En este breve comentario discuto algunos aspectos de la interpretación de la epistemología de Davidson que sugiere Willian Duica en su reciente libro. Luego de una presentación somera del libro me centro en tres asuntos centrales de la interpretación de Duica. En primer lugar, argumento que su lectura de la crítica de Davidson al dualismo esquema/contenido es muy restrictiva y deja abierta la posibilidad de un realismo directo empirista. En segundo lugar, argumento que en su lectura el propio Duica se (...) compromete inadvertidamente con un empirismo de este tipo y, de este modo, su interpretación entra en tensión con el coherentismo de Davidson. Finalmente, discuto algunos aspectos de la interpretación que hace Duica de la tesis davidsoniana de la triangulación. In this short comment I discuss some aspects of William Duica's interpretation of Davidson's epistemology in a recent book. After a brief review of the book, I focus on three central issues of Duica's interpretation. First, I argue that his reading of Davidson's criticism of the scheme/content dualism is too restrictive and leaves open the possibility of an empiricist direct realism. Second, I argue in his reading Duica inadvertently commits himself to an empiricism of this sort and, as a result, his interpretation is in tension with Davidson's own coherentism. Finally, I discuss some aspects of Duica's interpretation of Davidsonian triangulation. (shrink)
In the remainder of this article, we will disarm an important motivation for epistemic contextualism and interest-relative invariantism. We will accomplish this by presenting a stringent test of whether there is a stakes effect on ordinary knowledge ascription. Having shown that, even on a stringent way of testing, stakes fail to impact ordinary knowledge ascription, we will conclude that we should take another look at classical invariantism. Here is how we will proceed. Section 1 lays out some limitations of previous (...) research on stakes. Section 2 presents our study and concludes that there is little evidence for a substantial stakes effect. Section 3 responds to objections. The conclusion clears the way for classical invariantism. (shrink)
Does the Ship of Theseus present a genuine puzzle about persistence due to conflicting intuitions based on “continuity of form” and “continuity of matter” pulling in opposite directions? Philosophers are divided. Some claim that it presents a genuine puzzle but disagree over whether there is a solution. Others claim that there is no puzzle at all since the case has an obvious solution. To assess these proposals, we conducted a cross-cultural study involving nearly 3,000 people across twenty-two countries, speaking eighteen (...) different languages. Our results speak against the proposal that there is no puzzle at all and against the proposal that there is a puzzle but one that has no solution. Our results suggest that there are two criteria—“continuity of form” and “continuity of matter”— that constitute our concept of persistence and these two criteria receive different weightings in settling matters concerning persistence. (shrink)
This article examines whether people share the Gettier intuition (viz. that someone who has a true justified belief that p may nonetheless fail to know that p) in 24 sites, located in 23 countries (counting Hong Kong as a distinct country) and across 17 languages. We also consider the possible influence of gender and personality on this intuition with a very large sample size. Finally, we examine whether the Gettier intuition varies across people as a function of their disposition to (...) engage in “reflective” thinking. (shrink)
Since at least Hume and Kant, philosophers working on the nature of aesthetic judgment have generally agreed that common sense does not treat aesthetic judgments in the same way as typical expressions of subjective preferences—rather, it endows them with intersubjective validity, the property of being right or wrong regardless of disagreement. Moreover, this apparent intersubjective validity has been taken to constitute one of the main explananda for philosophical accounts of aesthetic judgment. But is it really the case that most people (...) spontaneously treat aesthetic judgments as having intersubjective validity? In this paper, we report the results of a cross‐cultural study with over 2,000 respondents spanning 19 countries. Despite significant geographical variations, these results suggest that most people do not treat their own aesthetic judgments as having intersubjective validity. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for theories of aesthetic judgment and the purpose of aesthetics in general. (shrink)
Dentro de toda la obra de Vico subyace -a pesar de su tensión con Descartes y de sus pretensiones jurídicas y filológicas- una vigorosa preocupación por lo humano. Esta preocupación recorre desde la tesis del conocer por causas de la ciencia hasta la afirmación de la comprensión como forma específica del conocimiento histórico.In the whole work of Vico can be found -despite his tension with Descartes and his juridical and philological intentions- a strong concern for humanity. This concern is visible (...) from the thesis of scientific knowledge by causes to the statement of comprehension as the specific method of historical knowledge. (shrink)
In this extraordinary contribution to Nietzsche studies, Robert Alejandro offers an original interpretation of Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy viewed as a complete whole. Alejandro painstakingly traces the different ways in which Nietzsche reconfigured and shifted his analyses of morality and of the human condition, until he was content with the final result: nothing was dispensable; everything was necessary. This is a philosophy of reconciliation--hardly nihilism--and it is a perspective that is not adequately addressed elsewhere in the literature on Nietzsche. (...)Alejandro traces the evolution of Nietzsche's thought by identifying the different layers of his philosophy, expressed in a complex array of stories and historical narratives. Alejandro analyzes the different stories of Nietzsche, places those stories within a tradition of genealogical theorizing, and interprets both the stories and the genealogy in terms of one of Nietzsche's unique features, his use of "historiobiography." According to Alejandro, historiobiography blends the idea of an attunement with all history and one's awareness of this attunement. As a mode of philosophizing, historiobiography allows Nietzsche to view all human history as if it runs through his own life and thoughts. Alejandro argues that Nietzsche deployed three strategies to find relief from his sense of the meaninglessness of life: his magnified concept of what he himself represented in human history, his doctrine of the eternal recurrence, and his philosophy of reconciliation. "I am confident that this book will be considered essential reading for any scholar doing serious research into Nietzsche's thought and its implications.... The author carefully traces the shifts and turns and occasionally the contradictions and dead-ends in the development of Nietzsche's major themes. I have never read an account of Nietzsche's thought as fully and convincingly supported by textual reference as this book. Others will disagree with the author's readings of Nietzsche, that is the nature of scholarship, but I cannot see how they could be ignored." --_Edward Portis, Texas A & M University_ "This is a major work on Nietzsche. Robert Alejandro offers us a reading of Nietzsche's Herculean efforts that Nietzsche scholars and scholars who write about modernity and postmodernity will be unable to ignore. This wide ranging and deep book addresses major issues in cultural history, psychoanalysis, cultural anthropology, and the vast literature on modernity and secularization. I expect this to be a book that generates debate and discussion for years to come." --_Robert Hollinger, Iowa State University_ "Robert Alejandro delivers a rich, lively account of Nietzsche's quest for meaning. By focusing on the theme of _historiobiography_, Alejandro illuminates Nietzsche's bold attempt to place himself at the center of a comprehensive account of the rise and fall of Western civilization. A thoughtful, well-crafted book, written very much in the spirit of Nietzsche himself." --_Daniel Conway, Texas A & M University_. (shrink)
The idea of fairness lies at the heart of the concept of justice proposed by political philosopher John Rawls, a concept that liberals have often invoked to defend the welfare state. In The Limits of Rawlsian Justice political theorist Roberto Alejandro challenges the assumptions that Rawls set out to defend his position. While other opponents of Rawls have attempted to offer an alternative to his concept of justice as fairness, Alejandro instead examines Rawls from within his own writings, (...) testing Rawls's assumptions on the basis of those assumptions themselves. As a result, Alejandro shows that Rawls's idea of justice as fairness is fraught with inner tensions, exposed to utilitarian dangers, and far from being the coherent model Rawls promised. Alejandro concludes that Rawls's notion of justice-as-fairness preserves the status quo, overlooks the realities of inequalities in today's society, and is inherently conservative. As a theoretical paradigm, it is exhausted. He urges that we acknowledge the limits of Rawlsian justice both as a defense of the welfare state and as the basis of a just society. (shrink)
In Christianity, Otherization and Contemporary Politics, Roberto E. Alejandro argues that the identity politics of the American far-left follow an identity paradigm established by early Christian thinkers, and warns that such politics may incline towards the same violence Christianity succumbed to once imbued with political power.
Se analizan los textos de Rafael Gutiérrez-Girardot sobre F. Nietzsche en torno a la tragedia y el pesimismo. Esta aproximación se elabora a partir de tres temas: estilo, nihilismo y estética. Se argumenta que la interpretación de Gutiérrez-Girardot sobre Nietzsche impide que este sea visto solo como un crítico literario. Asimismo, este trabajo brinda el tono a la escritura de Rafael Gutiérrez Girardot y, de este modo, configura su estilo personal.
RESUMEN Se analizan los textos de Rafael Gutiérrez-Girardot sobre F. Nietzsche en torno a la tragedia y el pesimismo. Esta aproximación se elabora a partir de tres temas: estilo, nihilismo y estética. Se argumenta que la interpretación de Gutiérrez-Girardot sobre Nietzsche impide que este sea visto solo como un crítico literario. Asimismo, este trabajo brinda el tono a la escritura de Rafael Gutiérrez Girardot y, de este modo, configura su estilo personal. ABSTRACT The article analyzes Rafael (...) class='Hi'>Gutiérrez-Girardot's texts on F. Nietzsche's reflections regarding tragedy and pessimism, on the basis of three topics: style, nihilism, and aesthetics. It argues that Gutiérrez-Girardot's interpretation of Nietzsche proves that the former is not merely a literary critic, and that those texts shape the tone and personal style of Gutiérrez Girardot's writing. (shrink)
This article examines the evaluative nature of the folk concepts of weakness and strength of will and hypothesizes that their evaluative nature is strongly connected to the folk concepts of blame and credit. We probed how people apply the concepts of weakness and strength of will to prototypical and non-prototypical scenarios. While regarding prototypical scenarios the great majority applied these concepts according to the predictions following from traditional philosophical analyses. When presented with non-prototypical scenarios, people were divided. Some, against traditional (...) analyses, did not apply these concepts, which we explain in terms of a clash of evaluations involving different sorts of blame and credit. Others applied them according to traditional analyses, which we explain in terms of a disposition to be reflective and clearly set apart the different sorts of blame and credit involved. Still others applied them in an inverse way, seemingly bypassing the traditional components resolution and be.. (shrink)
The paper introduces Vailati’s life and works, investigating Vailati’s education, the relation to Peano and his school, and the interest for pragmatism and modernism. A detailed analysis of Vailati’s scientific and didactic activities, shows that he held, like Peano, a a strong interest for the history of science and a pluralist, anti-dogmatic and anti-foundationalist conception of definitions in mathematics, logic and philosophy of language. Vailati’s understanding of mathematical logic as a form of pragmatism is not a faithful interpretation of Peano’s (...) conception, but it is essential to understand the relations of Peano’s logic with other philosophical traditions and some epistemological aspects of Peano’s perspective, such as the search for a universal language. (shrink)
We review and discuss A. H. Louie’s book “More than Life Itself: A Reflexion on Formal Systems and Biology” from an interdisciplinary viewpoint, involving both biology and mathematics, taking into account new developments and related theories.
La figura del payaso ha pasado por diferentes momentos y lecturas históricas, lo que permite considerarla como una figura arquetípica. Su papel en la sociedad históricamente fue el del ridículo, objeto de risas, pero el payaso no sólo es un ser congruente, auténtico y valiente, sino que también pued..
There are important cases where properties not referred to by expressions from the languages of physics are enabled in certain times and circumstances to get causal control over some kinds of physical events. I will argue that in those cases we would have to transfer to those properties the causal sufficiency to bring about these events. This would offer a principle of causal inheritance in sharp contrast with the inheritance principle for the causal sufficiency of second order properties defended by (...) Jaegwon Kim in his recent discussion of the causal exclusion problem concerning mental properties. The two principles would be very different. Their domains of application would be distinct. Kim's principle would transfer causal sufficiency to the more "concrete" physical properties able to realize mental properties understood as second order properties. Our principle would transfer causal sufficiency to the more "general" properties able to cause the relevant physical effects in the times and circumstances in question. That way, it would be possible to give a quite simple answer to the problem of causal exclusion posed by Kim in relation to mental properties. Our approach also would have very important consequences in relation to ordinary macrophysical causation. (shrink)
In contrast with the development of big theories in the context of social sciences, there is nowadays an increasing interest in the construction of simulation models for complex phenomena. Those simulation models suggest a certain image of social sciences as a kind of, let us say, "patchwork". In that image, an increase in understanding about the phenomena modeled is obtained through a certain sort of aggregation. There is not an application of sound, established theories to all the phenomena of a (...) certain kind, but an aggregation of the structures supposed, and of the results obtained, when particular systems are modeled. The recent case of the "El Farol Bar" problem, and the models built in order to face this problem, are a good example of this. We will analyze that case, trying to make clear what would be implied by the image above mentioned. Special attention will be paid to the need to take seriously the notion of a bounded rationality, linked to the special circumstances generating each decision problem, and to the existence of an irreducible pluralism of models. (shrink)
Estudiamos en este artículo la evolución de los valores de la polis griega, desde sus más remotos antecedentes (Homero) hasta su máximo esplendor que coincide con el enfrentamiento entre los sofistas y Platón.
Describimos en este artículo algunos de los puntos que consideramos más relevantes y, sobre todo, menos trabajados, de lo que podríamos denominar "la herencia humana e intelectual de Bertrand Rusell". Concretamente, nos centramos en el estudio de dos materias a las que el filósofo británico concedió gran importancia: el amor y la pasión. Previamente, apuntamos aquellos acontecimientos y sucesos de su vida que hoy, tras los veinticinco años de su desaparición, nos pueden resultar de mayor interés.
En la primera parte de este artículo se quiere exponer la posición de Ludwig Wittgenstein en las Investigaciones filosóficas donde ya se percibe un importante giro respecto a la concepción semántica del Tractatus. El Wittgenstein tardío asume el lenguaje y su significado no como el resultado aislado de una conciencia monológica sino el producto una praxis social mediada por reglas. Sin embargo, al pensador austríaco le falta aun el espacio para el encuentro con la otredad que se muestra en la (...) posibilidad de la traducción de las reglas de otros juegos de lenguaje al propio, ya sean entre comunidades distintas o dentro de una misma cultura en épocas diferentes. En la segunda parte se muestra como en la hermenéutica filosófica de Hans-Georg Gadamer se abre el lugar para la comprensión en inclusión de estos otros juegos gracias al despliegue de los modos que le son propios como son la asunción del círculo hermenéutico, la dialéctica de la pregunta y respuesta, la fusión de horizontes y el juego. En especial, se hace referencia a cómo la otredad que se presenta como tradición histórica produce en el sujeto que comprende y de la tradición interpretada, un mayor enriquecimiento. Esto es el centro de la comprensión hermenéutica y sucede cuando el sujeto incorpora en su horizonte las perspectivas y puntos de vista de otros horizontes gracias al vaivén inacabado y abierto de la comprensión.The first part of this paper presents the position of Ludwig Wittgenstein in the Philosophical Investigations where it can see a significant turn respect to the semantic conception of the Tractatus. The later Wittgenstein takes language and its meaning not as an isolated result of a monological consciousness but the product of a social practice mediated by rules. However, the Austrian philosopher lacks even the space for the encounter with otherness that is displayed on the possibility of translation of the rules of other language games to the own, whether between different communities or within the same culture in different times. In the second part is shown as in the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer is open the space for the understanding of these other games through the deployment of the modes of its own such as the assumption of the hermeneutic circle, the dialectic of question and answer, the fusion of horizons and the play. In particular, it refers to how otherness, presented as historical tradition produce in the subject that comprehend and in the tradition interpreted greater enrichment. That is the center of the hermeneutic comprehension and happens when subject includes on his horizon the perspectives and views of other horizons thanks to unfinished and open sway of understanding. (shrink)