У статті оцінюється значення онтологічної та метафізичної проблематики у сучасному філософському дискурсі, критично аналізується концепція монографії Андрія Баумейстера «Буття і благо» та пропонується інтерпретація буття як ствердження реальності в соціально детермінованій дії.
The chapter examines Russian political theorist Aleksandr Dugin’s (b. 1962) challenge to the Western liberal order. Even though Dugin’s project is in many ways a theoretical epitome of Russia’s contemporary attempt to profile itself as a regional great power with a political and cultural identity distinct from the liberal West, Dugin can also be read in a wider context as one of the currently most prominent representatives of the culturally and intellectually oriented international New Right. The chapter introduces Dugin’s (...) role on the Russian right-wing political scene and his international networks, Russian neo-Eurasianism as his ideological footing, and his more recent “fourth political theory” as an attempt to formulate a new ideological alternative to liberalism as well as the two other main twentieth-century ideologies, communism and fascism. Dugin’s fourth ideology, essentially meant as an alternative to a unipolar post–Cold War global hegemony of victorious liberalism, draws inspiration from the German conservative revolutionary movement of the Weimar era. In particular, Martin Heidegger’s philosophy of history, with its thesis of the end of modernity and another beginning of Western thought, and Carl Schmitt’s pluralistic model of geopolitics are highlighted as key elements of Dugin’s eclectic political thought, which is most appropriately characterized as a form of radical conservatism. (shrink)
The significance and potential of systems theory and complexity theory are best appreciated through an understanding of their origins. Arguably, their originator was the Russian philosopher and revolutionary, Aleksandr Bogdanov. Bogdanov anticipated later developments of systems theory and complexity theory in his efforts to lay the foundations for a new, post-capitalist culture and science. This science would overcome the division between the natural and the human sciences and enable workers to organize themselves and their productive activity. It would be (...) central to the culture of a society in which class and gender divisions have been transcended. At the same time it would free people from the deformed thinking of class societies, enabling them to appreciate both the limitations and the significance of their environments and other forms of life. In this paper it is argued that whatever Bogdanov's limitations, such a science is still required if we are to create a society free of class divisions, and that it is in this light that developments in systems theory and complexity theory should be judged. (shrink)
The most important figure among Russia's radical Marxists was A.A. Bogdanov (the pseudonym of Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Malinovskii). Not only was he the prime exponent of a proletarian cultural revolution; it was Bogdanov's ideas which provided justification for concern for the environment. And his ideas are not only important to environmentalists because they were associated with this conservation movement; more significantly they are of continuing relevance because they confront the root causes of environmental destruction in the present, and offer what (...) is perhaps the only way to overcome these causes. (shrink)
With the failure of the Soviet Union, Aleksandr Bogdanov has come under increasing scrutiny as the anti-authoritarian, left-wing opponent of Lenin among the Bolsheviks and the main inspiration behind the Proletk'ult movement, the movement which attempted to create a new, proletarian culture (Sochor, 1988). Bogdanov's efforts to create a new, universal science of organization, a precursor to systems theory and cybernetics, has also attracted considerable attention (Gorelik, 1980; Bello, 1985; Biggart et.al. 1998). And he has been recognized as an (...) early environmentalist and as a feminist (Graham, 1984; Gare, 1994; Gare, 1996, pp.249-52). But few people have paid much attention to Bogdanov as an historian, sociologist and philosopher of science. Yet Bogdanov developed highly original ideas on science, offering unique resolutions to the oppositions between instrumentalism and realism and between internalist and externalist accounts of scientific development, and following from these, proposed a radical transformation of science as the foundation for an equally radical transformation of society. (shrink)
During the 1930s, Aleksandr Promptov—a student of the founder of Russian population genetics Sergei Chetverikov—developed an elaborate concept of speciation in birds. He conducted field investigations aimed at giving a naturalistic content to the theoretical formulations and laboratory models of evolutionary processes advanced within the framework of population genetics, placing particular emphasis on the evolutionary role of bird behavior. Yet, although highly synthetic in combining biogeographical, taxonomic, genetic, ecological, and behavioral studies, Promptov's speciation concept was ignored by the architects (...) of the 1930s and 1940s evolutionary synthesis, including Theodosius Dobzhnasky, Ernst Mayr, and Julian Huxley. In this article, I argue that the story of Promptov's concept and its reception by other evolutionists challenges the traditional presentation of the synthesis as a singular, international process of the unification of biology, which led to the creation of a universal synthetic theory of evolution. It suggests that during the same time period, within largely the same theoretical framework, there were multiple, intrinsically local, attempts at creating synthetic evolutionary concepts. These concepts were often quite particular—in their taxonomic applicability, in their explanations of various evolutionary factors, and in the range of disciplines unified in the synthesis. Apparently, these concepts ran contrary to the universal aspirations of the synthesis architects, and as a result, they were disregarded, first by the architects and later by historians of the evolutionary synthesis. (shrink)
Grishin algebras are a generalisation of Boolean algebras that provide algebraic models for classical bilinear logic with two mutually cancelling negation connectives. We show how to build complete Grishin algebras as algebras of certain subsets (“propositions”) of cover systems that use an orthogonality relation to interpret the negations. The variety of Grishin algebras is shown to be closed under MacNeille completion, and this is applied to embed an arbitrary Grishin algebra into the algebra of all propositions (...) of some cover system, by a map that preserves all existing joins and meets. This representation is then used to give a cover system semantics for a version of classical bilinear logic that has first-order quantifiers and infinitary conjunctions and disjunctions. (shrink)
In Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Daniel Mahoney presents a philosophical perspective on the political condition of modern man through an exegesis and analysis of Solzhenitsyn's work. Mahoney demonstrates the tremendous, yet often unappreciated, impact of Sozhenitsyn's writing on twentieth century thinking through an examination of the writer's profoundly important critique of communist totalitarianism in a judicious and original mix of western and Russian, Christian and classical wisdom.
Aleksandr Bogdanov is probably the most original philosopher to have arisen thus far among Marxists. Most scholars know of him only as the man who provoked Lenin into writing the book of polemical epistemology, Materialism and Empiriocriticism. Jensen’s work, the first full-length study to deal with Bogdanov’s thought in its own right, is a careful analytical account; it sets forth the novel theses, chapter by chapter, in Bogdanov’s later book Philosophy of Living Experience.
In the work of the Russian symbolist Andrej Belyj the question concerning the essence of personality [ličnost'] plays an important role throughout his life and is developed in both his literary and philosophical-theoretical writings. Although Belyj wrote no text specifically devoted to this notion, it is nonetheless possible to reconstruct genetically a more or less cohesive theory of personality. In the case of Aleksandr Blok, who left behind relatively few works of a theoretical nature, the situation is different. In (...) these works, moreover, the problems involved in the notion of personality are hardly touched upon and are not philosophically deepened. Nevertheless, a few disparate elements of a notion of personality can be pointed out for Blok. /// Im Schaffen des russischen Symbolisten Andrej Belyj nimmt die Frage nach dem Wesen von Persönlichkeit [ličnost'] zeit seines Lebens einen wichtigen Raum ein und ist sowohl in seinen literarischen wie philosophisch-theoretischen Schriften entwickelt. Wenngleich Belyj keinen Text verfasst hat, der sich diesem Begriff eigens widmet, können dennoch aus seinem Werk Grundzüge einer Theorie der Persönlichkeit genetisch rekonstruiert werden. Anders sieht dies im Fall von Aleksandr Blok aus, der verhältnismäßig wenige Arbeiten mit theoretischem Charakter hinterlassen hat. Auch wird in ihnen die Problematik des Persönlichkeitsbegriffs kaum berührt und nicht philosophisch vertieft. Dennoch können vereinzelte Elemente eines Persönlichkeitsbegriffs für Blok aufgezeigt werden. (shrink)
In the work of the Russian symbolist Andrej Belyj (1880-1934) the question concerning the essence of personality [ličnost'] plays an important role throughout his life and is developed in both his literary and philosophical-theoretical writings. Although Belyj wrote no text specifically devoted to this notion, it is nonetheless possible to reconstruct genetically a more or less cohesive theory of personality. In the case of Aleksandr Blok (1880-1921), who left behind relatively few works of a theoretical nature, the situation is (...) different. In these works, moreover, the problems involved in the notion of personality are hardly touched upon and are not philosophically deepened. Nevertheless, a few disparate elements of a notion of personality can be pointed out for Blok. /// Im Schaffen des russischen Symbolisten Andrej Belyj (1880-1934) nimmt die Frage nach dem Wesen von Persönlichkeit [ličnost'] zeit seines Lebens einen wichtigen Raum ein und ist sowohl in seinen literarischen wie philosophisch-theoretischen Schriften entwickelt. Wenngleich Belyj keinen Text verfasst hat, der sich diesem Begriff eigens widmet, können dennoch aus seinem Werk Grundzüge einer Theorie der Persönlichkeit genetisch rekonstruiert werden. Anders sieht dies im Fall von Aleksandr Blok (1880-1921) aus, der verhältnismäßig wenige Arbeiten mit theoretischem Charakter hinterlassen hat. Auch wird in ihnen die Problematik des Persönlichkeitsbegriffs kaum berührt und nicht philosophisch vertieft. Dennoch können vereinzelte Elemente eines Persönlichkeitsbegriffs für Blok aufgezeigt werden. (shrink)
To begin with the bad news. Mahoney does not write well. He moves in perplexing ways from the stylistic register of the journalistic, to that of the scholarly, to political philosophy and back again. His knowledge of Russian seems shaky or doubtful. The key work of Georges Nivat is given a handsome accolade but is never engaged seriously. It is not clear whether he is aware of the publication of the third volume of The Red Wheel, March 1917, in the (...) original, but also in French translation. This volume would have strengthened Mahoney’s argument. (shrink)
This essay analyzes the recent appearance in Russian letters of ultra-nationalist fantasies about the restoration of Russia’s imperial or totalitarian status. This new trend has its roots not only in the increasingly patriotic tone of Russian society and politics, but also in the dynamics of the literary field itself. ‘Imperialist writers’ such as Aleksandr Prokhanov and Pavel Krusanov have both revived and reacted against postmodern themes and motifs from earlier decades. Relying on the legacy of sots-art and stiob , (...) the ‘imperialists’ advance a new model in Russia’s postmodern tradition, one that is balanced on the very borderline between irony and ideological militancy. In playing the game of ambiguous fanaticism, these writers have been able to attract the attention of a broad and diverse public, and have moved from an intellectual periphery into the cultural mainstream. (shrink)
We examine the relationship between the logics of nonsense of Bochvar and Halldén and the containment logics in the neighborhood of William Parry’s A I. We detail two strategies for manufacturing containment logics from nonsense logics—taking either connexive and paraconsistent fragments of such systems—and show how systems determined by these techniques have appeared as Frederick Johnson’s R C and Carlos Oller’s A L. In particular, we prove that Johnson’s system is precisely the intersection of Bochvar’s B 3 and Graham Priest’s (...) non-symmetrized connexive logic and that Oller’s system lies just beneath the intersection of B 3 and Priest’s paraconsistent L P. We conclude by examining Oller’s system in more depth, giving it a characterization in terms of L P and showing that it plays the same role to Harry Deutsch’s paraconsistent containment logic S that Aleksandr Zinov'ev’s S 1 plays with respect to A I. (shrink)
The Lambek-Grishin calculus is a symmetric version of categorial grammar obtained by augmenting the standard inventory of type-forming operations (product and residual left and right division) with a dual family: coproduct, left and right difference. Interaction between these two families is provided by distributivity laws. These distributivity laws have pleasant invariance properties: stability of interpretations for the Curry-Howard derivational semantics, and structure-preservation at the syntactic end. The move to symmetry thus offers novel ways of reconciling the demands of natural (...) language form and meaning. (shrink)