Results for 'Aim of science'

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  1. A Tale of Three Theories: Feyerabend and Popper on Progress and the Aim of Science.Luca Tambolo - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 51:33-41.
    In this paper, three theories of progress and the aim of science are discussed: the theory of progress as increasing explanatory power, advocated by Popper in The logic of scientific discovery ; the theory of progress as approximation to the truth, introduced by Popper in Conjectures and refutations ; the theory of progress as a steady increase of competing alternatives, which Feyerabend put forward in the essay “Reply to criticism. Comments on Smart, Sellars and Putnam” and defended as late (...)
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  2. Evolutionary Epistemology and the Aim of Science.Darrell P. Rowbottom - 2010 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (2):209-225.
    Both Popper and van Fraassen have used evolutionary analogies to defend their views on the aim of science, although these are diametrically opposed. By employing Price's equation in an illustrative capacity, this paper considers which view is better supported. It shows that even if our observations and experimental results are reliable, an evolutionary analogy fails to demonstrate why conjecture and refutation should result in: (1) the isolation of true theories; (2) successive generations of theories of increasing truth-likeness; (3) empirically (...)
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  3. Realism and the Aim of Science.Karl R. Popper - 1983 - Routledge.
    Popper formulates and explains his non-justificationist theory of knowledge. Science--empirical science--aims at true explanatory theories, yet it can never prove, finally establish, or justify any of its theories as true, not even if it is in fact a true theory. Science must continue to question and criticize all its theories, even those which happen to be true.
     
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  4. Methodological Pluralism, Normative Naturalism and the Realist Aim of Science.Howard Sankey - 2000 - In Howard Sankey & Robert Nola (eds.), After Popper, Kuhn and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method.
    There are two chief tasks which confront the philosophy of scientific method. The first task is to specify the methodology which serves as the objective ground for scientific theory appraisal and acceptance. The second task is to explain how application of this methodology leads to advance toward the aim(s) of science. In other words, the goal of the theory of method is to provide an integrated explanation of both rational scientific theory choice and scientific progress.
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  5.  74
    Realism and the Aim of Science: From the Postscript to the Logic of Scientific Discovery.Karl Popper - 1992 - Routledge.
    Realism and the Aim of Science is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper’s Postscript to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The Postscript is the culmination of Popper’s work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science. Realism and the Aim of Science is the first volume of the Postcript . Popper here formulates and explains his non-justificationist theory of knowledge: science aims at true explanatory theories, (...)
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  6. Realism and the Aim of Science: From the Postscript to the Logic of Scientific Discovery.Iii Bartley (ed.) - 1992 - Routledge.
    _Realism and the Aim of Science_ is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper’s _Postscript_ to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The _Postscript_ is the culmination of Popper’s work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science. _Realism and the Aim of Science_ is the first volume of the _Postcript_. Popper here formulates and explains his non-justificationist theory of knowledge: science aims at true explanatory theories, yet it can (...)
     
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  7. Realism and the Aim of Science: From the Postscript to the Logic of Scientific Discovery.Iii Bartley (ed.) - 2013 - Routledge.
    _Realism and the Aim of Science_ is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper’s _Postscript_ to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The _Postscript_ is the culmination of Popper’s work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science. _Realism and the Aim of Science_ is the first volume of the _Postcript_. Popper here formulates and explains his non-justificationist theory of knowledge: science aims at true explanatory theories, yet it can (...)
     
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  8. Realism and the Aim of Science: From the Postscript to the Logic of Scientific Discovery.Iii Bartley (ed.) - 2015 - Routledge.
    _Realism and the Aim of Science_ is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper’s _Postscript_ to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The _Postscript_ is the culmination of Popper’s work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science. _Realism and the Aim of Science_ is the first volume of the _Postcript_. Popper here formulates and explains his non-justificationist theory of knowledge: science aims at true explanatory theories, yet it can (...)
     
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  9.  5
    Realism and the Aim of Science[REVIEW]David Bloor - 1984 - British Journal for the History of Science 17 (2):217-221.
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  10.  1
    Physics and its Concepts Karl R. Popper, Realism and the Aim of Science. London: Hutchinson, 1983. ISBN 0-09-151450-9 Cased. The Open Universe. An Argument for Indeterminism. London: Hutchinson, 1982. ISBN 0-09-146180-4 . £15.00. Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics. London, Hutchinson, 1982. ISBN 0-09-146170-7 . £15.00. [REVIEW]David Bloor - 1984 - British Journal for the History of Science 17 (2):217.
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  11. Realism and the Aim of Science.R. Popper Karl & W. W. Bartley - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (4):669-671.
     
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  12. Realism and the Aim of Science.K. R. Popper & W. W. Bartley - 1984 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35 (3):253-274.
     
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  13. Book Review:Realism and the Aim of Science Karl R. Popper, W. W. Bartley, III. [REVIEW]Richard A. Healey - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (4):669-.
  14. An Empiricist Critique of Constructive Empiricism : The Aim of Science.Philip Percival - 2007 - In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
  15. The Optimum Aim for Science in Freedom and Rationality. Essays in Honor of John Watkins.F. D. Agostino - 1989 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 117:247-256.
  16. The Metaphysics of Science: An Account of Modern Science in Terms of Principles, Laws and Theories.Nicholas Maxwell - 2009 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 23 (2):228 – 232.
    This is a review of Craig Dilworth's The Metaphysics of Science (Dordrecht, Springer, 2007). The book propounds an immensely important idea. Science makes metaphysical presuppositions. Unfortunately, Dilworth ignores work that has been done on this issue which takes the matter much further than he does.
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  17. Realism and the Aim of Science.K. R. POPPER - 1983 - Rowman and Littlefield.
     
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  18.  15
    Realism and the Aim of Science. By Karl R. Popper.Paul Trainor - 1987 - Modern Schoolman 64 (2):143-144.
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  19. Realism and the Aim of Science.Popper Karl Raimund & Bartley William Warren - 1983 - Hutchinson.
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  20.  13
    Realism and the Aim of Science.Nicholas Capaldi - 1985 - Review of Metaphysics 38 (4):900-901.
  21.  1
    Laboratory Design and the Aim of Science: Andreas Libavius Versus Tycho Brahe.Owen Hannaway - 1986 - Isis 77 (4):585-610.
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  22.  49
    Postscript to The Logic of Scientific Discovery By K. R. Popper, Edited by W. W. Bartley III Vol. I, Realism and the Aim of Science, Hutchinson, 1983, Xxxviii + 420 Pp., £20 Vol. II, The Open Universe, Hutchinson, 1982, Xii + 185 Pp., £15 Vol. III, Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics, Hutchinson, 1982, Xviii + 22 Pp., £15. [REVIEW]Mary Tiles - 1984 - Philosophy 59 (228):262-.
  23. Realism and the Aim of Science.Karl Popper & W. W. Bartley - 1985 - Mind 94 (375):453-471.
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  24. Carnap Rudolf. The Aim of Inductive Logic. Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Edited by Nagel Ernest, Suppes Patrick, and Tarski Alfred, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif., 1962, Pp. 303–318.Carnap Rudolf. Logical Foundations of Probability. Second Edition of XVI 205, with Added Preface and Supplementary Bibliography. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1962, Xxvii + 613 Pp.Carnap Rudolf. Remarks on Probability. Philosophical Studies , Vol. 14 , Pp. 65–75. [REVIEW]Richard C. Jeffrey - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (1):104-105.
  25.  44
    The Diverse Aims of Science.Angela Potochnik - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 53:71-80.
    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. In my (...)
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  26.  28
    The Metaphysics of Science: An Account of Modern Science in Terms of Principles, Laws and Theories, Craig Dilworth, Dordrecht, Springer, 2007, 2nd Ed. [REVIEW]N. Maxwell - 2009 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 23 (2):13-16..
    This book propounds an immensely important idea. Science makes metaphysical presuppositions. I must, however, at once declare an interest. For well over thirty years I have myself been expounding and arguing for just this idea.
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  27. History and Scientific Practice in the Construction of an Adequate Philosophy of Science: Revisiting a Whewell/Mill Debate.Aaron D. Cobb - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):85-93.
    William Whewell raised a series of objections concerning John Stuart Mill’s philosophy of science which suggested that Mill’s views were not properly informed by the history of science or by adequate reflection on scientific practices. The aim of this paper is to revisit and evaluate this incisive Whewellian criticism of Mill’s views by assessing Mill’s account of Michael Faraday’s discovery of electrical induction. The historical evidence demonstrates that Mill’s reconstruction is an inadequate reconstruction of this historical episode and (...)
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  28.  42
    The Menace of Science Without Wisdom.Nicholas Maxwell - 2012 - Ethical Record 117 (9):10-15.
    We urgently need to bring about a revolution in the aims and methods of science – and of academic inquiry more generally. Instead of giving priority to the search for knowledge, universities need to devote themselves to seeking and promoting wisdom by rational means, wisdom being the capacity to realize what is of value in life, for oneself and others, wisdom thus including knowledge, understanding and technological know-how, but much else besides. A basic task ought to be to help (...)
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  29.  6
    Interdisciplinarity in Action: Philosophy of Science Perspectives.Uskali Mäki & Miles MacLeod - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (3):323-326.
    Interdisciplinarity has become a dominant research policy imperative1 – exercised by European Research Council and other funding agencies at different scales – and a substantial topic in science studies fields outside philosophy of science, including science education, research management (particularly team management) and scientometrics. Philosophers of science have only recently begun to dedicate more attention to this feature of contemporary science. The present collection of studies aspires to promote this line of philosophical inquiry in terms (...)
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    A (Post)Foundational Approach to the Philosophy of Science: Part II. [REVIEW]Dimitri Ginev - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):57 - 74.
    This is a sequel to my paper, "Searching for a (Post)Foundational Approach to Philosophy of Science", which appeared in an earlier issue of this Journal [Ginev 2001, Journal for General Philosophy of science 32, 27-37]. In the present paper I continue to scrutinize the possibility of a strong hermeneutics of scientific research. My aim is to defend the position of cognitive existentialism that combines the advocacy of science's cognitive specificity and the rejection of any form of essentialism. (...)
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  31. Pure Science with a Practical Aim: The Meanings of Fundamental Research in Britain, Circa 1916–1950.Sabine Clarke - 2010 - Isis 101 (2):285-311.
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  32. The Religious Sentiment, its source and aim : a contribution to the science and philosophy of Religion.Daniel G. Brinton - 1876 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 2:314-316.
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  33.  58
    Science and Fiction: Analysing the Concept of Fiction in Science and its Limits.Ann-Sophie Barwich - 2013 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 44 (2):357-373.
    A recent and growing discussion in philosophy addresses the construction of models and their use in scientific reasoning by comparison with fiction. This comparison helps to explore the problem of mediated observation and, hence, the lack of an unambiguous reference of representations. Examining the usefulness of the concept of fiction for a comparison with non-denoting elements in science, the aim of this paper is to present reasonable grounds for drawing a distinction between these two kinds of representation. In particular, (...)
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  34.  2
    ‘“What’s So Great About Science?” Feyerabend on the Ideological Use and Abuse of Science.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Elena Aronova & Simone Turchetti (eds.), Science Studies during the Cold War and Beyond. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    It is very well known that from the late-1960s onwards Feyerabend began to radically challenge some deeply-held ideas about the history and methodology of the sciences. It is equally well known that, from around the same period, he also began to radically challenge wider claims about the value and place of the sciences within modern societies, for instance by calling for the separation of science and the state and by questioning the idea that the sciences served to liberate and (...)
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  35.  33
    Karl Popper: Philosophy of Science.Brendan Shea - 2016 - In James Fieser & Bradley Dowden (eds.), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Karl Popper (1902-1994) was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century. He made significant contributions to debates concerning general scientific methodology and theory choice, the demarcation of science from non-science, the nature of probability and quantum mechanics, and the methodology of the social sciences. His work is notable for its wide influence both within the philosophy of science, within science itself, and within a broader social context. Popper’s early work attempts (...)
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  36. The Epistemology of Science—a Bird's-Eye View.Alexander Bird - 2010 - Synthese 175 (1):5 - 16.
    In this paper I outline my conception of the epistemology of science, by reference to my published papers, showing how the ideas presented there fit together. In particular I discuss the aim of science, scientific progress, the nature of scientific evidence, the failings of empiricism, inference to the best (or only) explanation, and Kuhnian psychology of discovery. Throughout, I emphasize the significance of the concept of scientific knowledge.
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  37.  48
    Engagement for Progress: Applied Philosophy of Science in Context.Heather Douglas - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):317-335.
    Philosophy of science was once a much more socially engaged endeavor, and can be so again. After a look back at philosophy of science in the 1930s-1950s, I turn to discuss the current potential for returning to a more engaged philosophy of science. Although philosophers of science have much to offer scientists and the public, I am skeptical that much can be gained by philosophers importing off-the-shelf discussions from philosophy of science to science and (...)
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  38. Articulating the Aims of Science.Nicholas Maxwell - 1977 - Nature 265 (January 6):2.
    Most scientists and philosophers of science take for granted the standard empiricist view that the basic intellectual aim of science is truth per se. But this seriously misrepresents the aims of scieince. Actually, science seeks explanatory truth and, more generally, important truth. Problematic metaphysical and value assumptions are inherent in the real aims of science. Precisely because these aims are profoundly problematic, they need to be articulated, imaginatively explored and critically assesseed, in order to improve them, (...)
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  39.  67
    Scientific Worldviews as Promises of Science and Problems of Philosophy of Science.Thomas Mormann - forthcoming - Centaurus.
    The aim of this paper is to show that global scientific promises aka “scientific world-conceptions” have an interesting history that should be taken into account also for contemporary debates. I argue that the prototypes of many contemporary philosophical positions concerning the role of science in society can already be found in the philosophy of science of the 1920s and 1930s. First to be mentioned in this respect is the Scientific World-Conception of the Vienna Circle (The Manifesto) that promised (...)
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  40.  20
    What Are the Aims of Science.A. Sloman - 1976 - Radical Philosophy 13:7-17.
    If we are to understand the nature of science, we must see it as an activity and achievement of the human mind alongside others, such as the achievements of children in learning to talk and to cope with people and other objects in their environment, and the achievements of non-scientists living in a rich and complex world which constantly poses problems to be solved. Looking at scientific knowledge as one form of human knowledge, scientific understanding as one form of (...)
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  41.  44
    Genuine Problems and the Significance of Science.Matthew J. Brown - 2010 - Contemporary Pragmatism 7 (2):131-153.
    This paper addresses the political constraints on science through a pragmatist critique of Philip Kitcher’s account of “well-ordered science.” A central part of Kitcher’s account is his analysis of the significance of items of scientific research: contextual and purpose-relative scientific significance replaces mere truth as the aim of inquiry. I raise problems for Kitcher’s account and argue for an alternative, drawing on Peirce’s and Dewey’s theories of problem-solving inquiry. I conclude by suggesting some consequences for understanding the proper (...)
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  42.  97
    From Philosophy of Science to Philosophy of Literature (and Back) Via Philosophy of Mind. Philip Kitcher’s Philosophical Pendulum.Bence Nanay - 2013 - Theoria (77):257-264.
    A recent focus of Philip Kitcher’s research has been, somewhat surprisingly in the light of his earlier work, the philosophical analyses of literary works and operas. Some may see a discontinuity in Kitcher’s oeuvre in this respect – it may be difficult to see how his earlier contributions to philosophy of science relate to this much less mainstream approach to philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show that there is no such discontinuity: Kitcher’s contributions to the philosophy (...)
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  43.  1
    From Philosophy of Science to Philosophy of Literature Via Philosophy of Mind: Philip Kitcher’s Philosophical Pendulum.Nanay Bence - 2013 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 28 (2):257-264.
    A recent focus of Philip Kitcher’s research has been, somewhat surprisingly in the light of his earlier work, the philosophical analyses of literary works and operas. Some may see a discontinuity in Kitcher’s oeuvre in this respect—it may be difficult to see how his earlier contributions to philosophy of science relateto this much less mainstream approach to philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show that there is no such discontinuity: Kitcher’s contributions to the philosophy of science (...)
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  44.  5
    Risk and Catastrophe. The Failure of Science and Institutions: Finding Precarious Solutions in a Precarious Life.Angelo Abignente & Francesca Scamardella - forthcoming - Governare la Paura. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.
    The aim of this article is to investigate around the life in the contemporary society, characterized by risks and catastrophes. What does mean to live fearing that in any moment a catastrophe could happen (a tsunami, an earthquake, a nuclear explosion)? Despite of the failure of science and public institutions in the prevention of the catastrophes, the question is the following: Can we use the catastrophe as a paradigm of the contemporary uncertain life, trying to mean it as a (...)
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    Chemistry and the Problem of Pluralism in Science: An Analysis Concerning Philosophical and Scientific Disagreements.Rein Vihalemm - 2016 - Foundations of Chemistry 18 (2):91-102.
    Chemistry, especially its historical practice, has in the philosophy of science in recent decades attracted more and more attention, influencing the turn from the vision of science as a timeless logic-centred system of statements towards the history- and practice-centred approach. The problem of pluralism in science has become a popular topic in that context. Hasok Chang’s “active normative epistemic pluralism” manifested in his book Is water H2O? Evidence, realism and pluralism, pursuing an integrated study of history and (...)
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    Experiential Science; Towards an Integration of Implicit and Reflected Practitioner-Expert Knowledge in the Scientific Development of Organic Farming.Ton Baars - 2011 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (6):601-628.
    For further development of organic agriculture, it will become increasingly essential to integrate experienced innovative practitioners in research projects. The characteristics of this process of co-learning have been transformed into a research approach, theoretically conceptualized as “experiential science” (Baars 2007 , Baars and Baars 2007 ). The approach integrates social sciences, natural sciences, and human sciences. It is derived from action research and belongs to the wider field of transdiscliplinary research. In a dialogue-based culture of equality and mutual exchange (...)
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  47. Must Science Make Cosmological Assumptions If It is to Be Rational?,.Nicholas Maxwell - 1997 - In T. Kelly (ed.), The Philosophy of Science: Proceedings of the Irish Philosophical Society Spring Conference. Irish Philosophical Society.
    Cosmological speculation about the ultimate nature of the universe, being necessary for science to be possible at all, must be regarded as a part of scientific knowledge itself, however epistemologically unsound it may be in other respects. The best such speculation available is that the universe is comprehensible in some way or other and, more specifically, in the light of the immense apparent success of modern natural science, that it is physically comprehensible. But both these speculations may be (...)
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  48.  32
    The Epistemology of Climate Models and Some of its Implications for Climate Science and the Philosophy of Science.Joel Katzav - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (2):228-238.
    I bring out the limitations of four important views of what the target of useful climate model assessment is. Three of these views are drawn from philosophy. They include the views of Elisabeth Lloyd and Wendy Parker, and an application of Bayesian confirmation theory. The fourth view I criticise is based on the actual practice of climate model assessment. In bringing out the limitations of these four views, I argue that an approach to climate model assessment that neither demands too (...)
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  49. The Rationality of Scientific Discovery Part 1: The Traditional Rationality Problem.Nicholas Maxwell - 1974 - Philosophy of Science 41 (2):123--53.
    The basic task of the essay is to exhibit science as a rational enterprise. I argue that in order to do this we need to change quite fundamentally our whole conception of science. Today it is rather generally taken for granted that a precondition for science to be rational is that in science we do not make substantial assumptions about the world, or about the phenomena we are investigating, which are held permanently immune from empirical appraisal. (...)
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    Two Great Problems of Learning: Science and Civilization.Nicholas Maxwell - 2016 - Rounded Globe.
    Two great problems of learning confront humanity: learning about the nature of the universe and about ourselves and other living things as a part of the universe, and learning how to become civilized. The first problem was solved, in essence, in the 17th century, with the creation of modern science. But the second problem has not yet been solved. Solving the first problem without also solving the second puts us in a situation of great danger. All our current global (...)
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