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Alexander Clark [7]Alexander M. Clark [5]Alex Clark [1]
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Profile: Alex Clark (University of Montana)
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Profile: Alexander Clark (University of Wisconsin, Madison)
  1. Complexity in Language Acquisition.Alexander Clark & Shalom Lappin - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):89-110.
    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems—in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. (...)
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  2.  2
    The Complexity of Postpartum Mental Health and Illness: A Critical Realist Study.Wendy Sword, Alexander M. Clark, Kathleen Hegadoren, Sandra Brooks & Dawn Kingston - 2012 - Nursing Inquiry 19 (1):51-62.
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  3.  17
    Using Critical Realism in Nursing and Health Research: Promise and Challenges.Jan E. Angus & Alexander M. Clark - 2012 - Nursing Inquiry 19 (1):1-3.
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    Understanding Health Decisions Using Critical Realism: Home-Dialysis Decision-Making During Chronic Kidney Disease.Lori Harwood & Alexander M. Clark - 2012 - Nursing Inquiry 19 (1):29-38.
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  5. Measuring Gradience in Speakers' Grammaticality Judgements.Jey Han Lau, Alexander Clark & Shalom Lappin - unknown
    The question of whether grammaticality is a binary categorical or a gradient property has been the subject of ongoing debate in linguistics and psychology for many years. Linguists have tended to use constructed examples to test speakers’ judgements on specific sorts of constraint violation. We applied machine translation to randomly selected subsets of the British National Corpus (BNC) to generate a large test set which contains well-formed English source sentences, and sentences that exhibit a wide variety of grammatical infelicities. We (...)
     
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  6. Unsupervised Learning and Grammar Induction.Alex Clark & Shalom Lappin - unknown
    In this chapter we consider unsupervised learning from two perspectives. First, we briefly look at its advantages and disadvantages as an engineering technique applied to large corpora in natural language processing. While supervised learning generally achieves greater accuracy with less data, unsupervised learning offers significant savings in the intensive labour required for annotating text. Second, we discuss the possible relevance of unsupervised learning to debates on the cognitive basis of human language acquisition. In this context we explore the implications of (...)
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  7.  23
    Chesterton in Chicago.Alexander Clark - 1981 - The Chesterton Review 7 (2):176-177.
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  8. Towards a Statistical Model of Grammaticality.Gianluca Giorgolo, Shalom Lappin & Alexander Clark - unknown
    The question of whether it is possible to characterise grammatical knowledge in probabilistic terms is central to determining the relationship of linguistic representation to other cognitive domains. We present a statistical model of grammaticality which maps the probabilities of a statistical model for sentences in parts of the British National Corpus (BNC) into grammaticality scores, using various functions of the parameters of the model. We test this approach with a classifier on test sets containing different levels of syntactic infelicity. With (...)
     
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  9. Computational Learning Theory and Language Acquisition.Alexander Clark - unknown
    Computational learning theory explores the limits of learnability. Studying language acquisition from this perspective involves identifying classes of languages that are learnable from the available data, within the limits of time and computational resources available to the learner. Different models of learning can yield radically different learnability results, where these depend on the assumptions of the model about the nature of the learning process, and the data, time, and resources that learners have access to. To the extent that such assumptions (...)
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  10. Another Look at Indirect Negative Evidence.Alexander Clark & Shalom Lappin - unknown
    Indirect negative evidence is clearly an important way for learners to constrain overgeneralisation, and yet a good learning theoretic analysis has yet to be provided for this, whether in a PAC or a probabilistic identification in the limit framework. In this paper we suggest a theoretical analysis of indirect negative evidence that allows the presence of ungrammatical strings in the input and also accounts for the relationship between grammaticality/acceptability and probability. Given independently justified assumptions about lower bounds on the probabilities (...)
     
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  11.  1
    Exploring the Impact of Gender Inequities on the Promotion of Cardiovascular Health of Women in Pakistan.Rubina Barolia, Alexander M. Clark & Gina Higginbottom - 2017 - Nursing Inquiry 24 (1):e12148.
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    Improving Health: Structure and Agency in Health Interventions.Alexandra A. Choby & Alexander M. Clark - 2014 - Nursing Philosophy 15 (2):89-101.
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  13. Empiricism and Language Learnability.Nick Chater, Alexander Clark, John A. Goldsmith & Amy Perfors - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This interdisciplinary new work explores one of the central theoretical problems in linguistics: learnability. The authors, from different backgrounds---linguistics, philosophy, computer science, psychology and cognitive science-explore the idea that language acquisition proceeds through general purpose learning mechanisms, an approach that is broadly empiricist both methodologically and psychologically. Written by four researchers in the full range of relevant fields: linguistics, psychology, computer science, and cognitive science, the book sheds light on the central problems of learnability and language, and traces their implications (...)
     
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