The Mīmā ṃ sā school of Indian philosophy elaborated complex ways of interpreting the prescriptive portions of the Vedic sacred texts. The present article is the result of the collaboration of a group of scholars of logic, computer science, European philosophy and Indian philosophy and aims at the individuation and analysis of the deontic system which is applied but never explicitly discussed in Mīmā ṃ sā texts. The article outlines the basic distinction between three sorts of principles —hermeneutic, linguistic and (...) deontic. It proposes a mathematical formalization of the deontic principles and uses it to discuss a well-known example of seemingly conflicting statements, namely the prescription to undertake the malefic Śyena sacrifice and the prohibition to perform any harm. (shrink)
This is an introductory handbook for some of the main themes around the notion of predication in Aristotle. It does not aim at being exhaustive, but only sketches some important lines about the subject; it contains an introductory essay, besides the translation (into Portuguese) and commentary of basic texts (such as Posterior Analytics I-22, Categories 1-5, Interpretation 1-6 etc.).
As children in elementary school we were taught to recite the alphabet in order: “Aay, Bee, See, Dee, Eii, Eff, Ghee, Aaych, …, Why and Zee”. There is nothing natural about this particular ordering: it is strictly a matter of convention. (When and where it was settled upon I haven’t the remotest notion.) Then, having mastered the ordering, we were taught to apply that knowledge to alphabetize lists of words. The procedure is surprisingly complex, and its mastery by mere eight-year (...) olds attests to the elevated intellectual capacities of human beings. One merely has to try to write down the procedure in a flow chart to see how complex it truly is. In any event, most of us probably emerged from the exercise of learning to use a dictionary believing that we knew all there is to know about alphabetizing. If only that were all there is to it. The trouble is that our third-grade teachers had not reckoned on our having to program computers to alphabetize.. (shrink)
In the past thirty years, two fundamental issues have emerged in the philosophy of science. One concerns the appropriate attitude we should take towards scientific theories--whether we should regard them as true or merely empirically adequate, for example. The other concerns the nature of scientific theories and models and how these might best be represented. In this ambitious book, da Costa and French bring these two issues together by arguing that theories and models should be regarded as partially rather than (...) wholly true. They adopt a framework that sheds new light on issues to do with belief, theory acceptance, and the realism-antirealism debate. The new machinery of "partial structures" that they develop offers a new perspective from which to view the nature of scientific models and their heuristic development. Their conclusions will be of wide interest to philosophers and historians of science. (shrink)
Este artigo investiga as mudanças conceituais revolucionárias que ocorreram quando a teoria do flogisto de Stahl foi substituída pela teoria do oxigênio de Lavoisier. Utilizando técnicas extraídas da inteligência artificial, o artigo descreve os estágios cruciais no desenvolvimento conceitual de Lavoisier, de 1772 até 1789. Em seguida, é esboçada uma teoria computacional da mudança conceitual de modo a explicar a descoberta de Lavoisier da teoria do oxigênio e a substituiçáo da teoria do flogisto. Este artigo é uma traduçáo de “The (...) Conceptual Structure of The Chemical Revolution”, publicado originalmente em Philosophy of Science , número 57, p. 183-209, 1990. Todos os direitos do artigo pertencem à revista Philosophy of Science , editada pela University of Chicago Press. O copyright do artigo original é de 1990, da Philosophy of Science Association. Os tradutores agradecem a Paul Thagard e a Philosophy of Science a permissáo para esta traduçáo. [NT.]. (shrink)
This paper presents an overview of the methods of hypersequents and display sequents in the proof theory of non-classical logics. In contrast with existing surveys dedicated to hypersequent calculi or to display calculi, our aim is to provide a unified perspective on these two formalisms highlighting their differences and similarities and discussing applications and recent results connecting and comparing them.
It is usually stated that quantum mechanics presents problems with the identity of particles, the most radical position—supported by E. Schrödinger—asserting that elementary particles are not individuals. But the subject goes deeper, and it is even possible to obtain states with an undefined particle number. In this work we present a set theoretical framework for the description of undefined particle number states in quantum mechanics which provides a precise logical meaning for this notion. This construction goes in the line of (...) solving a problem posed by Y. Manin, namely, to incorporate quantum mechanical notions at the foundations of mathematics. We also show that our system is capable of representing quantum superpositions. (shrink)
Abstract A general framework is proposed for accommodating the recent results of studies into ?natural? decision making. A crucial element of this framework is the notion of a ?partial structure?, recently introduced into the semantic approach to scientific theories. It is through the introduction of this element that connections can be made with certain problems regarding inconsistency and rationality in general.
We perform a proof-theoretical investigation of two modal predicate logics: global intuitionistic logic GI and global intuitionistic fuzzy logic GIF. These logics were introduced by Takeuti and Titani to formulate an intuitionistic set theory and an intuitionistic fuzzy set theory together with their metatheories. Here we define analytic Gentzen style calculi for GI and GIF. Among other things, these calculi allows one to prove Herbrand’s theorem for suitable fragments of GI and GIF.
The issue of what consequences to draw from the existence of non-classical logical systems has been the subject of an interesting debate across a diversity of fields. In this paper the matter of alternative logics is considered with reference to a specific belief system and its propositions :the Azande are said to maintain beliefs about witchcraft which, when expressed propositionally, appear to be inconsistent. When the Azande have been presented with such inconsistencies, they either fail to see them as such (...) or else accept them as non-problematical. Is our knowledge of logical truths a relative and culturally determined phenomenon, or is there some (transcendent) criterion that allows us to adjudicate between alternative logical systems? The authors propose an approach for resolving disputes about the status of Azande reasoning which assumes a paraconsistent framework, thus providing a new perspective on this debate. (shrink)
Este artigo investiga a presença da semiótica de C. S. Peirce na filosofia de Gilles Deleuze. O interesse pelas ideias de Peirce se deu a partir da parceria que Deleuze estabeleceu com Félix Guattari, e que se manifesta no uso dos conceitos de semiótica e diagrama em sua obra conjunta “Mil platôs”. Mais tarde, Deleuze faria um uso mais aprofundado da semiótica de Peirce em seus livros e cursos sobre cinema.
O presente trabalho tem por finalidade abordar, em aspectos psicogenéticos, a importância da construção das noções de tempo e espaço na Educação Infantil. A criança, desde muito cedo, procura se adaptar ao espaço e ao tempo em que está situada. As primeiras estruturas mentais se constroem em função das coordenações do corpo no espaço e das sequências temporais das ações. Sendo então a criança um ser ativo, acreditamos que podem ser desenvolvidas práticas pedagógicas na Educação Infantil que se ocupem do (...) desenvolvimento da inteligência. Muitas vezes, os professores ficam temerosos em desenvolver atividades que propiciem a construção das noções de espaço e tempo, dada a dificuldade de abordagem. Além das práticas de cuidado, a Educação Infantil também está envolvida no desenvolvimento cognitivo dos pequenos, e a construção das noções de tempo e espaço pode auxiliar nessa tarefa.This work aims to address in psychogenetic aspects, the importance of the construction of notions of time and space in Child Education. The child, too early, looking forward to adapt to space and time in which it is located. The first mental structures are built according to the coordination of the body in space and the temporal sequences of actions. Since then the child be an active, we believe that teaching can be developed on Child Education dealing with the development of intelligence. Often, teachers are afraid to develop activities that provide the construction of notions of space and time, given the difficulty of approach. In addition to the practices of care, early childhood education is also involved in the cognitive development of small and construction of notions of time and space can assist in this task. (shrink)
In this article I aim at developing a phenomenology ofillness through a critical interpretation of the worksof Sigmund Freud and Martin Heidegger. The phenomenonof ``Unheimlichkeit'' â uncanniness and unhomelikenessâ is demonstrated not only to play a key role in thetheories of Freud and Heidegger, but also toconstitute the essence of the experience of illness.Two different modes of unhomelikeness â ``The minduncanny'' and ``The world uncanny'' â are in thisconnection explored as constitutive parts of thephenomenon of illness. The consequence I draw (...) fromthis analysis is that the mission of health careprofessionals must be not only to cure diseases, butactually, through devoting attention to thebeing-in-the-world of the patient, also to open uppossible paths back to homelikeness. This mission canonly be carried out if medicine acknowledges the basicimportance of the meaning-realm of the patient's lifeâ his or her life-world characteristics. (shrink)
Physical superpositions exist both in classical and in quantum physics. However, what is exactly meant by ‘superposition’ in each case is extremely different. In this paper we discuss some of the multiple interpretations which exist in the literature regarding superpositions in quantum mechanics. We argue that all these interpretations have something in common: they all attempt to avoid ‘contradiction’. We argue in this paper, in favor of the importance of developing a new interpretation of superpositions which takes into account contradiction, (...) as a key element of the formal structure of the theory, “right from the start”. In order to show the feasibility of our interpretational project we present an outline of a paraconsistent approach to quantum superpositions which attempts to account for the contradictory properties present in general within quantum superpositions. This approach must not be understood as a closed formal and conceptual scheme but rather as a first step towards a different type of understanding regarding quantum superpositions. (shrink)
Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é evidenciar que a ideia de antropologia pragmática desenvolvida nas versões dos cursos de antropologia, que são Collegentwürfe, Menschenkunde e Anthropologie Dohna-Wundlackende, se ocupa de uma definição moral, porque ela está subordinada à doutrina da prudência. Essa é compreendida como a capacidade de os seres humanos influenciarem uns aos outros, segundo certos fins, os quais deverão ser úteis na vida em sociedade. Além disso, delimita-se que o sentido do adjetivo “pragmático”, presente nessas versões dos cursos (...) de antropologia, foi retirado da obra Initia Philosophiae practicae prima, de Baumgarten, pois, nas anotações de Kant acerca dessa obra, os motivos pragmáticos sempre determinarão leis privadas do arbítrio, as quais poderão, a priori, representar um interesse moral e, a posteriori, a realização de um fim almejado pelo ser racional finito. Por essa razão, defende-se haver nas obras kantianas citadas uma sinonímia entre a noção de antropologia pragmática e de doutrina da prudência.This article aims to evidence that the idea of pragmatic anthropology developed in the versions of the courses of anthropology that are Collegentwürfe, Menschenkunde and Anthropologie Dohna-Wundlackende, occupies of a moral definition, because it is subordinated to the doctrine of prudence. This doctrine is understood as the capacity from the human beings to influence each other according to certain goals, the ones that should be useful in social life. Besides that, we will delimit that the meaning of the pragmatic adjective present in these versions of the courses of anthropology was withdrawn from the work Initia Philosophiae practicae prima from Baumgarten, because in the notes of Kant about this work the pragmatic motives will always determine private laws of the will, the ones who may, a priori, represent a moral interest and, a posteriori, the accomplishment of a desired end by its finite rational being. By this reason, we defend to have in the quoted Kantian works a synonymy between the notion of pragmatic anthropology and the doctrine of prudence. (shrink)
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