60 found
Order:
  1.  40
    Justice and the Human Development Approach to International Research.Alex John London - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (1):24-37.
    : The debate over when medical research may be performed in developing countries has steered clear of the broad issues of social justice in favor of what seem more tractable, practical issues. A better approach will reframe the question of justice in international research in a way that makes explicit the links between medical research, the social determinants of health, and global justice.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   41 citations  
  2.  37
    Research at the Auction Block: Problems for the Fair Benefits Approach to International Research.Alex John London & Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2010 - Hastings Center Report 40 (4):34-45.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  3.  22
    The Ethics of Advertising for Health Care Services.Yael Schenker, Robert M. Arnold & Alex John London - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (3):34-43.
    Advertising by health care institutions has increased steadily in recent years. While direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising is subject to unique oversight by the Federal Drug Administration, advertisements for health care services are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission and treated no differently from advertisements for consumer goods. In this article, we argue that decisions about pursuing health care services are distinguished by informational asymmetries, high stakes, and patient vulnerabilities, grounding fiduciary responsibilities on the part of health care providers and health (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  4.  25
    Artificial Intelligence and Black‐Box Medical Decisions: Accuracy Versus Explainability.Alex John London - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (1):15-21.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  5.  19
    Groundhog Day for Medical Artificial Intelligence.Alex John London - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (3):inside back cover-inside back co.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  6.  9
    Predicting Harms and Benefits in Translational Trials: Ethics, Evidence, and Uncertainty.Jonathan Kimmelman & Alex John London - unknown
    First-in-human clinical trials represent a critical juncture in the translation of laboratory discoveries. However, because they involve the greatest degree of uncertainty at any point in the drug development process, their initiation is beset by a series of nettlesome ethical questions [1]: has clinical promise been sufficiently demonstrated in animals? Should trial access be restricted to patients with refractory disease? Should trials be viewed as therapeutic? Have researchers adequately minimized risks? The resolution of such ethical questions inevitably turns on claims (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  7.  16
    Addressing ethical challenges in HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (3):149-158.
    Despite recent advances in HIV prevention and treatment, high HIV incidence persists among people who inject drugs. Difficult legal and political environments and lack of services for PWID likely contribute to high HIV incidence. Some advocates question whether any HIV prevention research is ethically justified in settings where healthcare system fails to provide basic services to PWID and where implementation of research findings is fraught with political barriers. Ethical challenges in research with PWID include concern about whether research evidence will (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  8.  11
    Addressing Ethical Challenges in HIV Prevention Research with People Who Inject Drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):149-158.
    Despite recent advances in HIV prevention and treatment, high HIV incidence persists among people who inject drugs. Difficult legal and political environments and lack of services for PWID likely contribute to high HIV incidence. Some advocates question whether any HIV prevention research is ethically justified in settings where healthcare system fails to provide basic services to PWID and where implementation of research findings is fraught with political barriers. Ethical challenges in research with PWID include concern about whether research evidence will (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  9.  12
    Justice and the Human Development Approach to International Research.Alex John London - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (1):24.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  10.  24
    A Non-Paternalistic Model of Research Ethics and Oversight: Assessing the Benefits of Prospective Review.Alex John London - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):930-944.
    This paper offers a non-paternalistic justification for prospective research review as providing a credible social assurance that the institutions of scientific advancement respect and affirm the moral equality of all community members and as creating a “market” in which stakeholders working to advance diverse ends also advance the common good.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  11.  57
    The Ambiguity and the Exigency: Clarifying 'Standard of Care' Arguments in International Research.Alex John London - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (4):379 – 397.
    This paper examines the concept of a 'standard of care' as it has been used in recent arguments over the ethics of international human-subjects research. It argues that this concept is ambiguous along two different axes, with the result that there are at least four possible standard of care arguments that have not always been clearly distinguished. As a result, it has been difficult to assess the implications of opposing standard of care arguments, to recognize important differences in their supporting (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  12. Patient-Funded Trials: Opportunity or Liability?Danielle M. Wenner, Alex John London & Jonathan Kimmelman - 2015 - Cell Stem Cell 17 (2):135-137.
    Patient-funded trials are gaining traction as a means of accelerating clinical translation. However, such trials sidestep mechanisms that promote rigor, relevance, efficiency, and fairness. We recommend that funding bodies or research institutions establish mechanisms for merit review of patient-funded trials, and we offer some basic criteria for evaluating PFT protocols.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  13.  16
    Clinical Equipoise: Foundational Requirement or Fundamental Error.Alex John London - 2009 - In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
    Any view of equipoise faces perhaps the most radical and far-reaching objections from moral foundations. These objections hold that the equipoise requirement conflates the ethics of medical research and the ethics of clinical medicine. Once this conflation is recognized, this position holds, research can be given a new foundation on the imperative to avoid exploiting research participants. This article argues that what is novel in this critique is not as successful as its proponents claim and that the ultimate success of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  14.  45
    Equipose and International Human-Subjects Research.Alex John London - 2001 - Bioethics 15 (4):312–332.
    This paper examines the role of equipoise in evaluating international research. It distinguishes two possible formulations of the equipoise requirement that license very different evaluations of international research proposals. The interpretation that adopts a narrow criterion of similarity between clinical contexts has played an important role in one recent controversy, but it suffers from a number of problems. An alternative interpretation that adopts a broader criterion of similarity does a better job of avoiding both exploitation of the brute fact of (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  15.  22
    Two Dogmas of Research Ethics and the Integrative Approach to Human-Subjects Research.Alex John London - 2007 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (2):99 – 116.
    This article argues that lingering uncertainty about the normative foundations of research ethics is perpetuated by two unfounded dogmas of research ethics. The first dogma is that clinical research, as a social activity, is an inherently utilitarian endeavor. The second dogma is that an acceptable framework for research ethics must impose constraints on this endeavor whose moral force is grounded in role-related obligations of either physicians or researchers. This article argues that these dogmas are common to traditional articulations of the (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  16.  13
    The Structure of Clinical Translation:Efficiency, Information, and Ethics.Jonathan Kimmelman & Alex John London - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 45 (2):27-39.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  17.  28
    Responsiveness to Host Community Health Needs.Alex John London - unknown
    There is near universal agreement within the scientific and ethics communities that a necessary condition for the moral permissibility of cross-national, collaborative research is that it be responsive to the health needs of the host community. It has proven difficult, however, to leverage or capitalize on this consensus in order to resolve lingering disputes about the ethics of international medical research. This is largely because different sides in these debates have sometimes provided different interpretations of what this requirement amounts to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  18.  12
    Reasonable Risks In Clinical Research: A Critique and a Proposal for the Integrative Approach.Alex John London - unknown
    Before participants can be enrolled in a clinical trial, an institutional review board must determine that the risks that the research poses to participants are ‘reasonable.’ This paper examines the two dominant frameworks for assessing research risks and argues that each approach suffers from significant shortcomings. It then considers what issues must be addressed in order to construct a framework for risk assessment that is grounded in a compelling normative foundation and might provide more operationally precise guidance to the deliberations (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  19.  6
    Beyond Access Vs. Protection in Trials of Innovative Therapies.Alex John London, Jonathan Kimmelman & Marina Elena Emborg - unknown
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  20.  20
    Reviewing HIV‐Related Research in Emerging Economies: The Role of Government Reviewing Agencies.Patrina Sexton, Katrina Hui, Donna Hanrahan, Mark Barnes, Jeremy Sugarman, Alex John London & Robert Klitzman - 2016 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (1):4-14.
    Little research has explored the possible effects of government institutions in emerging economies on ethical reviews of multinational research. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews with 15 researchers, Research Ethics Committees personnel, and a government agency member involved in multinational HIV Prevention Trials Network research in emerging economies. Ministries of Health or other government agencies often play pivotal roles as facilitators or barriers in the research ethics approval process. Government agency RECs reviewing protocols may face particular challenges, as they can (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  21.  29
    Does Research Ethics Rest on a Mistake? The Common Good, Reasonable Risk and Social Justice.Alex John London - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):37 – 39.
  22.  12
    The Moral Foundations of Equipoise and its Role in International Research.Alex John London - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (4):48 – 51.
  23.  10
    Learning Health Systems, Clinical Equipoise and the Ethics of Response Adaptive Randomisation.Alex John London - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (6):409-415.
    To give substance to the rhetoric of ‘learning health systems’, a variety of novel trial designs are being explored to more seamlessly integrate research with medical practice, reduce study duration and reduce the number of participants allocated to ineffective interventions. Many of these designs rely on response adaptive randomisation. However, critics charge that RAR is unethical on the grounds that it violates the principle of equipoise. In this paper, I reconstruct critiques of RAR as holding that it is inconsistent with (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  24.  18
    Threats to the Common Good: Biochemical Weapons and Human Subjects Research.Alex John London - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (5):17-25.
  25. Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine.Bonnie Steinbock, John D. Arras & Alex John London - 2003 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 6 (4):447-448.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  26.  32
    Social Value, Clinical Equipoise, and Research in a Public Health Emergency.Alex John London - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (3):326-334.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. The Independence of Practical Ethics.Alex John London - 2001 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (2):87-105.
    After criticizing three common conceptions of therelationship between practical ethics and ethical theory, analternative modeled on Aristotle's conception of the relationshipbetween rhetoric and philosophical ethics is explored. Thisaccount is unique in that it neither denigrates the project ofsearching for an adequate comprehensive ethical theory norsubordinates practical ethics to that project. Because the purpose of practical ethics, on this view, is tosecure the cooperation of other persons in a way that respectstheir status as free and equal, it seeks to influence thejudgments (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  28.  74
    Sham Surgery and Genuine Standards of Care: Can the Two Be Reconciled?Alex John London & Joseph B. Kadane - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (4):61-64.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  29.  14
    Equipoise and the Criteria for Reasonable Action.Emily L. Evans & Alex John London - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (2):441-450.
    Critics of clinical equipoise have long argued that it represents an overly permissive, and therefore morally unacceptable, mechanism for resolving the tensions inherent in clinical research. In particular, the equipoise requirement is often attacked on the grounds that it is not sufficiently responsive to the interests of individual patients. In this paper, we outline a view of equipoise that not only withstands a stronger version of this objection, which was recently articulated by Deborah Hellman, but also plays important roles in (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  30.  8
    Cutting to the Core: Exploring the Ethics of Contested Surgeries.Michael Benatar, Leslie Cannold, Dena Davis, Merle Spriggs, Julian Savulescu, Heather Draper, Neil Evans, Richard Hull, Stephen Wilkinson, David Wasserman, Donna Dickenson, Guy Widdershoven, Françoise Baylis, Stephen Coleman, Rosemarie Tong, Hilde Lindemann, David Neil & Alex John London - 2006 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    When the benefits of surgery do not outweigh the harms or where they do not clearly do so, surgical interventions become morally contested. Cutting to the Core examines a number of such surgeries, including infant male circumcision and cutting the genitals of female children, the separation of conjoined twins, surgical sex assignment of intersex children and the surgical re-assignment of transsexuals, limb and face transplantation, cosmetic surgery, and placebo surgery.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  31.  77
    Amenable to Reason: Aristotle's Rhetoric and the Moral Psychology of Practical Ethics.Alex John London - 2000 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (4):287-305.
    : An Aristotelian conception of practical ethics can be derived from the account of practical reasoning that Aristotle articulates in his Rhetoric and this has important implications for the way we understand the nature and limits of practical ethics. An important feature of this conception of practical ethics is its responsiveness to the complex ways in which agents form and maintain moral commitments, and this has important implications for the debate concerning methods of ethics in applied ethics. In particular, this (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  32.  12
    Undue Inducements and Reasonable Risks: Will the Dismal Science Lead to Dismal Research Ethics?Alex John London - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (5):29 – 32.
  33.  25
    What Is Social and Global Justice to Bioethics or Bioethics to Social and Global Justice?Alex John London - 2006 - Hastings Center Report 36 (4):3-3.
  34.  7
    Sham Surgery and Reasonable Risk.Alex John London - unknown
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  35.  51
    Editor's Introduction: Theory and Engagement in Bioethics.Alex John London - 2001 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (2):65-68.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  36.  16
    Bringing science and advocacy together to address health needs of people who inject drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (3):165-166.
    In crafting our paper on addressing the ethical challenges in HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs, 1 we had hoped to stimulate further discussion and deliberation about the topic. We are pleased that three commentaries on our paper have begun this process. 2 3 4 The commentaries rightly bring up important issues relating to community engagement and problems in translating research into practice in the fraught environments in which PWID face multiple risks. These risks include acquisition of HIV (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  1
    Improving Ethical Review of Research Involving Incentives for Health Promotion.Alex John London, David A. Borasky & Anant Bhan - unknown
    Within international development [1], public health [2], and clinical medicine [3]–[5], there is increasing interest in determining whether cash payments or other economic incentives can be used to influence the choices and behavior of individuals and groups in order to promote desired health goals. However, a number of complex issues affect the review and approval by research ethics committees of research studying the effectiveness of using financial incentives to promote desired health goals. Current ethical and regulatory frameworks regard the provision (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  38.  44
    Adversaries at the Bedside: Advance Care Plans and Future Welfare.Aidan Kestigian & Alex John London - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (8):557-567.
    Advance care planning refers to the process of determining how one wants to be cared for in the event that one is no longer competent to make one's own medical decisions. Some have argued that advance care plans often fail to be normatively binding on caretakers because those plans do not reflect the interests of patients once they enter an incompetent state. In this article, we argue that when the core medical ethical principles of respect for patient autonomy, honest and (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  15
    Justice in the Application of Science: Beyond Fair Benefits.Alex John London - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):54-56.
  40.  52
    Moral Knowledge and the Acquisition of Virtue in Aristotle's "Nicomachean" and "Eudemian Ethics".Alex John London - 2001 - Review of Metaphysics 54 (3):553 - 583.
    IN BOTH THE EUDEMIAN ETHICS AND THE NICOMACHEAN ETHICS, Aristotle says that the aim of ethical inquiry is a practical one; we want to know what virtue is so that we may become good ourselves and thereby do well and be happy. By classifying ethical inquiry as a practical endeavor, Aristotle is rejecting a view that he attributes to Socrates according to which ethics is a kind of theoretical science. In theoretical sciences, such as geometry or astronomy, the knowledge of (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  41.  27
    Ethical Considerations in the Conduct of Electronic Surveillance Research.Ashok J. Bharucha, Alex John London, David Barnard, Howard Wactlar, Mary Amanda Dew & Charles F. Reynolds - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (3):611-619.
    The extant clinical literature indicates profound problems in the assessment, monitoring, and documentation of care in long-term care facilities. The lack of adequate resources to accommodate higher staff-to-resident ratios adds additional urgency to the goal of identifying more costeffective mechanisms to provide care oversight. The ever expanding array of electronic monitoring technologies in the clinical research arena demands a conceptual and pragmatic framework for the resolution of ethical tensions inherent in the use of such innovative tools. CareMedia is a project (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  42.  12
    The Maltese Conjoined Twins: Two Views of Their Separation.Alex John London - unknown
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  43.  11
    Perspective: The Maltese Conjoined Twins: Two Views of Their Separation.Alex John London & Lori P. Knowles - 2001 - Hastings Center Report 31 (1):48.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  44.  12
    Bringing Science and Advocacy Together to Address Health Needs of People Who Inject Drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):165-166.
    In crafting our paper on addressing the ethical challenges in HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs,1 we had hoped to stimulate further discussion and deliberation about the topic. We are pleased that three commentaries on our paper have begun this process.2 3 4 The commentaries rightly bring up important issues relating to community engagement and problems in translating research into practice in the fraught environments in which PWID face multiple risks. These risks include acquisition of HIV as well (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45.  4
    Weight of Complicity.Alec Walker & Alex John London - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (1):69-70.
    International non-governmental organisations face a dilemma when deciding whether to intervene in crisis situations where their efforts can be exploited or co-opted by others: intervene and risk becoming complicit with wrongdoing or sit on the sidelines and consign vulnerable people to the ravages of neglect or oppression. In “‘ He who helps the guilty, shares the crime’? INGOs, moral narcissism and complicity in wrongdoing,” Buth et al argue that concerns about complicity often stifle ethical debate and encourage moral narcissism. We (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  11
    Evaluating Public Health Advertising Campaigns: CPR Advertising Imperils Patient-Centered Decision Making.Yael Schenker & Alex John London - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (2):47-48.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47.  15
    Assessing the Moral Coherence and Moral Robustness of Social Systems: Proof of Concept for a Graphical Models Approach.Frauke Hoss & Alex John London - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (6):1761-1779.
    This paper presents a proof of concept for a graphical models approach to assessing the moral coherence and moral robustness of systems of social interactions. “Moral coherence” refers to the degree to which the rights and duties of agents within a system are effectively respected when agents in the system comply with the rights and duties that are recognized as in force for the relevant context of interaction. “Moral robustness” refers to the degree to which a system of social interaction (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48.  12
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “The Ethics of Advertising for Health Care Services”.Yael Schenker, Robert M. Arnold & Alex John London - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (4):W3 - W4.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49.  14
    Richardson, Henry S. Moral Entanglements: The Ancillary-Care Obligations of Medical Researchers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Pp. 253. $45.00. [REVIEW]Alex John London - 2013 - Ethics 124 (1):206-209.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50.  10
    Launching Invasive, First-in-Human Trials Against Parkinson’s Disease: Ethical Considerations.Jonathan Kimmelman, Alex John London, Bernard Ravina, Tim Ramsay, Mark Bernstein, Alan Fine, Frank W. Stahnisch & Marina Elena Emborg - unknown
    The decision to initiate invasive, first-in-human trials involving Parkinson’s disease presents a vexing ethical challenge. Such studies present significant surgical risks, and high degrees of uncertainty about intervention risks and biological effects. We argue that maintaining a favorable riskbenefit balance in such circumstances requires a higher than usual degree of confidence that protocols will lead to significant direct and/or social benefits. One critical way of promoting such confidence is through the application of stringent evidentiary standards for preclinical studies. We close (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 60