Results for 'Alexander W. Astin'

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  1.  15
    Assessment for Excellence: The Philosophy and Practice of Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education.Alexander W. Astin & Anthony Lising Antonio - 1990 - Phoenix, Ariz.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Assessment for Excellence introduces a philosophy of assessment based upon the talent development concept. Colleges and universities prioritize developing the talents of students and faculty, rather than gathering the most resources and status for their institutions. The Input-Environment-Outcome assessment model focuses on talent development and highlight the pitfalls of common assessment practices.
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  2. Assessment for excellence: the philosophy and practice of assessment and evaluation in higher education.Alexander W. Astin - 1990 - Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press.
    To find more information on Rowman & Littlefield titles, please visit us at www.rowmanlittlefield.com.
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  3. Supplement to "Metalinguistic Gradability".Alexander W. Kocurek - manuscript
  4. Verbal Disagreement and Semantic Plans.Alexander W. Kocurek - 2023 - Erkenntnis.
    I develop an expressivist account of verbal disagreements as practical disagreements over how to use words rather than factual disagreements over what words actually mean. This account enjoys several advantages over others in the literature: it can be implemented in a neo-Stalnakerian possible worlds framework; it accounts for cases where speakers are undecided on how exactly to interpret an expression; it avoids appeals to fraught notions like subject matter, charitable interpretation, and joint-carving; and it naturally extends to an analysis of (...)
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  5. What Topic Continuity Problem?Alexander W. Kocurek - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    A common objection to the very idea of conceptual engineering is the topic continuity problem: whenever one tries to “reengineer” a concept, one only shifts attention away from one concept to another. Put differently, there is no such thing as conceptual revision: there’s only conceptual replacement. Here, I show that topic continuity is compatible with conceptual replacement. Whether the topic is preserved in an act of conceptual replacement simply depends on what is being replaced (a conceptual tool or a conceptual (...)
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  6. The Logic of Hyperlogic. Part B: Extensions and Restrictions.Alexander W. Kocurek - 2022 - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-28.
    This is the second part of a two-part series on the logic of hyperlogic, a formal system for regimenting metalogical claims in the object language (even within embedded environments). Part A provided a minimal logic for hyperlogic that is sound and complete over the class of all models. In this part, we extend these completeness results to stronger logics that are sound and complete over restricted classes of models. We also investigate the logic of hyperlogic when the language is enriched (...)
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  7. Knowing What to Do.Ethan Jerzak & Alexander W. Kocurek - 2024 - Noûs.
    Much has been written on whether practical knowledge (knowledge-how) reduces to propositional knowledge (knowledge-that). Less attention has been paid to what we call deliberative knowledge (knowledge-to), i.e., knowledge ascriptions embedding other infinitival questions, like _where to meet_, _when to leave_, and _what to bring_. We offer an analysis of knowledge-to and argue on its basis that, regardless of whether knowledge-how reduces to knowledge-that, no such reduction of knowledge-to is forthcoming. Knowledge-to, unlike knowledge-that and knowledge-how, requires the agent to have formed (...)
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  8. Idle Questions.Jens Kipper, Alexander W. Kocurek & Zeynep Soysal - 2024 - Journal of Philosophy.
    In light of the problem of logical omniscience, some scholars have argued that belief is question-sensitive: agents don't simply believe propositions but rather believe answers to questions. Hoek (2022) has recently developed a version of this approach on which a belief state is a "web" of questions and answers. Here, we present several challenges to Hoek's question-sensitive account of belief. First, Hoek's account is prone to very similar logical omniscience problems as those he claims to address. Second, the link between (...)
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  9. Against Conventional Wisdom.Alexander W. Kocurek, Ethan Jerzak & Rachel Etta Rudolph - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (22):1-27.
    Conventional wisdom has it that truth is always evaluated using our actual linguistic conventions, even when considering counterfactual scenarios in which different conventions are adopted. This principle has been invoked in a number of philosophical arguments, including Kripke’s defense of the necessity of identity and Lewy’s objection to modal conventionalism. But it is false. It fails in the presence of what Einheuser (2006) calls c-monsters, or convention-shifting expressions (on analogy with Kaplan’s monsters, or context-shifting expressions). We show that c-monsters naturally (...)
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  10. Metalinguistic Gradability.Rachel Rudolph & Alexander W. Kocurek - 2024 - Semantics and Pragmatics 17 (7):1--53.
    We present a novel semantic and conversational framework for a class of gradable-like constructions. These include metalinguistic comparatives, like "Ann is more a linguist than a philosopher", as well as metalinguistic equatives, degree modifications, and conditionals. To the extent previous literature discusses such metalinguistic gradability, the focus has been on comparatives. We extend our account of metalinguistic comparatives (Rudolph & Kocurek 2020) to cover a broader range of metalinguistic gradable constructions. On our semantic expressivist view, these all serve in various (...)
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  11. Counterlogicals as Counterconventionals.Alexander W. Kocurek & Ethan J. Jerzak - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (4):673-704.
    We develop and defend a new approach to counterlogicals. Non-vacuous counterlogicals, we argue, fall within a broader class of counterfactuals known as counterconventionals. Existing semantics for counterconventionals, 459–482 ) and, 1–27 ) allow counterfactuals to shift the interpretation of predicates and relations. We extend these theories to counterlogicals by allowing counterfactuals to shift the interpretation of logical vocabulary. This yields an elegant semantics for counterlogicals that avoids problems with the usual impossible worlds semantics. We conclude by showing how this approach (...)
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  12. Counterpossibles.Alexander W. Kocurek - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (11):e12787.
    A counterpossible is a counterfactual with an impossible antecedent. Counterpossibles present a puzzle for standard theories of counterfactuals, which predict that all counterpossibles are semantically vacuous. Moreover, counterpossibles play an important role in many debates within metaphysics and epistemology, including debates over grounding, causation, modality, mathematics, science, and even God. In this article, we will explore various positions on counterpossibles as well as their potential philosophical consequences.
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  13. On the Substitution of Identicals in Counterfactual Reasoning.Alexander W. Kocurek - 2020 - Noûs 54 (3):600-631.
    It is widely held that counterfactuals, unlike attitude ascriptions, preserve the referential transparency of their constituents, i.e., that counterfactuals validate the substitution of identicals when their constituents do. The only putative counterexamples in the literature come from counterpossibles, i.e., counterfactuals with impossible antecedents. Advocates of counterpossibilism, i.e., the view that counterpossibles are not all vacuous, argue that counterpossibles can generate referential opacity. But in order to explain why most substitution inferences into counterfactuals seem valid, counterpossibilists also often maintain that counterfactuals (...)
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  14. Counteridenticals.Alexander W. Kocurek - 2018 - The Philosophical Review 127 (3):323-369.
    A counteridentical is a counterfactual with an identity statement in the antecedent. While counteridenticals generally seem non-trivial, most semantic theories for counterfactuals, when combined with the necessity of identity and distinctness, attribute vacuous truth conditions to such counterfactuals. In light of this, one could try to save the orthodox theories either by appealing to pragmatics or by denying that the antecedents of alleged counteridenticals really contain identity claims. Or one could reject the orthodox theory of counterfactuals in favor of a (...)
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  15. Logic talk.Alexander W. Kocurek - 2021 - Synthese 199 (5-6):13661-13688.
    Sentences about logic are often used to show that certain embedding expressions are hyperintensional. Yet it is not clear how to regiment “logic talk” in the object language so that it can be compositionally embedded under such expressions. In this paper, I develop a formal system called hyperlogic that is designed to do just that. I provide a hyperintensional semantics for hyperlogic that doesn’t appeal to logically impossible worlds, as traditionally understood, but instead uses a shiftable parameter that determines the (...)
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  16. Does Chance Undermine Would?Alexander W. Kocurek - 2022 - Mind 131 (523):747-785.
    Counterfactual scepticism holds that most ordinary counterfactuals are false. The main argument for this view appeals to a ‘chance undermines would’ principle: if ψ would have some chance of not obtaining had ϕ obtained, then ϕ □→ ψ is false. This principle seems to follow from two fairly weak principles, namely, that ‘chance ensures could’ and that ϕ □→ ψ and ϕ ⋄→ ¬ ψ clash. Despite their initial plausibility, I show that these principles are independently problematic: given some modest (...)
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  17. The Problem of Cross-world Predication.Alexander W. Kocurek - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (6):697-742.
    While standard first-order modal logic is quite powerful, it cannot express even very simple sentences like “I could have been taller than I actually am” or “Everyone could have been smarter than they actually are”. These are examples of cross-world predication, whereby objects in one world are related to objects in another world. Extending first-order modal logic to allow for cross-world predication in a motivated way has proven to be notoriously difficult. In this paper, I argue that the standard accounts (...)
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  18. On the Concept of a Notational Variant.Alexander W. Kocurek - 2017 - In Alexandru Baltag, Jeremy Seligman & Tomoyuki Yamada (eds.), Logic, Rationality, and Interaction (LORI 2017, Sapporo, Japan). Springer. pp. 284-298.
    In the study of modal and nonclassical logics, translations have frequently been employed as a way of measuring the inferential capabilities of a logic. It is sometimes claimed that two logics are “notational variants” if they are translationally equivalent. However, we will show that this cannot be quite right, since first-order logic and propositional logic are translationally equivalent. Others have claimed that for two logics to be notational variants, they must at least be compositionally intertranslatable. The definition of compositionality these (...)
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  19. The Logic of Hyperlogic. Part A: Foundations.Alexander W. Kocurek - 2024 - Review of Symbolic Logic 17 (1):244-271.
    Hyperlogic is a hyperintensional system designed to regiment metalogical claims (e.g., “Intuitionistic logic is correct” or “The law of excluded middle holds”) into the object language, including within embedded environments such as attitude reports and counterfactuals. This paper is the first of a two-part series exploring the logic of hyperlogic. This part presents a minimal logic of hyperlogic and proves its completeness. It consists of two interdefined axiomatic systems: one for classical consequence (truth preservation under a classical interpretation of the (...)
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  20. On the expressive power of first-order modal logic with two-dimensional operators.Alexander W. Kocurek - 2018 - Synthese 195 (10):4373-4417.
    Many authors have noted that there are types of English modal sentences cannot be formalized in the language of basic first-order modal logic. Some widely discussed examples include “There could have been things other than there actually are” and “Everyone who is actually rich could have been poor.” In response to this lack of expressive power, many authors have discussed extensions of first-order modal logic with two-dimensional operators. But claims about the relative expressive power of these extensions are often justified (...)
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  21.  10
    On Aristotle Metaphysics 5.W. E. Alexander & Dooley - 1993 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    "Aristotle was a systematic writer who often cross-referred to the definitions of terms given elsewhere in his work. Book 5 of the Metaphysics is important because it consists of definitions of the main uses of key terms in Aristotle's philosophy, and it is extremely valuable to have a commentary on this important text by Alexander of Aphrodisias, the leading commentator of his school. Alexander provides a detailed commentary on all of the thirty terms analysed in Book 5, weighing (...)
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  22.  6
    On Aristotle's Metaphysics: On Aristotle's metaphysics 2 & 3.W. E. Alexander, Arthur Dooley & Madigan - 1989
  23. Hyperlogic: A System for Talking about Logics.Alexander W. Kocurek - 2019 - Proceedings for the 22nd Amsterdam Colloquium.
    Sentences about logic are often used to show that certain embedding expressions, including attitude verbs, conditionals, and epistemic modals, are hyperintensional. Yet it not clear how to regiment “logic talk” in the object language so that it can be compositionally embedded under such expressions. This paper does two things. First, it argues against a standard account of logic talk, viz., the impossible worlds semantics. It is shown that this semantics does not easily extend to a language with propositional quantifiers, which (...)
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  24.  3
    Johann Georg Hamann: philosophy and faith.W. M. Alexander - 1966 - The Hague,: Martinus Nijhoff.
    THE PROBLEM OF THE INTERPRETATION OF HAMANN Johann Georg Hamann is an intriguing but poorly known figure in the contemporary intellectual world. Yet this is the man whom Kierkegaard saluted as "Emperor!", whose writings were to have been arranged for publication by none other than Goethe himself, and whom Dilthey numbered among the primordial figures in the rise of modern historical consciousness. There are reasons for the persistence of this general ignorance. Hamann is deep. And, in addition, there is his (...)
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  25.  11
    The Control of Education.W. P. Alexander - 1964 - British Journal of Educational Studies 12 (2):214-215.
  26.  38
    Sappho's Ode to Aphrodite.Alexander W. Lawrence - 1922 - The Classical Review 36 (1-2):2-.
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  27. Minimizing Harm: Three Problems in Moral Theory.Alexander W. Friedman - 2002 - Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Distance and morality. I argue that in "Faminine Ethics: the Problem of Distance in Morality and Singer's Ethical Theory" Frances Kamm fails to produce a pair of cases in which a moral difference is present that is not attributable to factors other than distance. I also point out that Kamm's attempts at explaining why distance could possibly matter in morality fall far short. I conclude that there is no reason for us to believe that distance matters in morality and offer (...)
     
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  28. Narrative structure and cultural significance in the novels of Ramon Llull.Alexander W. Ibarz - 2018 - In Amy M. Austin & Mark David Johnston (eds.), A Companion to Ramon Llull and Llullism. Boston: BRILL.
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  29.  84
    Relocating the responsibility cut: Should more responsibility imply less redistribution?Alexander W. Cappelen & Bertil Tungodden - 2006 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 5 (3):353-362.
    Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration and Chr. Michelsen Institute, Norway, bertil.tungodden{at}nhh.no ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> Liberal egalitarian theories of justice argue that inequalities arising from non-responsibility factors should be eliminated, but that inequalities arising from responsibility factors should be accepted. This article discusses how the fairness argument for redistribution within a liberal egalitarian framework is affected by a relocation of the cut between responsibility and non-responsibility factors. The article also discusses the claim (...)
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  30. Supplement to "The Logic of Hyperlogic. Part A".Alexander W. Kocurek - manuscript
    A supplemental document for "The Logic of Hyperlogic. Part A: Foundations".
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  31.  53
    Disability compensation and responsibility.Alexander W. Cappelen, Ole Frithjof Norheim & Bertil Tungodden - 2010 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 9 (4):411-427.
    It is a central political goal to secure disabled individuals the same opportunities as others to pursue their conception of a good life. This goal reflects an ambition to combine an egalitarian and a liberal moral intuition. In this article, we analyse how disabled individuals who take part in economic activity should be compensated in order to respect these two intuitions. The article asks how a system of disability compensation should be structured and what the level of such compensation should (...)
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  32.  17
    Enlightenment Rhetoric Reconsidered: Hume’s Discursive Transcendence in “Of Eloquence”.Alexander W. Morales - 2023 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 56 (3-4):242-266.
    ABSTRACT The phrase “Enlightenment rhetoric” typically denotes discourses bent on rejecting classical oratorical styles in favor of purportedly scientific ones. Likewise, scholars often associate Enlightenment rhetorical styles with the scientific epistemologies that emerged in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This article reconsiders Enlightenment rhetoric by analyzing David Hume’s 1742 essay “Of Eloquence.” More specifically, the article argues that the Scottish Enlightenment context necessitated a rhetoric that compensated for the discursive limitations of new scientific worldviews. In so doing, the article argues (...)
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  33.  34
    Philosophers Have Avoided Sex.W. M. Alexander - 1970 - Diogenes 18 (72):56-74.
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  34.  85
    Natural theology in the middle ages.Alexander W. Hall - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 350--57.
    The development of natural theology in the Middle Ages was driven by the rebirth experienced by Western Europe beginning in the 1000s owing to the emergence of stable monarchies and reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula. This expansion gave scholars access to the vast libraries of scientific and philosophical literature held in Arabic cultural centres – libraries that contained Aristotelian works on natural, ethical, and metaphysical sciences, which had for centuries been lost to the Latin West. The new texts fed the (...)
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  35. Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus on Our Natural Knowledge of God.Alexander W. Hall - 2004 - Dissertation, Emory University
    In 1277, Stephen Tempier, bishop of Paris, drafted the famous Condemnation of 219 articles in theology and natural philosophy. This Condemnation was a reaction against a group of theologians, led by Siger of Brabant, who were accused of holding that truths of reason could contradict those of revelation. Writing before the Condemnation, which impugned reason's autonomy, Thomas Aquinas critiqued Siger and his followers, and argued that reason could never generate truths that contradict revelation. As a consequence, Aquinas sometimes dwells on (...)
     
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  36.  10
    Thomas Aquinas.Alexander W. Hall - 2011 - In H. Lagerlund (ed.), Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Springer. pp. 1279--1287.
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  37.  13
    Johann Georg Hamann: Metacritic of Kant.W. M. Alexander - 1966 - Journal of the History of Ideas 27 (1):137.
  38.  23
    New perspectives on the evolution of exaggerated traits.Alexander W. Shingleton & W. Anthony Frankino - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (2):100-107.
    The scaling of body parts is central to the evolution of morphology and shape. Most traits scale proportionally with each other and body size such that larger adults are essentially magnified versions of smaller ones. This pattern is so ubiquitous that departures from it – disproportionate scaling between trait and body size – pique interest because it can generate dramatically exaggerated traits. These extreme morphologies are frequently hypothesized to result from sexual selection and their study has a long history, with (...)
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  39. Bishops' Courts under Elizabeth.W. F. Alexander - 1922 - Hibbert Journal 21:786.
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  40.  3
    Critical Notes: Seneca's Dialogi I-VI.W. H. Alexander - 1933 - American Journal of Philology 54 (4):353.
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  41. Patavinitas.W. H. Alexander - 1949 - Classical Weekly 43:245.
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  42. Seneca, De Beneficiis 3.16.2.W. H. Alexander - 1935 - Classical Weekly 29:190-191.
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  43. The Alpha and Omega of Hamann's Philosophy.W. M. Alexander - 1981 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 4 (4):297.
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  44. The Amiable Tyranny of Peisistratus.W. H. Alexander - 1936 - Classical Weekly 30:127-135.
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  45. Vosmet Rebus Servate Secundis.W. H. Alexander - 1938 - Classical Weekly 31:13-16.
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  46. White, ed., Studies in Honour of Gilbert Norwood.W. H. Alexander - 1952 - Classical Weekly 46:153.
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  47.  71
    A liberal egalitarian paradox.Alexander W. Cappelen & Bertil Tungodden - 2006 - Economics and Philosophy 22 (3):393-408.
    A liberal egalitarian theory of justice seeks to combine the values of equality, personal freedom, and personal responsibility. It is considered a much more promising position than strict egalitarianism, because it supposedly provides a fairness argument for inequalities reflecting differences in choice. However, we show that it is inherently difficult to fulfill this ambition. We present a liberal egalitarian paradox which shows that there does not exist any robust reward system that satisfies a minimal egalitarian and a minimal liberal requirement. (...)
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  48.  14
    Another look at age changes in geometric illusions.Alexander W. Pressey & Alexander E. Wilson - 1978 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 12 (4):333-336.
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  49.  83
    Reward and responsibility: How should we be affected when others change their effort?Alexander W. Cappelen & Bertil Tungodden - 2003 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 2 (2):191-211.
    University of Oslo and Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Norway We look at how one should reward effort without rewarding talent. One way to approach this issue is to ask how an increase in one individual's effort should be allowed to affect the post-tax income of others. The article provides characterizations of three main classes of redistribution mechanism on the basis of how these answer this question. Key Words: reward • effort • responsibility • equal opportunity • distributive (...)
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  50.  62
    Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial.Alexander W. Dromerick, Matthew A. Edwardson, Dorothy F. Edwards, Margot L. Giannetti, Jessica Barth, Kathaleen P. Brady, Evan Chan, Ming T. Tan, Irfan Tamboli, Ruth Chia, Michael Orquiza, Robert M. Padilla, Amrita K. Cheema, Mark E. Mapstone, Massimo S. Fiandaca, Howard J. Federoff & Elissa L. Newport - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
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