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Alex John London [71]Alex London [7]
  1. Artificial Intelligence and Black‐Box Medical Decisions: Accuracy versus Explainability.Alex John London - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (1):15-21.
    Although decision‐making algorithms are not new to medicine, the availability of vast stores of medical data, gains in computing power, and breakthroughs in machine learning are accelerating the pace of their development, expanding the range of questions they can address, and increasing their predictive power. In many cases, however, the most powerful machine learning techniques purchase diagnostic or predictive accuracy at the expense of our ability to access “the knowledge within the machine.” Without an explanation in terms of reasons or (...)
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  2. The Place of Philosophy in Bioethics Today.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Sean Aas, Dan Brudney, Jessica Flanigan, S. Matthew Liao, Alex London, Wayne Sumner & Julian Savulescu - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (12):10-21.
    In some views, philosophy’s glory days in bioethics are over. While philosophers were especially important in the early days of the field, so the argument goes, the majority of the work in bioethics today involves the “simple” application of existing philosophical principles or concepts, as well as empirical work in bioethics. Here, we address this view head on and ask: What is the role of philosophy in bioethics today? This paper has three specific aims: (1) to respond to skeptics and (...)
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  3.  24
    Self-Defeating Codes of Medical Ethics and How to Fix Them: Failures in COVID-19 Response and Beyond.Alex John London - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (1):4-13.
    Statements of the core ethical and professional responsibilities of medical professionals are incomplete in ways that threaten fundamental goals of medicine. First, in the absence of explicit guida...
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  4. For the Common Good: Philosophical Foundations of Research Ethics.Alex John London - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    The foundations of research ethics are riven with fault lines emanating from a fear that if research is too closely connected to weighty social purposes an imperative to advance the common good through research will justify abrogating the rights and welfare of study participants. The result is an impoverished conception of the nature of research, an incomplete focus on actors who bear important moral responsibilities, and a system of ethics and oversight highly attuned to the dangers of research but largely (...)
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  5.  86
    Justice and the human development approach to international research.Alex John London - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (1):24-37.
    : The debate over when medical research may be performed in developing countries has steered clear of the broad issues of social justice in favor of what seem more tractable, practical issues. A better approach will reframe the question of justice in international research in a way that makes explicit the links between medical research, the social determinants of health, and global justice.
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  6.  21
    Justice and the Human Development Approach to International Research.Alex John London - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (1):24.
    The debate over when medical research may be performed in developing countries has steered clear of the broad issues of social justice in favor of what seem more tractable, practical issues. A better approach will reframe the question of justice in international research in a way that makes explicit the links between medical research, the social determinants of health, and global justice.
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  7.  63
    Research at the Auction Block: Problems for the Fair Benefits Approach to International Research.Alex John London & Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2010 - Hastings Center Report 40 (4):34-45.
    The “fair benefits” approach to international research is designed to produce results that all can agree are fair without taking a stand on divisive questions of justice. But its appealing veneer of collaboration masks ambiguities at both a conceptual and an operational level. An attempt to put it into practice would look a lot like an auction, leaving little reason to think the outcomes will satisfy even minimal conditions of fairness.
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  8.  66
    Social value, clinical equipoise, and research in a public health emergency.Alex John London - 2018 - Bioethics 33 (3):326-334.
    The 2016 CIOMS International ethical guidelines for health‐related research involving humans states that ‘health‐related research should form an integral part of disaster response’ and that, ‘widespread emergency use [of unproven interventions] with inadequate data collection about patient outcomes must therefore be avoided’ (Guideline 20). This position is defended against two lines of criticism that emerged during the 2014 Ebola outbreak. One holds that desperately ill patients have a moral right to try unvalidated medical interventions (UMIs) and that it is therefore (...)
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  9.  36
    A Non-Paternalistic Model of Research Ethics and Oversight: Assessing the Benefits of Prospective Review.Alex John London - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):930-944.
    To judge from the rash of recent law review articles, it is a miracle that research with human subjects in the U.S. continues to draw breath under the asphyxiating heel of the rent-seeking, creativity-stifling, jack-booted bureaucrethics that is the current system of research ethics oversight and review. Institutional Review Boards, sometimes called Research Ethics Committees, have been accused of perpetrating “probably the most widespread violation of the First Amendment in our nation's history,” resulting in a “disaster, not only for academics, (...)
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  10.  27
    Clinical Trial Portfolios: A Critical Oversight in Human Research Ethics, Drug Regulation, and Policy.Alex John London & Jonathan Kimmelman - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (4):31-41.
    Regulators rely on clinical trials for drug approval and labeling decisions. Health systems and clinicians rely on the evidence from trials to determine treatment, and patients rely on it to decide which courses of care to undertake. Many of these stakeholders presume that the careful review of individual studies is enough to address the ethical and scientific questions that arise in clinical trials. In what follows, however, we demonstrate that explicit consideration of trial portfolios—series of trials that are interrelated by (...)
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  11.  55
    The Ethics of Advertising for Health Care Services.Yael Schenker, Robert M. Arnold & Alex John London - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (3):34-43.
    Advertising by health care institutions has increased steadily in recent years. While direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising is subject to unique oversight by the Federal Drug Administration, advertisements for health care services are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission and treated no differently from advertisements for consumer goods. In this article, we argue that decisions about pursuing health care services are distinguished by informational asymmetries, high stakes, and patient vulnerabilities, grounding fiduciary responsibilities on the part of health care providers and health (...)
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  12.  34
    Learning health systems, clinical equipoise and the ethics of response adaptive randomisation.Alex John London - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (6):409-415.
    To give substance to the rhetoric of ‘learning health systems’, a variety of novel trial designs are being explored to more seamlessly integrate research with medical practice, reduce study duration and reduce the number of participants allocated to ineffective interventions. Many of these designs rely on response adaptive randomisation. However, critics charge that RAR is unethical on the grounds that it violates the principle of equipoise. In this paper, I reconstruct critiques of RAR as holding that it is inconsistent with (...)
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  13.  79
    The ambiguity and the exigency: Clarifying 'standard of care' arguments in international research.Alex John London - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (4):379 – 397.
    This paper examines the concept of a 'standard of care' as it has been used in recent arguments over the ethics of international human-subjects research. It argues that this concept is ambiguous along two different axes, with the result that there are at least four possible standard of care arguments that have not always been clearly distinguished. As a result, it has been difficult to assess the implications of opposing standard of care arguments, to recognize important differences in their supporting (...)
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  14.  64
    Clinical Equipoise: Foundational Requirement or Fundamental Error.Alex John London - 2007 - In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford handbook of bioethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Any view of equipoise faces perhaps the most radical and far-reaching objections from moral foundations. These objections hold that the equipoise requirement conflates the ethics of medical research and the ethics of clinical medicine. Once this conflation is recognized, this position holds, research can be given a new foundation on the imperative to avoid exploiting research participants. This article argues that what is novel in this critique is not as successful as its proponents claim and that the ultimate success of (...)
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  15.  24
    Predicting harms and benefits in translational trials: ethics, evidence, and uncertainty.Jonathan Kimmelman & Alex John London - unknown
    First-in-human clinical trials represent a critical juncture in the translation of laboratory discoveries. However, because they involve the greatest degree of uncertainty at any point in the drug development process, their initiation is beset by a series of nettlesome ethical questions [1]: has clinical promise been sufficiently demonstrated in animals? Should trial access be restricted to patients with refractory disease? Should trials be viewed as therapeutic? Have researchers adequately minimized risks? The resolution of such ethical questions inevitably turns on claims (...)
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  16.  58
    Equipose and international human-subjects research.Alex John London - 2001 - Bioethics 15 (4):312–332.
    This paper examines the role of equipoise in evaluating international research. It distinguishes two possible formulations of the equipoise requirement that license very different evaluations of international research proposals. The interpretation that adopts a narrow criterion of similarity between clinical contexts has played an important role in one recent controversy, but it suffers from a number of problems. An alternative interpretation that adopts a broader criterion of similarity does a better job of avoiding both exploitation of the brute fact of (...)
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  17.  57
    Addressing ethical challenges in HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):149-158.
    Despite recent advances in HIV prevention and treatment, high HIV incidence persists among people who inject drugs. Difficult legal and political environments and lack of services for PWID likely contribute to high HIV incidence. Some advocates question whether any HIV prevention research is ethically justified in settings where healthcare system fails to provide basic services to PWID and where implementation of research findings is fraught with political barriers. Ethical challenges in research with PWID include concern about whether research evidence will (...)
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  18.  43
    Addressing ethical challenges in HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (3):149-158.
    Despite recent advances in HIV prevention and treatment, high HIV incidence persists among people who inject drugs. Difficult legal and political environments and lack of services for PWID likely contribute to high HIV incidence. Some advocates question whether any HIV prevention research is ethically justified in settings where healthcare system fails to provide basic services to PWID and where implementation of research findings is fraught with political barriers. Ethical challenges in research with PWID include concern about whether research evidence will (...)
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  19.  45
    Two dogmas of research ethics and the integrative approach to human-subjects research.Alex John London - 2007 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (2):99 – 116.
    This article argues that lingering uncertainty about the normative foundations of research ethics is perpetuated by two unfounded dogmas of research ethics. The first dogma is that clinical research, as a social activity, is an inherently utilitarian endeavor. The second dogma is that an acceptable framework for research ethics must impose constraints on this endeavor whose moral force is grounded in role-related obligations of either physicians or researchers. This article argues that these dogmas are common to traditional articulations of the (...)
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  20.  40
    Groundhog Day for Medical Artificial Intelligence.Alex John London - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (3):inside back cover-inside back co.
    Following a boom in investment and overinflated expectations in the 1980s, artificial intelligence entered a period of retrenchment known as the “AI winter.” With advances in the field of machine learning and the availability of large datasets for training various types of artificial neural networks, AI is in another cycle of halcyon days. Although medicine is particularly recalcitrant to change, applications of AI in health care have professionals in fields like radiology worried about the future of their careers and have (...)
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  21.  43
    Placebos that harm: Sham surgery controls in clinical trials.Alex London - unknown
    Recent debates over the use of sham surgery as a control for studies of fetal tissue transplantation for Parkinson’s disease have focused primarily on rival interpretations of the US federal regulations governing human-subjects research. Using the core ethical and methodological considerations that underwrite the equipoise requirement, we nd strong prima facie reasons against using sham surgery as a control in studies of cellular-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease and more broadly in clinical research. Additionally, we believe that these reasons can be (...)
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  22.  21
    The Structure of Clinical Translation: Efficiency, Information, and Ethics.Jonathan Kimmelman & Alex John London - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 45 (2):27-39.
    The last two decades have witnessed a crescendo of allegations that clinical translation is rife with waste and inefficiency. Patient advocates argue that excessively demanding regulations delay access to life‐saving drugs, research funders claim that too much basic science languishes in academic laboratories, journal editors allege that biased reporting squanders public investment in biomedical research, and drug companies (and their critics) argue that far too much is expended in pharmaceutical development.But how should stakeholders evaluate the efficiency of translation and proposed (...)
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  23.  40
    Responsiveness to Host Community Health Needs.Alex John London - unknown
    There is near universal agreement within the scientific and ethics communities that a necessary condition for the moral permissibility of cross-national, collaborative research is that it be responsive to the health needs of the host community. It has proven difficult, however, to leverage or capitalize on this consensus in order to resolve lingering disputes about the ethics of international medical research. This is largely because different sides in these debates have sometimes provided different interpretations of what this requirement amounts to (...)
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  24.  24
    Reasonable Risks In Clinical Research: A Critique and a Proposal for the Integrative Approach.Alex John London - unknown
    Before participants can be enrolled in a clinical trial, an institutional review board must determine that the risks that the research poses to participants are ‘reasonable.’ This paper examines the two dominant frameworks for assessing research risks and argues that each approach suffers from significant shortcomings. It then considers what issues must be addressed in order to construct a framework for risk assessment that is grounded in a compelling normative foundation and might provide more operationally precise guidance to the deliberations (...)
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  25. Artificial intelligence in medicine: Overcoming or recapitulating structural challenges to improving patient care?Alex John London - 2022 - Cell Reports Medicine 100622 (3):1-8.
    There is considerable enthusiasm about the prospect that artificial intelligence (AI) will help to improve the safety and efficacy of health services and the efficiency of health systems. To realize this potential, however, AI systems will have to overcome structural problems in the culture and practice of medicine and the organization of health systems that impact the data from which AI models are built, the environments into which they will be deployed, and the practices and incentives that structure their development. (...)
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  26.  20
    Uncommon misconceptions and common morality.Alex John London - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (12):778-779.
    One of the fundamental challenges in any field of practical ethics is to articulate a framework for deliberation and decision making that is capable of providing warranted guidance about contentious ethical questions.1 Such a framework has to function effectively in the face of empirical uncertainty and what Rawls refers to as the fact of reasonable pluralism—the fact that individuals often differ in their ideals, ambitions, preferences and conceptions of the good life. One of the perennial questions in normative and metaethics (...)
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  27.  15
    Beyond Access vs. Protection in Trials of Innovative Therapies.Alex John London, Jonathan Kimmelman & Marina Elena Emborg - unknown
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  28.  37
    Threats to the Common Good: Biochemical Weapons and Human Subjects Research.Alex John London - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (5):17-25.
    The threat of biological and chemical terrorism highlights a growing tension in research ethics between respecting the interests of individuals and safeguarding and protecting the common good. But what it actually means to protect the common good is rarely scrutinized. There are two conceptions of the common good that provide very different accounts of the limits of permissible medical research. Decisions about the limits of acceptable medical research in defense of the common good should be carried out only within the (...)
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  29.  16
    Varieties of Community Uncertainty and Clinical Equipoise.Alex John London, Patrick Bodilly Kane & Jonathan Kimmelman - 2023 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 33 (1):1-19.
    ABSTRACT:The judgments of conscientious and informed experts play a central role in two elements of clinical equipoise. The first, and most widely discussed, element involves ensuring that no participant in a randomized trial is allocated to a level of treatment that everyone agrees is substandard. The second, and less often discussed, element involves ensuring that trials are likely to generate social value by producing the information necessary to resolve a clinically meaningful uncertainty or disagreement about the relative merits of a (...)
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  30.  14
    Freedom From Subjection to the Will of Others: Study Payments, Labor, and Moral Equality.Alex John London - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):32-34.
    Volume 19, Issue 9, September 2019, Page 32-34.
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  31.  48
    Does Research Ethics Rest on a Mistake? The Common Good, Reasonable Risk and Social Justice.Alex John London - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):37 – 39.
  32. Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine.Bonnie Steinbock, John D. Arras & Alex John London - 2003 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 6 (4):447-448.
     
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  33.  25
    A Dilemma for Respecting Autonomy: Bridge Technologies and the Hazards of Sequential Decision-Making.Aidan Kestigian & Alex John London - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):293-310.
    Respect for patient autonomy can apply at two levels: ensuring that patient care reflects their considered values and wishes and honoring patient preferences about how to make momentous decisions. Caregivers who seek to respect patient autonomy in the context of some end-of-life decisions face a dilemma. Because these decisions are fraught, patients may prefer to approach them sequentially, only making decisions at the time they arise. However, respecting patients’ preferences for a sequential approach can increase the likelihood that surrogates and (...)
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  34.  28
    The moral foundations of equipoise and its role in international research.Alex John London - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (4):48 – 51.
    In “The Real Problem With Equipoise,” Chiong (2006) raises two distinct, but interrelated issues concerning the concept of equipoise. The first deals with the role of equipoise in evaluating intern...
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  35. Patient-Funded Trials: Opportunity or Liability?Danielle M. Wenner, Alex John London & Jonathan Kimmelman - 2015 - Cell Stem Cell 17 (2):135-137.
    Patient-funded trials are gaining traction as a means of accelerating clinical translation. However, such trials sidestep mechanisms that promote rigor, relevance, efficiency, and fairness. We recommend that funding bodies or research institutions establish mechanisms for merit review of patient-funded trials, and we offer some basic criteria for evaluating PFT protocols.
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  36. The independence of practical ethics.Alex John London - 2001 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (2):87-105.
    After criticizing three common conceptions of therelationship between practical ethics and ethical theory, analternative modeled on Aristotle's conception of the relationshipbetween rhetoric and philosophical ethics is explored. Thisaccount is unique in that it neither denigrates the project ofsearching for an adequate comprehensive ethical theory norsubordinates practical ethics to that project. Because the purpose of practical ethics, on this view, is tosecure the cooperation of other persons in a way that respectstheir status as free and equal, it seeks to influence thejudgments (...)
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  37.  68
    Beneficent Intelligence: A Capability Approach to Modeling Benefit, Assistance, and Associated Moral Failures through AI Systems.Alex John London & Hoda Heidari - manuscript
    The prevailing discourse around AI ethics lacks the language and formalism necessary to capture the diverse ethical concerns that emerge when AI systems interact with individuals. Drawing on Sen and Nussbaum's capability approach, we present a framework formalizing a network of ethical concepts and entitlements necessary for AI systems to confer meaningful benefit or assistance to stakeholders. Such systems enhance stakeholders' ability to advance their life plans and well-being while upholding their fundamental rights. We characterize two necessary conditions for morally (...)
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  38. Ethical Issues in Near-Future Socially Supportive Smart Assistants for Older Adults.Alex John London - forthcoming - IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society.
    Abstract:This paper considers novel ethical issues pertaining to near-future artificial intelligence (AI) systems that seek to support, maintain, or enhance the capabilities of older adults as they age and experience cognitive decline. In particular, we focus on smart assistants (SAs) that would seek to provide proactive assistance and mediate social interactions between users and other members of their social or support networks. Such systems would potentially have significant utility for users and their caregivers if they could reduce the cognitive load (...)
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  39. Amenable to reason: Aristotle's rhetoric and the moral psychology of practical ethics.Alex John London - 2000 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (4):287-305.
    : An Aristotelian conception of practical ethics can be derived from the account of practical reasoning that Aristotle articulates in his Rhetoric and this has important implications for the way we understand the nature and limits of practical ethics. An important feature of this conception of practical ethics is its responsiveness to the complex ways in which agents form and maintain moral commitments, and this has important implications for the debate concerning methods of ethics in applied ethics. In particular, this (...)
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  40. Sham Surgery and Genuine Standards of Care: Can the Two be Reconciled?Alex John London & Joseph B. Kadane - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (4):61-64.
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  41.  24
    Equipoise and the Criteria for Reasonable Action.Emily L. Evans & Alex John London - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (2):441-450.
    Critics of clinical equipoise have long argued that it represents an overly permissive, and therefore morally unacceptable, mechanism for resolving the tensions inherent in clinical research. In particular, the equipoise requirement is often attacked on the grounds that it is not sufficiently responsive to the interests of individual patients. In this paper, we outline a view of equipoise that not only withstands a stronger version of this objection, which was recently articulated by Deborah Hellman, but also plays important roles in (...)
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  42.  21
    Undue inducements and reasonable risks: Will the dismal science lead to dismal research ethics?Alex John London - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (5):29 – 32.
  43.  37
    Reviewing HIV‐Related Research in Emerging Economies: The Role of Government Reviewing Agencies.Patrina Sexton, Katrina Hui, Donna Hanrahan, Mark Barnes, Jeremy Sugarman, Alex John London & Robert Klitzman - 2014 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (1):4-14.
    Little research has explored the possible effects of government institutions in emerging economies on ethical reviews of multinational research. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews with 15 researchers, Research Ethics Committees personnel, and a government agency member involved in multinational HIV Prevention Trials Network research in emerging economies. Ministries of Health or other government agencies often play pivotal roles as facilitators or barriers in the research ethics approval process. Government agency RECs reviewing protocols may face particular challenges, as they can (...)
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  44. Cutting to the Core: Exploring the Ethics of Contested Surgeries.Michael Benatar, Leslie Cannold, Dena Davis, Merle Spriggs, Julian Savulescu, Heather Draper, Neil Evans, Richard Hull, Stephen Wilkinson, David Wasserman, Donna Dickenson, Guy Widdershoven, Françoise Baylis, Stephen Coleman, Rosemarie Tong, Hilde Lindemann, David Neil & Alex John London - 2006 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    When the benefits of surgery do not outweigh the harms or where they do not clearly do so, surgical interventions become morally contested. Cutting to the Core examines a number of such surgeries, including infant male circumcision and cutting the genitals of female children, the separation of conjoined twins, surgical sex assignment of intersex children and the surgical re-assignment of transsexuals, limb and face transplantation, cosmetic surgery, and placebo surgery.
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  45.  43
    Bringing science and advocacy together to address health needs of people who inject drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):165-166.
    In crafting our paper on addressing the ethical challenges in HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs,1 we had hoped to stimulate further discussion and deliberation about the topic. We are pleased that three commentaries on our paper have begun this process.2 3 4 The commentaries rightly bring up important issues relating to community engagement and problems in translating research into practice in the fraught environments in which PWID face multiple risks. These risks include acquisition of HIV as well (...)
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  46.  49
    Bringing science and advocacy together to address health needs of people who inject drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (3):165-166.
    In crafting our paper on addressing the ethical challenges in HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs, 1 we had hoped to stimulate further discussion and deliberation about the topic. We are pleased that three commentaries on our paper have begun this process. 2 3 4 The commentaries rightly bring up important issues relating to community engagement and problems in translating research into practice in the fraught environments in which PWID face multiple risks. These risks include acquisition of HIV (...)
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  47.  17
    Improving ethical review of research involving incentives for health promotion.Alex John London, David A. Borasky & Anant Bhan - unknown
    Within international development [1], public health [2], and clinical medicine [3]–[5], there is increasing interest in determining whether cash payments or other economic incentives can be used to influence the choices and behavior of individuals and groups in order to promote desired health goals. However, a number of complex issues affect the review and approval by research ethics committees of research studying the effectiveness of using financial incentives to promote desired health goals. Current ethical and regulatory frameworks regard the provision (...)
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  48.  17
    Sham Surgery and Reasonable Risk.Alex John London - unknown
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  49. Moral Knowledge and the Acquisition of Virtue in Aristotle's "Nicomachean" and "Eudemian Ethics".Alex John London - 2001 - Review of Metaphysics 54 (3):553 - 583.
    IN BOTH THE EUDEMIAN ETHICS AND THE NICOMACHEAN ETHICS, Aristotle says that the aim of ethical inquiry is a practical one; we want to know what virtue is so that we may become good ourselves and thereby do well and be happy. By classifying ethical inquiry as a practical endeavor, Aristotle is rejecting a view that he attributes to Socrates according to which ethics is a kind of theoretical science. In theoretical sciences, such as geometry or astronomy, the knowledge of (...)
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  50. Journal of medicine and philosophy.Alex London - unknown
    To cite this Article: , 'Two Dogmas of Research Ethics and the Integrative Approach to Human-Subjects Research', Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 32:2, 99 - 116 To link to this article: DOI: 10.1080/03605310701255727 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03605310701255727..
     
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