Results for 'Afifa Anjum'

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  1. A Survey on Depressive Symptoms and Its Correlates Amongst Physicians in Bangladesh During the COVID-19 Pandemic.M. Tasdik Hasan, Afifa Anjum, Md Abdullah Al Jubayer Biswas, Sahadat Hossain, Sayma Islam Alin, Kamrun Nahar Koly, Farhana Safa, Syeda Fatema Alam, Md Abdur Rafi, Vivek Podder, Md Moynul Hossain, Tonima Islam Trisa, Dewan Tasnia Azad, Rhedeya Nury Nodi, Fatema Ashraf, S. M. Quamrul Akther, Helal Uddin Ahmed & Roisin McNaney - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    AimThe aim of this study was to determine the presence of depressive symptoms and understand the potential factors associated with these symptoms among physicians in Bangladesh during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodsA cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted in between April 21 and May 10, 2020, among physicians living in Bangladesh. Participants completed a series of demographic questions, COVID-19-related questions, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Descriptive statistics, test statistics were performed to explore the association between physicians’ experience of depression symptoms (...)
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  2.  20
    Reasons for Facebook Usage: Data From 46 Countries.Marta Kowal, Piotr Sorokowski, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Małgorzata Dobrowolska, Katarzyna Pisanski, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Toivo Aavik, Grace Akello, Charlotte Alm, Naumana Amjad, Afifa Anjum, Kelly Asao, Chiemezie S. Atama, Derya Atamtürk Duyar, Richard Ayebare, Mons Bendixen, Aicha Bensafia, Boris Bizumic, Mahmoud Boussena, David M. Buss, Marina Butovskaya, Seda Can, Katarzyna Cantarero, Antonin Carrier, Hakan Cetinkaya, Daniel Conroy-Beam, Marco A. C. Varella, Rosa M. Cueto, Marcin Czub, Daria Dronova, Seda Dural, Izzet Duyar, Berna Ertugrul, Agustín Espinosa, Ignacio Estevan, Carla S. Esteves, Tomasz Frackowiak, Jorge Contreras-Graduño, Farida Guemaz, Ivana Hromatko, Chin-Ming Hui, Iskra Herak, Jas L. Jaafar, Feng Jiang, Konstantinos Kafetsios, Tina Kavcic, Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair, Nicolas Kervyn, Nils C. Köbis, András Láng, Georgina R. Lennard, Ernesto León, Torun Lindholm, Giulia Lopez, Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba, Alvaro Mailhos, Zoi Manesi, Rocío Martínez, Sarah L. McKerchar & Mesk - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  3. Causes as Powers: Stephen Mumford and Rani Lill Anjum: Getting Causes From Powers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 272pp, £35 HB. [REVIEW]Jennifer McKitrick, Anna Marmodoro, Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum - 2013 - Metascience 22 (3):545-559.
  4.  5
    Afifa MARZOUKI, Amable Tastu, une poétesse à l'époque romantique, Publications de la Faculté des Lettres de la Manouba, Tunis, 1997.Yvonne Knibiehler - 1998 - Clio: A Journal of Literature, History, and the Philosophy of History 1:16-16.
    Afifa Marzouki, maître de conférences à la Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines de la Manouba, Université de Tunis I, a consacré sa thèse à la vie et l'œuvre d'Amable Tastu. L'ouvrage qu'elle publie présente essentiellement l'œuvre poétique : il sera suivi d'une biographie. Une double question court à travers ce livre : pourquoi Amable Tastu a-t-elle connu une si grande célébrité à l'âge romantique ? Pourquoi est-elle ensuite tombée dans un oubli total ? Elle appartenait à la bonne..
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  5.  13
    Ovamir Anjum , Politics, Law, and Community in Islamic Thought: The Taymiyyan Moment . Reviewed By.Abdessamad Belhaj - 2014 - Philosophy in Review 34 (3-4):107-109.
  6.  19
    Industrial Clusters and CSR in Developing Countries: The Role of International Donor Funding.Anjum Fayyaz, Peter Lund-Thomsen & Adam Lindgreen - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (3):619-637.
    This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small- and medium-sized enterprises. A case study of the Sialkot football-manufacturing cluster in Pakistan indicates that donor-funded support of CSR initiatives in industrial clusters in developing countries may be short-lived, due to the political economy of aid, the national context of CSR implementation, tensions within SME (...)
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  7.  2
    Causation in Science and the Methods of Scientific Discovery.Rani Lill Anjum & Stephen Mumford - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    Causation is the main foundation upon which the possibility of science rests. Without causation, there would be no scientific understanding, explanation, prediction, nor application in new technologies. How we discover causal connections is no easy matter, however. Causation often lies hiddenfrom view and it is vital that we adopt the right methods for uncovering it. The choice of methods will inevitably reflect what one takes causation to be, making an accurate account of causation an even more pressing matter. This enquiry (...)
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  8. Afifa MARZOUKI, Amable Tastu, une poétesse à l'époque romantique, Publications de la Faculté des Lettres de la Manouba, Tunis, 1997.Yvonne Knibiehler - 1998 - Clio 7.
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  9. On Pain of Irrationality : Refuting Relativistic Challenges to the Unifiability of Knowledge.Anjum P. Saleemi - 2005 - In Anjum P. Saleemi, Ocke-Schwen Bohn & Albert Gjedde (eds.), In Search of a Language for the Mind-Brain: Can the Multiple Perspectives Be Unified? Aarhus University Press ;.
     
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  10. Introduction : The Enigma of Unification.Anjum P. Saleemi - 2005 - In Anjum P. Saleemi, Ocke-Schwen Bohn & Albert Gjedde (eds.), In Search of a Language for the Mind-Brain: Can the Multiple Perspectives Be Unified? Aarhus University Press ;.
  11.  3
    In Search of a Language for the Mind-Brain: Can the Multiple Perspectives Be Unified?Anjum P. Saleemi, Ocke-Schwen Bohn & Albert Gjedde (eds.) - 2003 - Aarhus University Press ;.
    What is human nature? How is language related to thought -- and should the connection be investigated socially or scientifically? Is external reality coherent or fragmented? What are the foundations of rationality, and how trustworthy are they? Such questions have bedevilled thinkers for millennia. Contemporary scholars have harnessed enormous resources to find answers, yet their inquiry is invariably constrained by the tunnel vision of academic specialisation. This issue of The Dolphin seeks to establish common ground among the disciplines examining the (...)
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  12. Rani Lill Anjum & Stephen Mumford What Tends to Be: The Philosophy of Dispositional Modality. London & New York: Routledge, Hbk Pp. X+193. [REVIEW]Stathis Psillos & Stavros Ioannidis - 2019 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 201903.
    There seems to be widespread agreement that there are two modal values: necessity and possibility. X is necessary if it is not possible that not-X; and Y is possible if it is not necessary that not-Y. In their path-breaking book, Rani Lill Anjum and Stephen Mumford defend the radical idea that there is a third modal value, weaker than necessity and stronger than possibility. This third value is dubbed 'dispositional modality' (DM) or 'tendency' and is taken to be an (...)
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  13. What We Tend to Mean.Rani Lill Anjum & Stephen Mumford - 2011 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 46 (1):20-33.
    In this paper a dispositional account of meaning is offered. Words might dispose towards a particular or ‘literal’ meaning, but whether this meaning is actually conveyed when expressed will depend on a number of factors, such as speaker’s intentions, the context of the utterance and the background knowledge of the hearer. It is thus argued that no meaning is guaranteed or necessitated by the words used.
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  14. With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility - On Causation and Responsibility in Spider-Man, and Possibly Moore.Rani Lill Anjum & Stephen Mumford - 2011 - Critical Essays on "Causation and Responsibility".
    Omissions are sometimes linked to responsibility. A harm can counterfactually depend on an omission to prevent it. If someone had the ability to prevent a harm but didn’t, this could suffice to ground their responsibility for the harm. Michael S. Moore’s claim is illustrated by the tragic case of Peter Parker, shortly after he became Spider-Man. Sick of being pushed around as a weakling kid, Peter became drunk on the power he acquired from the freak bite of a radioactive spider. (...)
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  15.  24
    What Evidence? Whose Medicine? And On What Basis?Rani Lill Anjum - 2017 - The Philosophers' Magazine 77:35-40.
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  16. Logic - a Map of Language?Rani Lill Anjum - manuscript
    This is the trial lecture for Anjum's doctoral defence in 2005 at University of Tromsø.
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  17. Dispositions and Ethics.Rani Lill Anjum, Svein Anders Noer Lie & Stephen Mumford - manuscript
    What is the connection between dispositions and ethics? Some might think very little and those who are interested in dispositions tend to be metaphysicians whose interests are far from value. However, we argue in this paper that dispositions and dispositionality are central to ethics, indeed a precondition. Ethics rests on a number of notions that are either dispositional in nature or involve real dispositions or powers at work. We argue for a dispositional account of value that offers an alternative to (...)
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  18. Review of Mumford and Anjum, Getting Causes From Powers. [REVIEW]Troy Cross - forthcoming - Dialectica.
  19.  6
    Postoperative nutritional support of the patient with gut gangrene—a case report.Samra Imran & Afifa Tanweer - 2019 - Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 38 (1):11.
    Bowel necrosis is a commonly observed condition in elderly patients with longstanding diabetes. In such condition, intestinal resection is usually performed for the removal of the gangrenous part. Post-surgical dietary management after bowel resection poses several challenges for the health care team. The case presented in this study is that of an elderly diabetic male who developed acute renal failure as a result of neglect in post-surgical feeding after intestinal resection. After the intervention by a trained dietitian, a transitional diet (...)
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  20. Book Review: Networks of the Brain. [REVIEW]Fozia Anwar, Afifa Yousafzai & Muaz A. Niazi - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  21.  60
    Mumford and Anjum on Incompatibilism, Powers and Determinism.Penelope Mackie - 2014 - Analysis 74 (4):593-603.
    Mumford and Anjum (2014) present a new argument for the incompatibility of free will and causal determinism. Although their argument depends on the assumption that free will is, or is the exercise of, a causal power, it does not appeal to any special features of this power. Their new argument does, however, depend upon a general thesis of the incompatibility of causal powers with causal determinism. I argue that Mumford and Anjum have provided no justification for this general (...)
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  22. Mumford and Anjum on Causal Necessitarianism and Antecedent Strengthening.E. J. Lowe - 2012 - Analysis 72 (4):731-735.
    Stephen Mumford and Rani Lill Anjum have recently attacked causal necessitarianism – the doctrine that causes necessitate their effects – on the grounds that causation does not survive what they describe as the test of antecedent strengthening. This article shows that there are credible conditional logics which do not sanction this test, thereby providing an escape route for proponents of causal necessitarianism from Mumford and Anjum's argument.
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  23. What's Wrong with Logic?Rani Lill Anjum - 2012 - Argumentos 4 (8).
    The truth functional account of conditional statements ‘if A then B’ is not only inadequate; it eliminates the very conditionality expressed by ‘if’. Focusing only on the truth-values of the statements ‘A’ and ‘B’ and different combinations of these, one is bound to miss out on the conditional relation expressed between them. All approaches that treat conditionals as functions of their antecedents and consequents will end up in some sort of logical atomism where causal matters simply are reduced to the (...)
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  24. The Logic of `If' — or How to Philosophically Eliminate Conditional Relations.Rani Lill Anjum - 2007 - Sorites 19:51-57.
    In this paper I present some of Robert N. McLaughlin's critique of a truth functional approach to conditionals as it appears in his book On the Logic of Ordinary Conditionals. Based on his criticism I argue that the basic principles of logic together amount to epistemological and metaphysical implications that can only be accepted from a logical atomist perspective. Attempts to account for conditional relations within this philosophical framework will necessarily fail. I thus argue that it is not truth functionality (...)
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  25. Three Dogmas of 'If'.Rani Lill Anjum - 2008 - In A. Leirfall & T. Sandmel (eds.), Enhet i Mangfold. Unipub.
    In this paper I argue that a truth functional account of conditional statements ‘if A then B’ not only is inadequate, but that it eliminates the very conditionality expressed by ‘if’. Focusing only on the truth-values of the statements ‘A’ and ‘B’ and different combinations of these, one is bound to miss out on the conditional relation expressed between them. But this is not a flaw only of truth functionality and the material conditional. All approaches that try to treat conditionals (...)
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  26. Paul Grice on Indicative Conditionals.Rani Lill Anjum - manuscript
    Grice argues that indicative conditionals ‘if p then q’ have conventional, truth conditional meaning according to the material conditional ‘p  q’. In order to explain away the known paradoxes with this interpretation, he distinguishes between truth conditions and assertion conditions, attempting to demonstrate that the assumed connection between ‘p’ and ‘q’ (the Indirectness Condition) is a conversational implicature; hence a matter only relevant for the assertion conditions of a conditional. This paper argues that Grice fails to demonstrate i) that (...)
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  27. Powers as Causal Truthmakers.Rani Lill Anjum & Stephen Mumford - 2021 - Disputatio 3 (4).
    Most theories of causation assume that it must involve some kind of necessity, or that the cause must be entirely sufficient for the effect. Others have already suggested that it should be possible to get a theory of causation from a theory of powers or dispositions. Such a project is far from complete but even here we find that the key point in a dispositional theory of causation has been lacking. This paper attempts to establish some of the most important (...)
     
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  28.  77
    Paul Grice.Rani Lill Anjum - 2012 - In Joose Järvenkylä & Ilmari Kortelainen (eds.), Tavallisen kielen filosofia.
    Often we mean something else than what we have said explicitly. Consider the following scenario. I show up in a new flashy dress and ask my friend what she thinks of it. She always tries to help me improve my style and knows that I value her honest opinion. She looks at my dress and says: ‘Excellent fit, but have you gone colour blind?’. From what she says I do not take it that she is interested in whether I’ve got (...)
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  29. Powers as Causal Truthmakers.Rani Lill Anjum & Stephen Mumford - 2014 - Disputatio. Philosophical Research Bulletin 3 (4):5--31.
    [EN]Most theories of causation assume that it must involve some kind of necessity, or that the cause must be entirely sufficient for the effect. Others have already suggested that it should be possible to get a theory of causation from a theory of powers or dispositions. Such a project is far from complete but even here we find that the key point in a dispositional theory of causation has been lacking. This paper attempts to establish some of the most important (...)
     
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  30. En Språklig Verden. Noen Tanker Om Språk Og Erkjennelse.Rani Lill Anjum - 2006 - In Sissel Redse Jørgensen & Rani Lill Anjum (eds.), Tegn som Språk.
    Språket vårt utgjør en stor del av vår identitet. Det er et redskap for kommunikasjon med andre mennesker, men også med oss selv. Vi uttrykker oss gjennom språket, og vi tenker ved hjelp av språket. Men hva er egentlig språk? Gjennom å ta for meg to vesensforskjellige tilnærminger til dette spørsmålet ønsker jeg å vise at det synet vi har på språk, har stor filosofiske betydning. Dette er fordi et språksyn nødvendigvis vil få konsekvenser for hvordan vi tenker om beslektede (...)
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  31.  1
    Donald Gillies's Causality, Probability, and Medicine. [REVIEW]Rani Lill Anjum - 2019 - BJPS Review of Books.
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  32. David Hume.Rani Lill Anjum & Kjersti Fjørtoft - 1999 - In Linda Rustad & Hilde Bondevik (eds.), Kjønnsperspektiver i filosofihistorien. Pax Forlag.
  33. Evidence Based or Person Centered? An Ontological Debate.Rani Lill Anjum - 2016 - European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare 4 (2):421-429.
    Evidence based medicine (EBM) is under critical debate, and person centered healthcare (PCH) has been proposed as an improvement. But is PCH offered as a supplement or as a replacement of EBM? Prima facie PCH only concerns the practice of medicine, while the contended features of EBM also include methods and medical model. I here argue that there are good philosophical reasons to see PCH as a radical alternative to the existing medical paradigm of EBM, since the two seem committed (...)
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  34. Conditional Probability From an Ontological Point of View.Rani Lill Anjum, Johan Arnt Myrstad & Stephen Mumford - manuscript
    This paper argues that the technical notion of conditional probability, as given by the ratio analysis, is unsuitable for dealing with our pretheoretical and intuitive understanding of both conditionality and probability. This is an ontological account of conditionals that include an irreducible dispositional connection between the antecedent and consequent conditions and where the conditional has to be treated as an indivisible whole rather than compositional. The relevant type of conditionality is found in some well-defined group of conditional statements. As an (...)
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  35. Conditionals and Truth Functionality.Rani Lill Anjum - manuscript
    The material interpretation of conditionals is commonly recognized as involving some paradoxical results. I here argue that the truth functional approach to natural language is the reason for the inadequacy of this material interpretation, since the truth or falsity of some pair of statements ‘p’ and ‘q’ cannot per se be decisive for the truth or falsity of a conditional relation ‘if p then q’. This inadequacy also affects the ability of the overall formal system to establish whether or not (...)
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  36. Because You’Ll Find Out Anyway, Your Wife is Having an Affair - If and Because.Rani Lill Anjum - manuscript
    In an explanation ‘y because x’, because can be used to express an explanatory relation between an explanandum ‘y’ and an explanans ‘x’. But because can also be used to express the speaker’s reason for uttering ‘y’. This difference will be elucidated by connecting it with the distinction between the at-issue dimension and the speaker dimension of meaning. There are also internal relations between if and because that can help us find and analyse different uses of because, and thus also (...)
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  37. Alternativt Eller Etablert? Hva Er Forskjellen?Rani Lill Anjum & Johan Arnt Myrstad - 2009 - Www.Nifab.No.
    Hva er vitenskap og hva anser vi som vitenskaplighet? Dette er spørsmål som kan være verdt å se nøyere på før vi aksepterer at det er et klart skille mellom den etablerte skolemedisinen og alt det vi kaller ”alternativ medisin” eller ”alternativ behandling”. For hva er det egentlig som gjør noe til etablert og noe annet til et alternativ? Er den etablerte medisin mer vitenskapelig enn den alternative, ved at den for eksempel benytter seg av mer vitenskapelige metoder? Er resultatene (...)
     
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  38. All Men Are Animals: Hypothetical, Categorical, or Material?Rani Lill Anjum & Johan Arnt Myrstad - manuscript
    The conditional interpretation of general categorical statements like ‘All men are animals’ as universally quantified material conditionals ‘For all x, if x is F, then x is G’ suggests that the logical structure of law statements is conditional rather than categorical. Disregarding the problem that the universally quantified material conditional is trivially true whenever there are no xs that are F, there are some reasons to be sceptical of Frege’s equivalence between categorical and conditional expressions. -/- Now many philosophers will (...)
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  39. Alternativt Eller Etablert? Hva Er Forskjellen?Rani Lill Anjum & Johan Arnt Myrstad - manuscript
    Hva er vitenskap og hva anser vi som vitenskaplighet? Dette er spørsmål som kan være verdt å se nøyere på før vi aksepterer at det er et klart skille mellom den etablerte skolemedisinen og alt det vi kaller ”alternativ medisin” eller ”alternativ behandling”. For hva er det egentlig som gjør noe til etablert og noe annet til et alternativ? Er den etablerte medisin mer vitenskapelig enn den alternative, ved at den for eksempel benytter seg av mer vitenskapelige metoder? Er resultatene (...)
     
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  40. Getting Causes From Powers.Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Causation is everywhere in the world: it features in every science and technology. But how much do we understand it? Mumford and Anjum develop a new theory of causation based on an ontology of real powers or dispositions. They provide the first detailed outline of a thoroughly dispositional approach, and explore its surprising features.
  41. Tegn Som Språk.Sissel Redse Jørgensen & Rani Lill Anjum (eds.) - 2006 - Gyldendal Akademisk.
    This book is an interdisciplinary anthology dealing with sign language. It is meant to give some insight into basic philosophical and cultural issues related to sign language, and thus to provide a theoretical foundation for understanding the importance of sign language as language. The 14 authors come from various professional academic disciplines (philosophy, education, linguistics, social anthropology, political science and theology being some of them) and from a variety of professions within the Deaf community (interpreting, translation, pastorate, sign language research, (...)
     
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  42.  4
    Gender Differences in Making Moral Decisions: The Ethics of Care Perspective in Pakistan.Sania Bilwani & Gulnaz Anjum - 2022 - Ethics and Social Welfare 16 (1):73-89.
  43.  23
    Why Causal Evidencing of Risk Fails. An Example From Oil Contamination.Elena Rocca & Rani Lill Anjum - 2019 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 22 (2):197-213.
    ABSTRACTMeasurements of environmental toxicity from long-term exposure to oil contamination have delivered inaccurate and contradictory results regarding the potential harms for humans and ecosyste...
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  44. Chishtī Sufis in the Sultanate of Delhi 1190–1400: From Restrained Indifference to Calculated Defiance. By Tanvir Anjum[REVIEW]Bruce B. Lawrence - 2021 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 134 (1).
    Chishtī Sufis in the Sultanate of Delhi 1190–1400: From Restrained Indifference to Calculated Defiance. By Tanvir Anjum. Karachi: Oxford Univ. Press, 2011. Pp. xviii + 433. $31.95.
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  45. Freedom and Control - On the Modality of Free Will.Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum - 2015 - American Philosophical Quarterly 52 (1):1-12.
    Free will is a problem of modality, hampered by a commitment to modal dualism: the view that there is only necessity and pure contingency. If we have necessity, then things couldn't have been otherwise, against the Principle of Alternate Possibilities (AP). If there is complete contingency, then the agent seems to have no control over her actions, against the principle of Ultimate Authorship (UA). There is a third modality in natural causal processes, however. AP and UA can be reconciled if (...)
     
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  46. Dispositional Modality.Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum - 2011 - In C. F. Gethmann (ed.), Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft, Deutsches Jahrbuch Philosophie 2. Meiner Verlag.
    There has been much discussion of powers or real dispositions in the past decade, but there remains an issue that has been inadequately treated. This concerns the precise modal value that comes with dispositionality. We contend in this paper that dispositionality involves a non-alethic, sui generis, irreducible modality. Dispositions only tend towards their manifestations; they do not necessitate them. Tendency is, of course, a dispositional term itself, so this last statement offers little by way of illumination. But given our thesis (...)
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  47. Causal Dispositionalism.Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum - 2012 - In Alexander Bird, Brian Ellis & Howard Sankey (eds.), Properties, Powers, and Structures: Issues in the Metaphysics of Realism. Routledge.
  48.  9
    Causation: A Very Short Introduction.Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Without cause and effect, there would be no science or technology, no moral responsibility, and no system of law. Causation is therefore the most fundamental connection in the universe and a core topic of philosophical thought. This Very Short Introduction introduces all of the main theories of causation and its key debates.
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  49. A Powerful Theory of Causation.Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum - 2010 - In Anna Marmodoro (ed.), The Metaphysics of Powers: Their Grounding and Their Manifestations. Routledge. pp. 143--159.
    Hume thought that if you believed in powers, you believed in necessary connections in nature. He was then able to argue that there were none such because anything could follow anything else. But Hume wrong-footed his opponents. A power does not necessitate its manifestations: rather, it disposes towards them in a way that is less than necessary but more than purely contingent. -/- In this paper a dispositional theory of causation is offered. Causes dispose towards their effects and often produce (...)
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  50.  64
    The Tendential Theory of Sporting Prowess.Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum - 2014 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 41 (3):399-412.
    The results of sport would not interest us if either they were necessitated or they were a matter of pure chance. And if either case were true, the playing of sport would seem to make no sense either. This poses a dilemma. But there is something between these two options, namely the dispositional modality. Sporting prowess can be understood as a disposition towards victory and sporting liabilities a disposition towards defeat. The sporting contest then pits these net prowesses against each (...)
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