Drawing on several issues and methods in Western philosophy, from analytical philosophy to semiotics and hermeneutics, the author throws new light on the ancient Zhuangzi text. Engaging Daoism and contemporary Western philosophical logic, and drawing on new developments in our understanding of early Chinese culture, Coutinho challenges the interpretation of Zhuangzi as either a skeptic or a relativist, and instead seeks to explore his philosophy as emphasizing the ineradicable vagueness of language, thought and reality. This new interpretation of the (...) Zhuangzi offers an important development in the understanding of Daoist philosophy, describing a world in flux in which things themselves are vague and inconsistent, and tries to show us a Way (a Dao) to negotiate through the shadows of a "chaotic" world. (shrink)
Coutinho respects the multiplicity of Daoist philosophies while also revealing a distinctive philosophical sensibility, and he provides clear explanations of these complex texts without resorting to oversimplification.
: The role of vagueness in the Laozi is explored by investigating its connection with "process." First, a hermeneutic methodology is developed and adopted, derived from Peirce's notion of "abduction." Second, this notion is analyzed, and several distinctive characteristics, or "traces," of vagueness are identified. Third, evidence of these traces in the text of the Laozi is collected, with comments on their significance in the Daoist context.
Introduction -- Youth, a contradictory formation: 1910-18 -- Workers' democracy and factory-councils: 1919-20 -- Passage to maturity: 1921-6 -- Methodological observations on the prison notebooks -- The 'extended' theory of the state -- The party as 'collective intellectual' -- The current relevance and universality of Gramsci.
We agree with Carruthers that evidence for metacognition in species lacking mindreading provides dramatic evidence in favor of the metacognition-is-prior account and against the mindreading-is-prior account. We discuss this existing evidence and explain why an evolutionary perspective favors the former account and poses serious problems for the latter account.
That humans can categorize in different ways does not imply that there are qualitatively distinct underlying natural kinds or that the field of concepts splinters. Rather, it implies that the unitary goal of forming concepts is important enough that it receives redundant expression in cognition. Categorization science focuses on commonalities involved in concept learning. Eliminating makes this more difficult.
This paper informs the results of a research which aimed to analysed the meanings of work for women in a small poultry slaughterhouse, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The understanding of the meanings was supported by the Social Psychology related to social constructionism theory. The information w..
The po lit i cal thought of An to nio Gramsci has not lost rel e vance and va lid ity in its in ter - pre ta tion and crit i cism of the mod ern cap i tal ist State. His the o ret i cal and prac ti cal con tri bu - tions are many, but this work in tends to high - light his in ter est ing con ce..
Este artigo tem como objectivo organizar as teorias da secularização de forma diferente, assentando-as em filiações filosóficas/sociológicas e em níveis de análise. Para tal, como método, usa-se a análise comparada de conteúdo das teorias e/ou dos trabalhos mais relevantes dos principais autores. As teorias podem dividir-se em dois grupos principais, adeptos e adversários da secularização. Enquanto os adeptos se afiguram como aprofundamentos e ajustamentos das teorias clássicas à realidade contemporânea, advogando sobretudo a religiosidade individual, os adversários apresentam concepções diferentes das (...) teorias clássicas da secularização, defendendo a permanência da religiosidade institucional. No primeiro grupo encontram-se as teorias pós-clássicas e as teorias da individualização, enquanto no segundo grupo apresentam-se o modelo económico, as teorias do regresso e as teorias histórico-culturais. Weber e Durkheim, e as correntes epistemológicas que representam, são a maior influência das várias teorias existentes, umas mais descendentes do primeiro, outras do segundo. O modelo económico distingue-se das restantes teorias por ser a única que não é influenciada por Weber e que é influenciada pelo empirismo anglo-saxónico. (shrink)
Este artigo visa analisar o processo de recepção do Concílio Vaticano II nas “Igrejas locais” do Maranhão a partir da teoria do agir comunicativo de Jürgen Habermas. A partir de uma questão levantada por José Oscar Beozzo, historiador brasileiro do Concílio Vaticano II, queremos saber de que modo áreas relativamente periféricas para a gestação e produção do Concílio aprestaram-se para a sua recepção e a realizaram à sua maneira. O tema se torna interessante porque foram justamente nessas áreas relativamente marginais (...) durante a gesta conciliar, que se tornaram das mais relevantes para sua recepção, durante o período pós-conciliar. O que pensar, então, da recepção do Vaticano II em áreas periféricas à periferia? No caso brasileiro, estamos nos referindo àquelas “Igrejas” que estariam longe dos grandes centros urbanos, dos centros de decisão política e econômica, dos avanços tecnológicos e das inovações culturais. Para responder, lançamos a hipótese de que por meio da “verbalização do sagrado” a Igreja no Maranhão veio (e vem) realizando sua recepção do Concílio tendo como fio condutor a construção de uma esfera pública democrática no “mundo da vida” contra a colonização pelo “sistema”. Palavras-chave : Concílio Vaticano II, Igreja Católica, Jürgen Habermas, teoria do agir comunicativo, esfera pública democrática.This article aims to analyze the process of reception of Vatican II in "Churches" of Maranhão by the theory of communicative action of Jürgen Habermas. From a question raised by José Oscar Beozzo, brazilian Vatican II historian, we want to know how relatively remote areas, during the gestation and production of the Council, were preparing for their reception and made his own way. This is interesting because it was in these relatively marginal areas, during the Council, which became the most relevant for the reception, during the post-council period. Then, what think about the reception of Vatican II in the periphery of periphery? We are referring, in Brazil, to those “churches” that are far from major urban centers of political and economic decision, technological and cultural innovations. The hypothesis is: by "sacred verbalization" the Maranhão Church’s which continues doing his reception, lead by the construction of a democratic public sphere in the "life world" against "system" colonization. Key words : Vatican II Council, Catholic Church, Jürgen Habermas, theory of communicative action, democratic public sphere. (shrink)
Lukács and Twentieth Century Literature Tough he elaborated a robust system of Marxist aesthetics whose categories enabled him to formulate a brilliant analysis of the 19th century realist novel, Lukács proved unable to understand the literature of the 20th century. In fact he either ignored or regarded as “decadent” almost all the major representatives of the avant-garde, such as Proust and Kafka. is was not due to the intrinsic limitations of the aesthetic categories themselves. It was rather an effect of (...) his “optimistic” vision of the historical period following after the 1917 Revolution and the hypothesis of the development of socialism. is led him to regard as anti-realist the alleged “pessimism” of the avant-garde. Towards the end of his life, Lukács did however adopt a more critical position towards “real socialism”. He thus moved towards a more positive understanding of the literature of his time. (shrink)
American Trypanosomiasis, known as Chagas disease, was discovered in 1909 under peculiar circumstances: its discoverer, Carlos Chagas, was sent to a small village of Central Brazil to carry out an anti-malaria campaign when he came across a blood sucking insect--the vector for the parasite infection. He had been alerted to the coincidence of peculiar symptoms and the presence of this insect in the wood and earth dwellings of the region. He was deeply involved in theoretical controversies in international protozoology; he (...) was engaged in the consolidation of a scientific role and corresponding institutional conditions in Brazil, and equally immersed in the nationalist sanitary struggles of his days. In these contexts, Chagas assembled a remarkable discovery discourse, regarding the biology of the parasite, its life cycle and mode of transmission. Furthermore, he provided the clinical description of a new disease. Despite immediate international recognition, however, the unstable institutional arrangements surrounding his work damaged its local legitimacy for decades. His authority was widely recognized abroad, but rejected at home. (shrink)
This paper presents results of the author’s PhD research: Catholic beliefs and practices, attitudes toward marriage, life and sexuality. The empirical support is a survey made to a sample of 500 students from Lisbon public universities, using a non-random sampling in two phases, first a quota sampling and after a convenience one. There are some results that stand out. More than half of students of the sample call themselves Catholic and believe in the dogmatic representations about God, Jesus and Mary, (...) though other dogmatic beliefs as hell, purgatory and resurrection are much lower. There is some spirituality among students, although the importance of God is less important. The frequencies of the Mass, prayer, Holy Communion, confession are all very low. The attitudes toward marriage, life and sexuality lie between ‘some’ and ‘very’, with abortion having the smallest rating and contraception the highest. In general, undergraduate youth is away from the norms of the Church. At the same time, these youngsters believe and belong more than they practice. Keywords: Beliefs. Practices. Attitudes. Portugal. Undergraduate students. Resumo Este artigo apresenta resultados da tese de doutoramento do autor: crenças e práticas católicas, atitudes em relação ao casamento, à vida e à sexualidade. O suporte empírico é um inquérito aplicado a uma amostra de 500 estudantes das universidades públicas de Lisboa, usando uma amostragem não aleatória em duas fases, primeiro a amostragem por quotas e depois a amostragem por conveniência. Há alguns resultados que se destacam. Mais do que metade da amostra denomina-se católica e acredita nas representações dogmáticas de Deus, Jesus e Maria, embora outras crenças dogmáticas como inferno, purgatório e ressurreição sejam bastante mais baixas. Há alguma espiritualidade entre os estudantes, embora menos considerem que Deus seja importante. A frequência da Missa, oração, comunhão, confissão é muito baixa. As atitudes relativamente ao casamento, vida e sexualidade estão entre ‘alguma’ e ‘muita’, tendo o aborto o valor mais pequeno e a contracepção o valor maior. Na generalidade, a juventude universitária está afastada das normas da Igreja. Ao mesmo tempo, eles acreditam e pertencem mais do que praticam. Palavras-chave: Crenças. Práticas. Atitudes. Portugal. Estudantes niversitários. (shrink)
The present study aimed at describing the research activities executed by researchers on organizational and work psychology in the state of Santa Catarina. The considered aspects were the psychological phenomena investigated by researchers, the types of procedures and instruments employed with great..
David Luban identifies a tension between Arendt's conception of ethnic identification in a context of persecution and her conception of humanity. That tension pertains to the reality—or realities—that Arendt addresses: the moral reality of her Bildung that appears throughout her work, and is centered on the “dignity of man,” on the one hand, and the divisive, “political” reality that she was forced to face when “attacked as a Jew,” on the other. By implicitly accepting that in a context of persecution (...) one cannot escape the framing relevance of the “political” —an idea that is also present in her imaginary condemnation speech of Eichmann—Arendt betrays a fundamental theme of her work: “forgiveness” and the inherent possibility of a “new beginning.”. (shrink)