Within emotion theory, envy is generally portrayed as an antisocial emotion because the relation between the envier and the rival is thought to be purely antagonistic. This paper resists this view by arguing that envy presupposes a sense of us. First, we claim that hostile envy is triggered by the envier's sense of impotence combined with her perception that an equality principle has been violated. Second, we introduce the notion of â hetero-induced self-conscious emotionsâ by focusing on the paradigmatic cases (...) of being ashamed or proud of somebody else. We describe envy as a hetero-induced self-conscious emotion by arguing that the impotence felt by the subject grounds the emotion's self-reflexivity and that the rival impacts the subject's self-assessment because the rival is framed by the subject as an in-group member. Finally, we elaborate on the asset at stake in envy. We contend that this is esteem recognition: The envier covets the esteem that her reference group accords to the rival. Because, in envy, the subject conceives of herself as member of a group to which the other is also understood to belong, we conclude that envy is a social emotion insofar as it presupposes a sense of us. (shrink)
In the many studies of shame that have been carried out in several disciplines during the past years, shame has generally been understood as an emotion that bears importantly on our sense of self and has crucial implications for ethics. While most accounts of shame agree on several core aspects, notably taking shame to be an emotion of negative self-assessment, one main area of disagreement focuses on the question of whether shame is a social or a private emotion: whether it (...) is essentially anxiety about the way others judge us, or rather about our faults or inadequacies as perceived and judged by ourselves. In my view, however, the dichotomy arises as a result of conceiving the moral self in restrictive terms, but phenomenology can offer a more adequate picture, that allows us to take into account and fully articulate both dimensions. Both the social and the private are necessary to understand this emotion and its special relevance for selfhood and ethics. My aim in this paper is therefore to challenge this dichotomy and point towards self-revelation as the essential feature of this emotion. (shrink)
Los principales patógenos víricos que podemos adquirir ingiriendo alimentos contaminados son los norovirus, el virus de la hepatitis A y el virus de la hepatitis E que se propagan principalmente a través de la vía fecal oral. En los últimos años, la incidencia de brotes de transmisión alimentaria causados por estos patógenos ha experimentado un aumento considerable, en parte debido al comercio globalizado y a los cambios en los hábitos de consumo. Las matrices alimentarias que mayor riesgo representan para el (...) consumidor son los moluscos bivalvos, vegetales de IV gama, frutas tipo baya y platos listos para comer. Actualmente las técnicas moleculares son las más habituales para la detección de estos patógenos en alimentos, aunque todavía existen dudas acerca del significado de la presencia de estos genomas víricos en términos de seguridad alimentaria. La infectividad de estos patógenos en alimentos viene también determinada por su elevada persistencia ambiental y por su resistencia a los tratamientos aplicados para la conservación de los alimentos. (shrink)
Pedro Sanchez de Acre, born at the beginning of the 16th century, was a prebendary of the cathedral of Toledo. He wrote three books about moral philosophy: Tree of Consultation and Varied Teaching in 1584, Moral and Philosophical Histor y in 1590 and Triangle of the Three Theological Virtues in 1595. These three books, representative of Miscellany, one of the most editorially successful literary genres of the 16th century, have become completely unknown with the passing of time. Besides the rare (...) quotation, used mostly in writings of a bibliographic nature, the presence of these books in Spanish philosophy is almost nonexistent. (shrink)
Shame is one of the most stigmatized and stigmatizing of emotions. Often characterized as an emotion in which the subject holds a global, negative self-assessment, shame is typically understood to mark the subject as being inadequate in some way, and a sizable amount of work on shame focuses on its problematic or unhealthy aspects, effects, or consequences. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Shame brings into view a more balanced understanding of what shame is and its value and social function. The contributors recognize (...) shame as a complex, richly layered, conscious or unconscious phenomenon, and the collection offers an understanding of what shame is, the scholarly discourse on shame, and how theories of shame help us to understand ourselves, others, and the world around us. It also highlights a diverse range of perspectives on shame, and how these unique perspectives can enlighten our understanding of both the positive and negative aspects of this powerful emotion. Edited by Cecilea Mun, the ten chapters by an international group of contributors reflect a broad range of methods, disciplinary perspectives, and both theoretical and practical concerns regarding shame. -/- 30% Discount Code: LEX30AUTH1. (shrink)
Leonidas Montes presents a new reading of Adam Smith's legacy. The classical influences, the meaning of some key concepts, and what other authors were saying at the time, are fundamental to understand what Smith really said. Starting with the famous Das Adam Smith Problem, Montes investigates the causes and the context of the Problem, and proposes the importance of the moral triad of the supposed impartial spectator, propriety and self-command for understanding Smith's broad concept of sympathy. Smith's virtues (...) are fundamental to his moral thought, and the nature of the meaning of self-command and propriety have important philosophical implications, reflecting the relevance of moral autonomy in Smith's thought. The concluding chapter gives an example of the mistake of simply looking at a problem through the eyes of today. It questions the popular version of Smith as a forerunner or founder of general economic equilibrium theory by investigating the real nature of Smith's Newtonianism. (shrink)
n recent years, there has been a resurgence of academic interest in Adam Smith. As a consequence, a large number of PhD dissertations on Smith have been written by international scholars - in different languages, and in many diverse disciplines, including economics, women’s studies, philosophy, science studies, political theory and english literature: diversity which has enriched the area of study. In response to this activity, and in order to making these contributions more easily accessible to other Smith scholars, Leonidas (...) class='Hi'>Montes and Eric Schliesser have edited this important new book. Of interest to Smith scholars and those interested in the history of economic thought in general, the contributions to this book are self-consciously interdisciplinary and skilfully employ many different methodologies. (shrink)
Tuberculosis en América Latina y el Caribe: reflexiones desde la bioética Tuberculose na América Latina e no Caribe: reflexões da bioética The objective of this article is to analyze the conditions of access to health services by people with tuberculosis in Latin America and the Caribbean, reflecting on the public health aspects involved from a bioethical perspective. A literature review of the context of tuberculosis in LAC based on epidemiological data was performed. The results were analyzed from its relationship with (...) the social determinants of health and the ethical principles that guide medical practice. Tuberculosis is a pressing public health problem in the region because of its family, social, economic and health impact. It mainly affects vulnerable individuals and populations. Health services violate ethical principles. Tuberculosis is a serious ethics and public health problem in the region that causes death, disability and increased poverty. It is imperative to ensure the right to health services and to understand the individual and public health consequences of non-adherence to treatment. It is important that national tuberculosis control strategies include principles of dignity and non-discrimination of the sick, changes in the social determinants of the disease, and respect for the ethnicity, language culture and identity of patients. Para citar este artículo / To reference this article / Para citar este artigo Muñoz del Carpio-Toia A, Sánchez-Pérez HJ, Verges de López C, López-Dávila LM, Sotomayor-Saavedra MA, Sorokin P. Tuberculosis en América Latina y el Caribe: reflexiones desde la bioética. pers. bioét. 2018; 22: 331-357. DOI: 10.5294/pebi.2018.22.2.10. (shrink)
Calvin's 1559 Institutes is one of the most important works of theology that emerged at a pivotal time in Europe's history. As a movement, Calvinism has often been linked to the emerging features of modernity, especially to capitalism, rationalism, disenchantment, and the formation of the modern sovereign state. In this book, Michelle Sanchez argues that a closer reading of the 1559 Institutes recalls some of the tensions that marked Calvinism's emergence among refugees, and ultimately opens new ways to understand the (...) more complex ethical and political legacy of Calvinism. In conversation with theorists of practice and signification, she advocates for reading the Institutes as a pedagogical text that places the reader in the world as the domain in which to actively pursue the 'knowledge of God and ourselves' through participatory uses of divine revelation. Through this lens, she reconceives Calvin's understanding of sovereignty and how it works in relation to the embodied reader. Sanchez also critically examines Calvin's teaching on providence and the incarnation in conversation with theorists of political theology and modernity who emphasize the importance of those very doctrines. (shrink)
The concept of corporate social responsibility is becoming integral to effective corporate brand management. This study adopts a multidimensional and cross-country perspective of the concept and analyses consumer perceptions of behaviour of four leading consumer products manufacturers. Data was collected from consumers in two countries – Spain and the UK. The study analyses consumers’ degree of interest in corporate responsibility and its impact on their perception about the company. The findings here suggest a weak impact of company-specific communication on consumers’ (...) perception. The implications of this study are relevant to companies for strengthening their social responsibility associations with the consumers. (shrink)
This paper discusses how Salvadoran companies practice corporate philanthropy in El Salvador, and what might motivate it. First, I briefly discuss three principal theories of corporate philanthropy, and explore some current trends in international corporate philanthropy to highlight some of the motives Salvadoran companies may have to participate in charitable activities. Then, I discuss the history of the Salvadoran private sector to help us understand philanthropic activity today. Next, I suggest that philanthropic acts by Salvadoran firms are driven by altruistic (...) and politically strategic motives, and reflect individualistic and paternalistic attitudes. In the discussion, I include examples of Salvadoran corporate philanthropy as it is practiced today, based on recent field research in El Salvador. (shrink)
In this article, we suggest that one of the unexplored paths toward collaboration between firms and civil society organizations starts with confrontation or potential conflict, and that the transition toward collaboration can be further understood if one focuses on triadic relationships rather than dyadic ones. We analyze the presence of third parties and their different roles to explain how collaboration is facilitated. The article aims at bringing together the bodies of research on business–civil society confrontation and on business–civil society collaboration. (...) It offers a comparative analysis of four case studies, and proposes a typology of third parties composed of facilitating allies, participating allies, mediators, and solution seekers. We conclude with some implications for further research as well as for practice. (shrink)
This paper explores and expands upon Jorge Gracia's reasons for the apparent lack of Hispanics in US philosophy. The point is to explain the underrepresentation of Hispanics in philosophy, with a focus on a specific subgroup of Hispanics, namely, "homegrown" US Hispanics. This group wasentirely missing from the "established" ranks in Gracia's census. I propose a phenomenological explanation for this lack, rooted in my experience as ahomegrown US Hispanic. This experience gives rise to a sense of identity described as "post-immigrant." (...) Those of us in the American philosophical establishment who share this identity, or who feel its pull, desire but hesitate to fully and authentically engage philosophy and the philosophical life, where thisrequires an uncompromising insertion of our cultural and historical identity into what we write and teach. The reason for the absence of homegrown Hispanicphilosophers who are willing to engage issues related to their circumstance as Hispanics is what I call, "the post-immigrant fear.". (shrink)
Surveys were conducted at two metta meditation retreats in order to examine the psychological effects of metta meditation. Participants were invited to complete the survey at the beginning of the retreat, at the end of the retreat, and two weeks after the end of the retreat. Participants completed the same scales at each time phase, which included measures of happiness, compassionate love, revenge and avoidance motivation, gratitude, and a depression, anxiety and stress scale. Significant increases were found in happiness and (...) compassionate love, reductions in avoidance and revenge, and reductions on the depression, anxiety and stress subscales. (shrink)
The goal of the 2010 Ontology Summit was to address the current shortage of persons with ontology expertise by developing a strategy for the education of ontologists. To achieve this goal we studied how ontologists are currently trained, the requirements identiﬁed by organizations that hire ontologists, and developments that might impact the training of ontologists in the future. We developed recommendations for the body of knowledge that should be taught and the skills that should be developed by future ontologists; these (...) recommendations are intended as guidelines for institutions and organizations that may consider establishing a program for training ontologists. Further, we recommend a number of speciﬁc actions for the community to pursue. (shrink)
Since the thirteenth century it is possible to talk about “secularization” of the mystic experience that led to a new stage in the history of the Christian mysticism. Meister Eckhart can be undoubtedly considered as an exceptional theologian who proclaims and justifies, theologically, the possibility of reintegrating the ontological identity with God without the necessity to leave the world. With his own life and instructions, he made possible that true contemplation was a Christian action. This Chistian action arises as a (...) contemplative style of life.A partir del siglo XIII se puede hablar de una «secularización» de la experiencia mística, y en esta nueva etapa que se inicia en la historia del misticismo cristiano, al Maestro Eckhart cabría definirlo con seguridad como el excepcional teólogo que proclama y justifica –teológicamente– la posibilidad de reintegrar la identidad ontológica con Dios sin necesidad de abandonar el mundo. La doctrina mística del Maestro Eckhart integra armónicamente la contemplación y la actividad en el mundo, posibilitando con su propia vida y sus instrucciones que la verdadera contemplación sea acción cristiana, y que la acción cristiana surja como estilo contemplativo de vida. (shrink)
This paper traces the concept and phenomenon of generosity from Aristotle to Emannuel Levinas and beyond. The question motivating this investigation is: must the generous act be restricted by a rational calculation of correct, or prudent, giving? Answers to this question vary. Aristotle and Kant would answer in the affirmative, while Emerson and Levinas would not. The bulk of this paper is dedicated to Levinas's characterization of excessive generosity as a condition for the fundamental ethical relation, namely, the generous welcome (...) of the Other. I end by considering the phenomenon of generosity from the point of view of the mid‐20th century Mexican philosopher, Emilio Uranga. (shrink)
El objetivo es estudiar las relaciones jóvenes- política en el contexto actual de procesos sociales para comprender el sentido de las prácticas políticas de las y los jóvenes universitarios, concretando la indagación con estudiantes de la Fundación Universitaria Los Libertadores. Se problematizan la..
La primera mitad del siglo XVI es un momento trascendental en la historia de España. En efecto, no sólo es una época de transición del Medioevo a la Modernidad, sino que con ella asistimos a un “renacimiento” en todos los órdenes de la vida cultural, política, ideológica... En este tiempo –finales del siglo XV y mediados del XVI– los problemas del “descubrimiento”, “conquista” y “gobierno de las Indias” únicamente podían ser afrontados con pautas ideológicas heredadas de la Edad Media. El (...) problema que ahora se plantea –desde una dimensión jurídica, filosófica y teológica– es el del ‘justo título’ que tienen los Reyes cristianos de Castilla y León para ‘el sometimiento de las poblaciones indígenas’, produciéndose así uno de los acontecimientos más curiosos en la historia del mundo occidental cuando dos notables españoles, Bartolomé de Las Casas y Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, se reunieron en Valladolid en 1550 para discutir un gran problema nacional que concernía tanto a los indios americanos como a Aristóteles. Entonces, por primera vez y quizá por última, un imperio organizó oficialmente una encuesta sobre la justicia de los métodos empleados para extender su dominio. La disputa de Valladolid ha de interpretarse claramente como el testimonio apasionado de un hecho decisivo en la historia de la humanidad: por no haber triunfado las ideas de Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda se dio un paso más, penoso e inseguro todavía, en el camino de la justicia para “todas las razas en un mundo de múltiples razas”; por hablar con tanta vehemencia Fray Bartolomé de las Casas en Valladolid en favor de los indios americanos, su larga y complicada argumentación tuvo también otra utilidad: fortaleció a todos aquellos que en su tiempo, y en los siglos que siguieron, trabajaron con la creencia de que “todas las gentes del mundo son hombres”. No bestias, ni esclavos por naturaleza, no como niños con un entendimiento limitado o estático, sino hombres que son capaces de llegar a ser cristianos, que tienen pleno derecho a gozar de sus bienes, su libertad política y su dignidad humana, y que en su creencia deberían ser incorporados a la civilización española y cristiana en vez de ser esclavizados o destruidos. (shrink)
This compilation of around 20 texts presents an heterogeneous spectrum of topics by authors such as: Diamela Eltit, Elvira Hernndez and Guadalupe Santa Cruz, among others who from a philosophical point of view the writings of George ...
El propósito de este trabajo es mostrar, por una parte, que el estoicismo es una de las fuentes principales del naturalismo spinoziano, y por otra, que hay diferencias en el alcance y nivel de desarrollo de ambos naturalismos. Se trata, pues, de determinar qué afinidades y diferencias hay en sus conceptos de naturaleza y qué implicaciones tienen éstas en el ámbito práctico. Y ello, sobre todo, atendiendo a la diferente concepción de las pasiones que ambos mantuvieron.
En la coyuntura histórica, turbulenta y apasionante a la vez del Humanismo Renacentista, caracterizada por la vuelta a la Antigüedad clásica y por la renovación de principios en todas las manifestaciones culturales, resultan afectadas, desde sus mismos cimientos, la filosofía y la religión. Esta crisis escolástica incide de tal manera en la conciencia de los individuos y de los pueblos, que exige sin demora una solución, aun cuando sea provisional, que haga posible a los hombres el simple fenómeno de seguir (...) viviendo como tales. Nada tiene, pues, de extraño que entre las ruinas de la Moral tomista surjan impulsos moralizadores, como el de Justus Lipsius (1547-1606), queriendo renovar las doctrinas estoicas de Epicteto (ca. 50 a. de C.-125/138) y Séneca (ca. 4-65) y el de Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), empeñado en cristianizar a Epicuro. Para algunos, a esto se reduce, más o menos, la Etica del Renacimiento. Otros opinan que la primera Ética de la filosofía moderna hay que buscarla entre los grandes filósofos, que sin pertenecer cronológicamente al Renacimiento, son consecuencia madura de él. Se refieren a Descartes (1596-1650), Spinoza (1632-1677) y Kant (1724-1804). Pero en opinión de significativos autores, no hay que remontarse hasta Kant para hallar la auténtica Ética del Renacimiento. Juan Luis Vives publicaba en 1524 un pequeño librito titulado Introductio ad Sapientiam [Introducción a la Sabiduría], que por su estructura ideológica interna y por su ascendencia senequista y cristiana ocupa un lugar preferente entre las Éticas modernas, y por su contenido y cronología puede ser considerada como la Ética del Renacimiento, al menos del Renacimiento español. (shrink)
In this paper, it is argued that only in the section on dialectic in the Critique of Judgment does Kant reach a definitive and conclusive version of deduction, after discovering the concept of the supersensible. In the section on the deduction of pure aesthetic judgments, Kant does not satisfactorily explain the critical distinction between the sensible nature of humanity and the supersensible nature of human reason presupposed in the concept of universal communicability. While the concept of the supersensible illustrates this (...) distinction, it is only through this concept that Kant that can justify the specific possibility of claiming subjective validity in taste. The priority of the solution found in the dialectic is illustrated not only by a comparative analysis of the two sections, but also by a historical reconstruction of the process of the formation of the work, which shows that the first formulation of the concept of validity coincides with the use of the concept of the supersensible. (shrink)