This study uses the Locke and Okali gender analysis framework to explore gender relations surrounding grain storage management and marketing in Binga District of Zimbabwe. The study was conducted during one grain storage season and involved multiple visits to selected households, which were used as case studies. The main question that the study sought to address was: “What bargaining goes on between men and women in the area of stored grain management and marketing?” Data were collected from four households, fitting (...) into the following categories: simple monogamous, complex monogamous (two scenarios), and polygamous. Participatory rural appraisal tools and techniques were extensively used and formed the backdrop of all the data collection. The study established that much bargaining and strategizing occurs within the household in order for women to exercise control over the use of stored grain. The bargaining process was found to be a complex one of give-and-take without an immediately recognizable winner. There is evidence that women use this bargaining power to exert influence on their relative position in the household in terms of independent income generation and management, seniority, and overall household food security policies. While bargaining between and within gender remains shrouded in subtleness, individuals in a household consciously use their skills to manipulate the situation to their best advantage. This article is expected to initiate broader debate in the area of gender roles and bargaining in grain post-harvest management, an area often kept private by smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. (shrink)
Traditionally, the exploration of the impact of trauma on trauma survivors in South Africa has been focused mainly on the bio-psychosocial aspects. The bio-psychosocial approach recognises that trauma affects people biologically, socially and psychologically. In this article, the author explores a holistic understanding of the effects of trauma on people from communities historically affected by political violence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using a participatory action research design as a way of working through trauma, a longitudinal study was conducted in Pietermaritzburg (...) from 2009-2013. At the end of the study, life narratives were documented and published. The textual analysis of these life narratives reveals that, besides the bio-psychosocial effects that research participants experienced during and after the trauma, they also sustained moral and spiritual injuries. Trauma took its toll in their lives emotionally, psychologically, spiritually, morally and in their relationships with themselves, others and God. From these findings, the author argues that the bio-psychosocial approach is incomplete for understanding the holistic effects of trauma on the whole person. Therefore, he recommends the integration of the moral and spiritual aspects of trauma to come up with a holistic model of understanding the effects of trauma on traumatised individuals. The holistic model will enhance the treatment, healing and recovery of trauma survivors. This, in turn, will alleviate the severe disruption of many aspects of psychological functioning and well-being of trauma survivors caused by the effects of trauma. (shrink)
Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Partindo do dito popular “manda quem pode, obedece quem tem juízo” o presente artigo tem como objetivo defender a tese de que o Estado hobbesiano sustenta-se tanto pela força quanto pela razáo. Dentro desta perspectiva, será analisada a noçáo de desobediência e, ao final, mostrar-se-á que o adágio referido só pode ser tido como verdadeiro de acordo com a filosofia política de Thomas Hobbes após feitas certas ressalvas.
El presente artículo constituye la segunda parte de un estudio más amplio sobre la obediencia política en el pensamiento de santo Tomás. Como se señalaba en la introducción de la primera parte, el ámbito político representa un escenario privilegiado para analizar la verdaderaa naturaleza de la virtud de la obediencia, pues es un ámbito en el que se hace singularmente difícil reconocer, a través de la variable figura del gobernante, la voluntad de Dios sobre el hombre. Pero para poder distnguir (...) esta voluntad, y someterse inteligentemente, es preciso clarificar antes el ámbito y límites del débito de obediencia política. Esta delimitación aclara el oficio de gobierno, señala cuál es el papel que juega en la vida humana y la verdadera naturaleza del poder político: de ahí el análisis de la obediencia al poder "de hecho" y al poder injusto.Así, este problema de la obediencia, y en concreto el de la obediencia a los poderes temporales irregulares, pone de manifiesto la pregunta nuclear de la vida humana: ¿quién manda verdaderamente? Este estudio pretende mostrar la respuesta de la tradición cristiana, magistralmente expresada en la obra de santo Tomás. (shrink)