católicos em um ciclo que se renova a cada ano. Para tanto, o trabalho foi realizado por meio de uma abordagem interdisciplinar, com uma análise que compreende tanto uma perspectiva histórica quanto uma abordagem sociológica. Para isso, houve a observação de algumas festas in loco, a pesquisa documental e a pesquisa bibliográfica. Conclui-se que as festas devocionais são eventos sociais fortemente marcados pela tradição histórica do local. Ademais, a continuidade histórica dos acontecimentos mostra que, diante dos problemas passados pela localidade, a sociedade encontrou forças na união de seus moradores, nas tradições e na memória de seus antepassados, fortalecendo-se por meio da realização das festas devocionais. (shrink)
It was only progressively, by confronting their spiritual experience and the cultural conditions of their apostolate, that Ignatius and his companions were led to found a new order and then to recognize the importance of teaching in colleges. This article sets out the different stages of that progressive discovery. It recalls how Ignatius passed from his chivalrous desires to those of service of and in the Church, by attending to the interior experience of the Spiritual Exercises and to their being (...) set down in writing. The experience of liberty and an objectifying putting down in writing were two poles, characteristic of modernity, that formed the main bases for inventing Jesuit colleges. Moreover, they were also bases which supported the writing of the Constitutions of the Society. For the Jesuits of today they remain ever innovative points of reference for discernment. (shrink)
Récompensé par trois prix en 2014 (Prix Darlene Clark Hine de l’Organization of American Historians, Prix Frances Richardson Keller-Sierra de la Western Association of Women Historians, et Prix Emily Toth venant des Popular Culture and American Associations), l’ouvrage d’Estelle B. Freedman, professeur d’histoire des États-Unis à l’université de Stanford et spécialiste de l’histoire des femmes et de la sexualité en Amérique du Nord, Redefining Rape : sexual violence in the era of suffrage and...
Ce texte a déjà paru sur Techno-science.net. Des chercheurs découvrent la formule mathématique du rythme et avancent que notre cerveau pourrait être câblé pour y répondre. Une nouvelle étude montre que tout compositeur, de Bach à Brubeck, répète des motifs rythmiques, de sorte que la partie reproduit le tout. Une équipe de recherche dirigée par les neuroscientifiques Daniel Levitin et Vinod Menon, respectivement des universités McGill et Stanford, a analysé les partitions de quelque 2 000 compositions - Mathématiques – Nouvel (...) article. (shrink)
The conclusions of Barbey & Sloman (B&S) crucially depend on evidence for different representations of statistical information. Unfortunately, a muddled distinction made among these representations calls into question the authors' conclusions. We clarify some notions of statistical representations which are often confused in the literature. These clarifications, combined with new empirical evidence, do not support a dual-process model of judgment.
The relevance of analytic metaphysics has come under criticism: Ladyman & Ross, for instance, have suggested do discontinue the field. French & McKenzie have argued in defense of analytic metaphysics that it develops tools that could turn out to be useful for philosophy of physics. In this article, we show first that this heuristic defense of metaphysics can be extended to the scientific field of applied ontology, which uses constructs from analytic metaphysics. Second, we elaborate on a parallel by French (...) & McKenzie between mathematics and metaphysics to show that the whole field of analytic metaphysics, being useful not only for philosophy but also for science, should continue to exist as a largely autonomous field. (shrink)