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Profile: Alain Morin (Mount Royal University)
  1. Self-Awareness Part 1: Definition, Measures, Effects, Functions, and Antecedents.Alain Morin - 2011 - Social and Personality Psychology Compass 5: 807-823.
    Self-awareness represents the capacity of becoming the object of one’s own attention. In this state one actively identifies, processes, and stores information about the self. This paper surveys the self-awareness literature by emphasizing definition issues, measurement techniques, effects and functions of self-attention, and antecedents of self-awareness. Key self-related concepts (e.g., minimal, reflective consciousness) are distinguished from the central notion of self-awareness. Reviewed measures include questionnaires, implicit tasks, and self-recognition. Main effects and functions of self-attention consist in selfevaluation, escape from the (...)
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  2. Levels of Consciousness and Self-Awareness: A Comparison and Integration of Various Neurocognitive Views.Alain Morin - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):358-371.
    Quite a few recent models are rapidly introducing new concepts describing different levels of consciousness. This situation is getting confusing because some theorists formulate their models without making reference to existing views, redundantly adding complexity to an already difficult problem. In this paper, I present and compare nine neurocognitive models to highlight points of convergence and divergence. Two aspects of consciousness seem especially important: perception of self in time and complexity of self-representations. To this I add frequency of self-focus, amount (...)
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  3. Possible Links Between Self-Awareness and Inner Speech: Theoretical Background, Underlying Mechanisms, and Empirical Evidence.Alain Morin - 2005 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (4-5):115-134.
    been recently proposed (Morin, 2003; 2004). The model takes into account most known mechanisms and processes leading to self-awareness, and examines their multiple and complex interactions. Inner speech is postulated to play a key-role in this model, as it establishes important connections between many of its ele- ments. This paper first reviews past and current references to a link between self-awareness and inner speech. It then presents an analysis of the nature of the relation between these two concepts. It is (...)
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  4. Self-Awareness Deficits Following Loss of Inner Speech: Dr. Jill Bolte Taylor's Case Study☆.Alain Morin - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):524-529.
    In her 2006 book ‘‘My Stroke of Insight” Dr. Jill Bolte Taylor relates her experience of suffering from a left hemispheric stroke caused by a congenital arteriovenous malformation which led to a loss of inner speech. Her phenomenological account strongly suggests that this impairment produced a global self-awareness deficit as well as more specific dysfunctions related to corporeal awareness, sense of individuality, retrieval of autobiographical memories, and self-conscious emotions. These are examined in details and corroborated by numerous excerpts from Taylor’s (...)
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  5. Inner Speech as a Mediator of Self-Awareness, Self-Consciousness, and Self-Knowledge: An Hypothesis.Alain Morin & James Everett - 1990 - New Ideas in Psychology 8 (3):337-56.
    Little is known with regard to the precise cognitive tools the self uses in acquiring and processing information about itself. In this article, we underline the possibility that inner speech might just represent one such cognitive process. Duval and Wicklund’s theory of self-awareness and the selfconsciousness, and self-knowledge body of work that was inspired by it are reviewed, and the suggestion is put forward that inner speech parallels the state of self-awareness, is more frequently used among highly self-conscious persons, and (...)
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  6. Inner Speech and Consciousness.Alain Morin - 2009 - In W. Banks (ed.), Encyclopedia of Consciousness. Elsevier.
    Inner speech represents the activity of talking to oneself in silence. It can be assessed with questionnaires, sampling methods, and electromyographic recordings of articulatory movements. Inner speech has been linked to thought processes and self-awareness. Private speech (speech-for-self emitted aloud by children) serves an important self-regulatory function. The frequency of private speech follows an inverted-U relation with age, peaking at 3-4 years of age and disappearing at age 10. Social and inner speech share a common neurological basis: Broca’s area. Dysfunctional (...)
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  7. Self-Awareness and the Left Hemisphere: The Dark Side of Selectively Reviewing the Literature.Alain Morin - 2005 - Cortex 41:695-704.
  8.  59
    Right Hemispheric Self-Awareness: A Critical Assessment.Alain Morin - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):396-401.
    In this commentaryI evaluate the claim made byKeenan, Nelson, OÕConnor, and Pascual-Leone (2001) that since self-recognition results from right hemispheric activity, self-awareness too is likely to be produced by the activity of the same hemisphere. This reasoning is based on the assumption that self-recognition represents a valid operationalization of self-awareness; I present two views that challenge this rationale. Keenan et al. also support their claim with published evidence relating brain activityand self-awareness; I closelyexamine their analysis of one specific review of (...)
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  9. Self-Awareness Part 2: Neuroanatomy and Importance of Inner Speech.Alain Morin - 2011 - Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2:1004-1012.
    The present review of literature surveys two main issues related to self-referential processes: (1) Where in the brain are these processes located, and do they correlate with brain areas uniquely specialized in self-processing? (2) What are the empirical and theoretical links between inner speech and self-awareness? Although initial neuroimaging attempts tended to favor a right hemispheric view of selfawareness, more recent work shows that the brain areas which support self-related processes are located in both hemispheres and are not uniquely activated (...)
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  10. A Neurocognitive and Socioecological Model of Self-Awareness.Alain Morin - 2004 - Genetic Social And General Psychology Monographs 130 (3):197-222.
    In the past, researchers have focused mainly on the effects and consequences of self-awareness; however, they have neglected a more basic issue pertaining to the specific mechanisms that initiate and sustain self-perception. The author presents a model of self-awareness that proposes the existence of 3 sources of self-information. First, the social milieu includes early face-to-face interactions, self-relevant feedback, a social comparison mechanism that leads to perspective taking, and audiences. Second, contacts with objects and structures in the physical environment foster self–world (...)
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  11. The Split-Brain Debate Revisited: On the Importance of Language and Self-Recognition for Right Hemispheric Consciousness.Alain Morin - 2001 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 22 (2):107-118.
    In this commentary I use recent empirical evidence and theoretical analyses concerning the importance of language and the meaning of self-recognition to reevaluate the claim that the right mute hemisphere in commissurotomized patients possesses a full consciousness. Preliminary data indicate that inner speech is deeply linked to self-awareness; also, four hypotheses concerning the crucial role inner speech plays in self-focus are presented. The legitimacy of self-recognition as a strong operationalization of self-awareness in the right hemisphere is also questioned on the (...)
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  12.  61
    Conscience de soi et langage intérieur : quelques spéculations.Alain Morin & James Everett - 1990 - Philosophiques 17 (2):169-188.
    Ce texte propose une définition de la conscience de soi et explique en quoi cette capacité naît du monde social. Il est postulé que ce dernier permet un mouvement de recul - une «distanciation » - par rapport à soi, et que le cerveau reproduit ce mouvement grâce à certains processus cognitifs qui en ont été imprimés. Parmi ceux-ci, on retrouve le langage intérieur, qui, par analogie, agirait comme un miroir interne capable de confronter l'expérience subjective à elle-même; de cette (...)
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  13. Preliminary Data On a Relation Between Self-Talk and Complexity of the Self-Concept '.Alain Morin - 1995 - Psychological Reports 76:267-272.
    Summary.— Recent empirical work in social cognition suggests that in building a self-concept people make inferences about themselves based on overt behavior or private thoughts and feelings. This article addresses the question of how, exactly, people make these inferences about themselves and raises the possibility that they do so through self-talk. It is proposed that the more on talks to oneself to construct a selfimage, the more this image will gain coherence and sophistication. A correlational study was conducted to explore (...)
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  14. Inner Speech.Alain Morin - 2009 - In Oxford Companion to Consciousness.
    Invited paper for the Oxford Companion to Consciousness, in press.
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  15.  55
    Self-Talk and Self-Awareness: On the Nature of the Relation.Alain Morin - 1993 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 14 (3):223-234.
    This article raises the question of how we acquire self-information through self-talk, i.e., of how self-talk mediates self-awareness. It is first suggested that two social mechanisms leading to self-awareness could be reproduced by self-talk: engaging in dialogues with ourselves, in which we talk to fictive persons, would permit an internalization of others' perspectives; and addressing comments to ourselves about ourselves, as others do toward us, would allow an acquisition of self-information. Secondly, it is proposed that self-observation is possible only if (...)
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  16.  24
    Let’s Face It. A Review of Keenan, Gallup, & Falk’s Book “The Face in the Mirror”.Alain Morin - 2003 - Evolutionary Psychology 1:161-171.
    A review of The Face in the Mirror: The Search for the Origins of Consciousness by Julian Paul Keenan with Gordon C. Gallup Jr. and Dean Falk. Ecco, New York, 2003. ISBN 006001279X.
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  17. Consciousness is More Than Wakefulness.Alain Morin - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):99-99.
    Merker’s definition of consciousness excludes self-reflective thought, making his proposal for decorticate consciousness not particularly groundbreaking. He suggests that brainstem sites are neglected in current theories of consciousness. This is so because broader definitions of consciousness are used. Split-brain data show that the cortex is important for full-blown consciousness; also, behaviors exhibited by hydranencephaly patients and decorticated rats do not seem to require reflective consciousness.
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  18.  89
    History of Exposure to Self-Focusing Stimuli As a Developmental Antecedent of Self-Consciousness.Alain Morin - 1997 - Psychological Reports 80:1252-1254.
    Szmimary.—The present report investigated the question of how individual differences in self-consciousness devdop. Rimé and LeBon proposed that high self-consciousness follows a history of frequent exposure to selffocusing stimuli, i.e., mirrors, audiences, audio and video devices, and cameras. To explore this hypothesis private and public self-consciousness and past exposure to self-focusing stimuli were assessed in 438 subjects. Analysis indicated that history of frequent exposure to self-focusing stimuli is significantly but weakly related to high private self-consciousness in men and to high (...)
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  19. The Burden of Fame: Self-Destruction in Celebrities.Alain Morin - manuscript
    Fame -- what an alluring status! Being adulated by millions of people who will instantly recognize you wherever you go; being immensely wealthy; having countless privileges -- eating in the best restaurants, meeting other important personalities at huge parties, flying in your own private jet; having your opinion always solicited and cherished; Oprah Winfrey wanting you on her show. That must be great!
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  20.  90
    History of Exposure to Audiences as a Developmental Antecedent of Public Self-Consciousness.Alain Morin & Lisa Graig - 2000 - Current Research in Social Psychology 5 (3):33-46.
    Little is know about factors that influence the development of public self-consciousness. One potential factor is exposure to audiences: being repeatedly aware of one's object status could create a high disposition to focus on public self-aspects. To explore this hypothesis public self-consciousness was assessed in two groups of subjects: 62 professors and actors (high exposure to audiences) and 39 people without audience experience. Analysis show that significant differences exist for public self-consciousness in men only. Also, history of frequent exposure to (...)
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  21.  92
    Levels of Consciousness and Self-Awareness: A Comparison and Integration of Various Views.Alain Morin - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):358-371.
    Quite a few recent models are rapidly introducing new concepts describing different levels of consciousness. This situ- ation is getting confusing because some theorists formulate their models without making reference to existing views, redun- dantly adding complexity to an already difficult problem. In this paper, I present and compare nine neurocognitive models to highlight points of convergence and divergence. Two aspects of consciousness seem especially important: perception of self in time and complexity of self-representations. To this I add frequency of (...)
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  22.  72
    Language and Self-Awareness.Alain Morin - manuscript
    In my 2003 SCR paper “Inner speech and conscious experience” (LINK) I put forward the notion that we most often need to talk to ourselves in order to understand who we are. That is, inner speech is frequently required to access self-information and to gradually build a self- concept. To illustrate, let’s imagine that you want to reflect on an abdominal pain you are currently experiencing. It is very likely that you will engage in an internal monologue, thinking “Why is (...)
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  23.  56
    Inner Speech and Conscious Experience.Alain Morin - 2003 - Science and Consciousness Review 4:1-6.
    Imagine that scientists have been successful at designing a drug that “freezes” brain areas producing our internal monologue. After taking the drug you can’t talk to yourself anymore. Every other mental activity is fine, but it’s now total silence in your head. Not a word. What would happen? What would it be like?
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  24.  38
    Self-Awareness and Introspective Private Speech in 6-Year-Old Children.Alain Morin & James Everett - 1991 - Psychological Reports 68:1299-1306.
    Sttrrtmory.— It has been suggested recently that self-awareness is cognitively mediated by inner speech and that this hypothesis could be tested by using the private speech paradigm. This paper describes a study in which the creation of a state of self-awareness was attempted in children to test the viability of a research strategy based on private speech and used to explore the hypothesis of a link between selfawareness and inner speech, and to test directly this hypothesis by comparing the incidence (...)
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  25.  35
    The Self and its Brain: A Critical Examination of The Face in the Mirror.Alain Morin - 2003 - Science and Consciousness Review 1.
    Where is the self located in the brain? This is a question that has intrigued philosophers and scientists for quite some time. Four centuries ago, the French philosopher René Descartes thought that the self resided in the pineal gland, a small structure centrally positioned in the lower brain.
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  26.  31
    Levels of Consciousness.Alain Morin - 2004 - Science and Consciousness Review 2.
  27.  26
    Use of Virtual Reality in an fMRI Study of Mentalizing.Alain Morin - manuscript
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  28.  12
    Critical Comment on “Improving Your Decision Making by Observing Your Inner Speech”.Alain Morin - unknown
    While this article by Waldman and Newberg is correct in its main message, it is unfortunately fraught with inaccuracies and problems. To illustrate: (1) the statement that “Inner speech is also associated with lower levels of psychological distress” is invalid as a wide array of distressing psychological disorders are associated with distorted (e.g., ruminative) inner speech activity.
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  29.  16
    Ceiling Effects Make Hughes and Nicholson's Data Analyses and Conclusions Inconclusive.Bob Uttl & Alain Morin - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1135-1137.
    Hughes and Nicholson suggest that recognizing oneself is easier from face vs. voice stimuli, that a combined presentation of face and voice actually inhibits self-recognition relative to presentation of face or voice alone, that the left hemisphere is superior in self-recognition to the right hemisphere, and that recognizing self requires more effort than recognizing others. A re-examination of their method, data, and analyses unfortunately shows important ceiling effects that cast doubts on these conclusions.
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  30.  1
    Editorial: Inner Experiences: Theory, Measurement, Frequency, Content, and Functions.Alain Morin, Jason D. Runyan & Thomas M. Brinthaupt - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  31. Self-Awareness and the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus: Selective Involvement of Inner Speech in Self-Related Processes.Alain Morin & J. Michaud - manuscript
     
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  32.  3
    Une Critique de l'Interactionnisme d'Eccles.Alain Morin & James Everett - 1988 - Dialogue 27 (2):263-.
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  33. Developing Self-Awareness with Inner Speech: Theoretical Background, Underlying Mechanisms, and Empirical Evidence.Alain Morin - manuscript
     
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  34.  2
    Oxford Companion to Consciousness.Alain Morin (ed.) - 2009
  35. What Are Animals Conscious Of?Alain Morin (ed.) - 2012 - Columbia Press.
    There is little doubt that animals are ―conscious‖. Animals hunt prey, escape predators, explore new environments, eat, mate, learn, feel, and so forth. If one defines consciousness as being aware of external events and experiencing mental states such as sensations and emotions (Natsoulas, 1978), then gorillas, dogs, bears, horses, pigs, pheasants, cats, rabbits, snakes, magpies, wolves, elephants, and lions, to name a few creatures, clearly qualify. The contentious issue rather is: Do these animals know that they are perceiving an external (...)
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  36. Jonathan Smallwood, Marc Obonsawin, and Derek Heim. Task Unrelated Thought: The Role Of.Robert West, Douglas F. Watt, P. Andrew Leynes, Christopher B. Mayhorn, Alfred Buck, Dawn M. McBride, Barbara Anne Dosher, Matthew Brown, Derek Besner & Alain Morin - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11:375.
     
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