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Alan Garnham
University of Sussex
  1.  20
    Believability and Syllogistic Reasoning.Jane Oakhill, P. N. Johnson-Laird & Alan Garnham - 1989 - Cognition 31 (2):117-140.
    In this paper we investigate the locus of believability effects in syllogistic reasoning. We identify three points in the reasoning process at which such effects could occur: the initial interpretation of premises, the examination of alternative representations of them (in all of which any valid conclusion must be true), and the “filtering” of putative conclusions. The effect of beliefs at the first of these loci is well established. In this paper we report three experiments that examine whether beliefs have an (...)
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  2.  31
    Is Logicist Cognitive Science Possible?Alan Garnham - 1993 - Mind and Language 8 (1):49-71.
    This paper argues against Oaksford and Chater's claim that logicist cognitive science is not possible. It suggests that there arguments against logicist cognitive science are too closely tied to the account of Pylyshyn and of Fodor, and that the correct way of thinking about logicist cognitive science is in a mental models framework.
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  3.  63
    Objects of Desire, Thought, and Reality: Problems of Anchoring Discourse Referents in Development.Josef Perner, Bibiane Rendl & Alan Garnham - 2007 - Mind and Language 22 (5):475–513.
    Our objectives in this article are to bring some theoretical order into developmental sequences and simultaneities in children’s ability to appreciate multiple labels for single objects, to reason with identity statements, to reason hypothetically, counterfactually, and with beliefs and desires, and to explain why an ‘implicit’ understanding of belief occurs before an ‘explicit’ understanding. The central idea behind our explanation is the emerging grasp of how objects of thought and desire relate to real objects and to each other. To capture (...)
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  4.  17
    Referential Continuity and the Coherence of Discourse.Alan Garnham, Jane Oakhill & P. N. Johnson-Laird - 1982 - Cognition 11 (1):29-46.
    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the role of referential continuity in understanding discourse. In experiment 1, a group of university students listened to stories and descriptive passages presented in three different versions: the original passages, versions in which the sentences occured in a random order, and randomised versions in which referential continuity had been restored primarily by replacing pronouns and other terms with fuller and more appropriate noun phrases. The original stories were remembered better, and rated as more (...)
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  5. What is a Perspective Problem? Developmental Issues in Belief Ascription and Dual Identity.Josef Perner, Johannes L. Brandl & Alan Garnham - 2003 - Facta Philosophica 5:355-378.
    We develop a criterion for telling when integrating two pieces of information, e.g. two pictures or statements requires an understanding of perspective. Problems that require such an understanding are perspective problems. With this criterion we can show that understanding false beliefs vis-à-vis reality pose a perspective problem, so does understanding spatial descriptions given from different viewing points (a classical example of what is commonly seen as a problem of perspective) and individuating objects with different sortals (naming objects). We use the (...)
     
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  6.  70
    The Representation of Characters' Emotional Responses: Do Readers Infer Specific Emotions?Pascal Gygax, Jane Oakhill & Alan Garnham - 2003 - Cognition and Emotion 17 (3):413-428.
    This paper argues that emotional inferences about characters in a text are not as specific as previously assumed.
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  7.  24
    A Unified Theory of the Meaning of Some Spatial Relational Terms.Alan Garnham - 1989 - Cognition 31 (1):45-60.
    This paper presents a unified account of the meaning of the spatial relational terms right, left, in front of, behind, above and below. It claims that each term has three types of meanings, basic, deictic and intrinsic, and that the definitions of each type of meaning are identical in form for all six terms. Restrictions on the use of the terms, which are different for above and below than for the rest, are explained by a general constraint on all uses (...)
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  8.  23
    Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain’s Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing.Paolo Canal, Alan Garnham & Jane Oakhill - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as “king” or “engineer”) or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. (...)
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  9.  23
    Exploring Modality Switching Effects in Negated Sentences: Further Evidence for Grounded Representations.Lea A. Hald, Ian Hocking, David Vernon, Julie-Ann Marshall & Alan Garnham - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    heories of embodied cognition (e.g., Perceptual Symbol Systems Theory; Barsalou, 1999, 2009) suggest that modality specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. Supporting evidence comes from modality switch costs: participants are slower to verify a property in one modality (e.g., auditory, BLENDER-loud) after verifying a property in a different modality (e.g., gustatory, CRANBERRIES-tart) compared to the same modality (e.g., LEAVES-rustling, Pecher et al., 2003). Similarly, modality switching costs lead to a modulation of the N400 effect in event-related potentials (ERPs; Collins (...)
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  10.  8
    What's Wrong with Story Grammars.Alan Garnham - 1983 - Cognition 15 (1-3):145-154.
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  11.  26
    Editorial: Language, Cognition, and Gender.Alan Garnham, Jane Oakhill, Lisa Von Stockhausen & Sabine Sczesny - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    This piece is an editorial for an eBook published by Frontiers. The papers originally appeared in a Frontiers special topic associated with two sections of Frontiers in Psychology (Cognition, and Language Sciences).
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  12.  25
    On Theories of Belief Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning.Jane Oakhill & Alan Garnham - 1993 - Cognition 46 (1):87-92.
  13.  30
    True Gender Ratios and Stereotype Rating Norms.Alan Garnham, Sam Doehren & Pascal Gygax - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the (...)
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  14.  20
    A Number of Questions About a Question of Number.Alan Garnham - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):350-351.
  15.  8
    Counter-Stereotypical Pictures as a Strategy for Overcoming Spontaneous Gender Stereotypes.Eimear Finnegan, Jane Oakhill & Alan Garnham - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    The present research investigated the use of counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes when certain social role nouns and professional terms are read. Across two experiments, participants completed a judgment task in which they were presented with word pairs comprised of a role noun with a stereotypical gender bias (e.g., beautician) and a kinship term with definitional gender (e.g., brother). Their task was to quickly decide whether or not both terms could refer to one person. In (...)
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  16.  15
    Why Psycholinguists Don't Care About DTC: A Reply to Berwick and Weinberg.Alan Garnham - 1983 - Cognition 15 (1-3):263-269.
    A response to a paper by Berwick and Weinberg, in an ealier issue of Cognition, about the Derivational Theory of Complexity (DTC).
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  17.  14
    Conditions for Mutuality.Josef Perner & Alan Garnham - 1988 - Journal of Semantics 6 (1):369-385.
    We present a finite psychological decision procedure for determining whether a situation S provides a participant a in that situation with grounds G for assuming that a and b, the other participant, mutually know some proposition p indicated by S. Our criterion derives from analytic criteria proposed by Lewis (1969) and Schiffer (1972). We discuss how our criterion applies in a series of test examples, and compare it with Clark and Marshall's (1981) triple copresence heuristic. We argue that triple copresence (...)
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  18.  26
    Accounting for Belief Bias in a Mental Model Framework: Comment on Klauer, Musch, and Naumer.Alan Garnham & Jane V. Oakhill - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (2):509-517.
    K. C. Klauer, J. Musch, and B. Naumer (2000) presented a general multinomial model of belief bias effects in syllogistic reasoning. They claimed to map a particular mental model account of belief bias (J. V. Oakhill, P. N. Johnson-Laird, & A. Garnham, 1989) onto this model and to show empirically that it is incorrect. The authors argue that this mental model account does not map onto the multinomial model and that it can account for the data presented by Klauer et (...)
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  19.  23
    Does Manifestness Solve Problems of Mutuality?Alan Garnham & Josef Perner - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):178-179.
    This piece is a commentary on a precis of Sperber and Wilson's book "Relevance", published in Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
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  20.  25
    Mental Models as Contexts for Interpreting Texts: Implications From Studies of Anaphora.Alan Garnham & Jane Oakhill - 1990 - Journal of Semantics 7 (4):379-393.
    One of the major tenets of the mental models theory of text comprehension is that the model of the text so far provides (part of) the context for understanding the current sentence. Using two sets of findings on the comprehension of anaphoric expressions, we attempt to provide a more specific interpretation for this statement. We first consider the linguistic distinction between deep and surface anaphors, and the proposal that they are interpreted with reference to mental models and to representations of (...)
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  21.  11
    Did Two Farmers Leave or Three? Comment on Starkey, Spelke, and Gelman: Numerical Abstraction by Human Infants.Alan Garnham - 1991 - Cognition 39 (2):167-170.
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  22. Bellugi, Ursula, 139 Berent, Iris, 203.William F. Brewer, Laura A. Carlson-Radvansky, G. Cossu, Catharine H. Echols, Karen Emmorey, Jonathan St B. T. Evans, Alan Garnham, David E. Irwin, John J. Kim & Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1993 - Cognition 46:299.
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  23.  7
    Noun-Phrase Anaphor Resolution: Antecedent Focus, Semantic Overlap, and the Informational Load Hypothesis.H. Wind Cowles & Alan Garnham - 2011 - In Edward Gibson & Neal J. Pearlmutter (eds.), The Processing and Acquisition of Reference. MIT Press. pp. 297.
    One area of language research that has received a great deal of attention, both theoretical and empirical, is the use of anaphoric expressions. Such expressions can be thought of as serving two functions: the primary function is to refer back to a referent from previous discourse, and the secondary, but no less important, function is to help provide discourse coherence and structure. Third person pronouns such as he or she are anaphoric expressions par excellence, but fuller anaphoric expressions, including demonstrative (...)
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  24.  20
    Art for Art's Sake.Alan Garnham - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):543-544.
    This piece is a commentary on a precis of Maggie Boden's book "The creative mind" published in Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
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  25.  18
    A Theory of Stories?Alan Garnham - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (4):739-740.
    This piece is a commentary on a Behavioral and Brain Sciences target article by Robert Wilensky entitled: Story grammars vs story points.
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  26.  7
    Default Values, Criteria and Constructivism.Alan Garnham - 1980 - Cognitive Science 4 (4):427-433.
    Wittgenstein, in his later writings, gave an account of the meaning of expressions in terms of criteria for their application. As with many of Wittgenstein's later ideas the notion of a criterion have proved difficult to explicate. A recent account, which ties criteria to the philosophical doctrine of constructivism, provides a link between the concept of a criterion and a series of ideas about language understanding which have emerged in the past few years. It is shown that these ideas can (...)
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  27. Looking Both Ways: The JANUS Model of Noun Phrase Anaphor Processing.Alan Garnham & H. Wind Cowles - 2008 - In Jeanette K. Gundel & Nancy Ann Hedberg (eds.), Reference: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 246--272.
    This chapter presents a new model of coreferential NP anaphora processing, JANUS, within the mental models framework. It summarises previous research on NP anaphora that is most pertinent to JANUS, and outlines two previous attempts to provide an integrated theory of NP anaphora: Centering Theory and Almor’s Informational Load Hypothesis. Each has it problems, but the Informational Load Hypothesis is more firmly rooted in psychology, and closer to our own approach. JANUS incorporates many ideas from the Informational Load Hypothesis, but (...)
     
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  28.  4
    March of the Models.Alan Garnham - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):37 – 39.
    This piece is a commentary on a target article by Phil Johnson-Laird, entitled: “A model theory of induction”.
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  29.  6
    Postscript: Accounting for Belief Bias in a Mental Model Framework--No Problem for Whom?Alan Garnham & Jane V. Oakhill - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (2):517-518.
    A reply to Klauer and Musch's reply to our commentary on their original article.
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  30.  20
    Rational Thinking?Alan Garnham - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (6):280.
    This piece is a book review of "Adaptive thinking" by Gerd Gigerenzer.
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  31.  9
    Thomas G. Bever, John M. Carroll, and Lance A. Miller (Eds.), Talking Minds: The Study of Language in the Cognitive Sciences. [REVIEW]Alan Garnham - 1987 - Cognitive Science 11 (3):389-390.
    This piece is a book review of Bever, Carroll and Miller's "Talking Minds".
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  32.  22
    The Interaction of Morphological and Stereotypical Gender Information in Russian.Alan Garnham & Yuri Yakovlev - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g., that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures), in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary) and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines—nouns that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women. Since the studies have been conducted in cultures (...)
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  33.  7
    A Language Index of Grammatical Gender Dimensions to Study the Impact of Grammatical Gender on the Way We Perceive Women and Men.Pascal Mark Gygax, Daniel Elmiger, Sandrine Zufferey, Alan Garnham, Sabine Sczesny, Lisa von Stockhausen, Friederike Braun & Jane Oakhill - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    Psycholinguistic investigations of the way readers and speakers perceive gender have shown several biases associated with how gender is linguistically realized in language. Although such variations across languages offer interesting grounds for legitimate cross linguistic comparisons, pertinent characteristics of grammatical systems – especially in terms of their gender asymmetries – have to be clearly identified. In this paper, we present a language index for researchers interested in the effect of grammatical gender on the mental representations of women and men. Our (...)
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  34. Janet Cohen Sherman (Massachusetts General Hospital) and Barbara Lust (Cornell University) Children Are in Control.Gary F. Marcus, Jane Oakhill, Alan Garnham, Stephen E. Newstead, Jonathan St Bt Evans, Kimj Vicente, William F. Brewer, Jc Marshall, Karen Emmorey & Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1993 - Cognition 46:297.
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