This paper has two sections: first, I am going to analyze two criteria to differentiate between argumentation and formal demonstration. According to Perelman (Perelman & Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1989) argumentation is based on persuasion, and that is the reason why argumentation is polysemic, ambiguous; on the other hand, it is said that argumentation depends on the additional information that someone gives to us, while demonstration does not depend to the additional information. I will show that no criteria invoked to justify the disctintion (...) between demostration and argumentation is kept. In the second section I will show that persuasion is not necessarily associated to the speech act of argumentation, in the same way that the atempt of convincing is not necessarily associated with the act of asserting something. Thus, someone cannot use persuasion to define the argumentative exercise. (shrink)
In this paper I will present a visual method that I have created to demonstrate the validity of propositional arguments and predicates, based on the traditional Venn diagrams. This idea was born after becoming aware of how useful visual methods are in other scientific fields, such as geometrical representations of arithmetic and algebraic concepts. This method illustrates the relationship between propositional logic, predicate logic and set theory, and it can be used to explain linguistic semantic concepts such as synonymy, antonymy, (...) hyponymy, entailment, and lexical substitution. (shrink)
Background: Waiving parent permission can be an option in some epidemiological and social research with adolescents. However, exemptions have not been uniformly considered or applied. Our aim is to critically assess the different factors that could be taken into account when making decisions about waiving active parental permission in observational research with adolescents.DiscussionIn some cases alternatives to parental permission could be applied to protect the rights of both adolescents and parents and also to assure the benefits to adolescents as a (...) group that can come from appropriately conducted studies. However, the criteria of ensuring minimal risk can be difficult to define and apply and a distinction between harm and discomfort is reviewed. Waiving active parental permission could be acceptable when the risk of harm is minimal; when the research questions are related to an activity for which adolescents are not legally considered to be children; when the risk of harm or discomfort may increase if parental permission is required; and when risk of discomfort is low because the questionnaire is not potentially offensive for some adolescents and/or for some parents.SummaryStringent rules concerning parental permission in some studies could be detrimental to adolescents. A framework and a decision tree guide are proposed to help researchers and Research Ethics Committees in their decisions on whether active parental permission must be obtained. (shrink)
The Totonac homegarden is a traditionally designed agroecosystem mixing different elements, such as cultivated and wild plants, and livestock. Our objective was to understand the role and importance of homegardens as a strategy for subsistence and natural resources management. Anthropological fieldwork was carried out in Coxquihui, Veracruz, Mexico, a Totonac community. Conventional sampling using a questionnaire yielded a sample of 40 individuals, each representing a family group. Personal interviews, life stories, observations, and field transects enriched survey information. Fieldwork permitted identification (...) of four types of Totonac homegardens: backyards, cropping fields, acahuales or fallow fields, and fences or field edges. Each of these gardens yields an array of products and services important for several cultural roles and natural resource management aims. Totonacs see land as the dominant and most critical resource. A great deal of terrain is steeply sloped and soils are poor. Homegardens play a key role in a production system that minimizes these site limitations, striking a balance between resource maintenance and subsistence needs. Their functions are ecological, to foster a multistrata vegetation cover, and a continuous supply of organic matter to the soil; economic, serving as living storehouses where diverse products (food, timber, firewood, forage, animals, ceremonial supplies, medicinal products), are kept through the annual cycle; and social, performing various social roles such as growing medicinal, ritual, and edible plants, thus supporting beliefs and culture continuity. Studies like this contribute to a better understanding of Totonac culture and native ecology, and give ideas for a better land management. (shrink)
As third wave feminist philosophers attending graduate schools in different parts of the country, we decided to use our e-mail discussion as the format for presenting our thinking on the subject of third wave feminism. Our dialogue takes us through the subjects of postmodernism, the relationship between theory and practice, the generation gap, and the power relations associated with feminist philosophy as an established part of the academy.
Since Stalbaum’s 1838 translation revived interest in Plato’s Timaeus, commentators have tended to bracket the discourse on Necessity, reading it as either mythical or mystical. This essay offers an interpretation of Necessity that is also an assertion of its importance for understanding the philosophically important conception of chora-space found therein. Beginning with throwing ourselves back into the Presocratic milieu, I examine what remains of Presocratic notions of kreon and ananke (necessity) in order to move forward a more robust interpretation of (...) the discourse on Necessity and chora-space. (shrink)
In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals that can exhibit different “degrees of contingency”. We use this idea to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, this structure explains why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful in scientific practice. For illustrative (...) purposes, we provide an example from population genetics, the Wright-Fisher Model. (shrink)
El artículo analiza la relación entre religión y política en el Leviatán de Hobbes. Primero, se recuerda la idea de religión en Hobbes y su lugar en su filosofía política; esto es, que sea una teología política. En segundo lugar, se examina la conformación de una república cristiana y su fundamento en las Escrituras. En tercer lugar, se explica por qué la mejor forma de gobierno para Hobbes es el absolutismo de los soberanos en la tierra, similar al de Dios (...) en los Cielos. Para terminar con una crítica a la recepción del cristianismo en Hobbes. (shrink)
This essay is about experience, and not only about ideas. I have been drawn to write about John Cameron Mitchell’s Shortbus for a number of reasons: First, I find his work to be part of a new turn in LGBT art and media that take queer lives as a point of departure, and not only as narrative focus, for their work. These areworks that are not just about being queer, but cross the line into being queer works. Of those who (...) can be said to be a part of this recent turn, I find Mitchell’s work to be both especially philosophical and formally interesting. Not only does his work take up philosophical questions over what it means to be human, and the nature of love and sex, but also his works are produced through an organic, cooperative process that re-frames what it could mean to queer representation, political or otherwise. (shrink)
Many of the doctrines expounded by Alfonso de la Torre have found their inspiration in Maimonides’s Guide of the Perplexed and, indirectly, in some Arab authors. Mention must be made of the Maimonidean doctrine of prophecy and that of his predecessor the Arabic philosopher al-Fârâbî. It is also indicated that some of Avicenna’s works could have influenced both Maimonides and Alfonso.
Neste estudo, dá-se continuidade à exposição do scotismo do mestre franciscano chileno Alfonso Briceño, pondo a ênfase em um de seus cinco Apêndices Metafísicos, que constam em suas Controversiae. No terceiro Apêndice, após expor a relação entre “ente” e “unidade”, Briceño explicita o conceito metafísico de “distinção”, em si e nas suas diferenciações. Uma das mais importantes tipologias da “distinção” é a “distinção de razão”. Acima de tudo, Briceño esforça-se em esclarecer certos tipos de distinção de razão e distanciá-los (...) da distinção formal, que deve ser entendida como um tipo de distinção real. (shrink)
The aim of this work is to evaluate the role played by Alfonso Luis Herrera and Isaac Ochoterena in the institutionalization of academic biology in Mexico in the early 20th century. As biology became institutionalized in Mexico, Herrera's basic approach to biology was displaced by Isaac Ochoterena's professional goals due to the prevailing political conditions at the end of 1929. The conflict arose from two different conceptions of biology, because Herrera and Ochoterena had different discourses that were incommensurable, not (...) only linguistically speaking, but also socioprofessionally. They had different links to influential groups related to education, having distinct political and socioprofessional interests. The conflict between Herrrera and Ochoterena determined the way in which professional biology education has developed in Mexico, as well as the advancement in specific research subjects and the neglect of others. (shrink)
El presente trabajo trata sobre el exilio en México del escritor, periodista y poeta Alfonso Guillén Zelaya entre 1933 y 1947. Etapa significativa de la vida y obra del pensador hondureño, pero también de la historia mexicana y latinoamericana. En nuestro artículo hacemos mención a un periodo políti..
: Those who are morally opposed to abortion generally make several pivotal assumptions. This paper focuses on the assumption that we have full moral status throughout our existence. Coupled with the assumption that we come into existence at conception, the assumption about moral status entails that all human fetuses have full moral status, including a right to life. Is the assumption about moral status correct? In addressing this question, I respond to several arguments advanced, in this journal and other venues, (...) by Alfonso Gómez-Lobo. Gómez-Lobo's reasoning resolves into two basic arguments: (1) an appeal to the practical necessity of early moral protection and (2) an appeal to our kind membership and potentiality. I respond to these in turn before offering further reflections. (shrink)
The paper presents some basic tenets of the works by the Franciscan Friar Alfonso Briceño (1587–1668), as well as of his metaphysical thought. After offering the basic structure and purpose of his monumental Controversiae, we focus on a more specific way of seeing his philosophical and theological approach, namely Controversy 5 on the infinity of God. This will allow us to see the structure of his argumentation in philosophy and theology: after putting the formulation of controversial points between the (...) Scotist and the Thomist school, he analyzes arguments against the Thomist position both in the Medieval and Baroque traditions, trying then to defend Duns Scotus’s account by a careful and articulated interpretation of his texts. (shrink)
D. Álvaro Pelayo, nombrado obispo de Silves, hoy diócesis de Faro, Algarve, en el año 1334, entró en conflicto con el rey de Portugal, Alfonso IV (1325-57). Le escribió dos cartas en las que se puede observar que también tuvo que defender la autonomía jurisdiccional del poder espiritual, con vistas a la política centralizadora a la que el rey, siguiendo los pasos de su padre. D. Dinis (1279-1325), daba continuidad, con el propósito de restringir el espacio político del alto (...) clero lusitano. Unos pocos años después (1347), por la misma razón, el conflicto de las relaciones de poder entre las dos autoridades volvió a recrudecerse. Nuestro propósito aquí es doble: analizar los hechos históricos relacionados con los dos mencionados conflictos, por una parte, y los aspectos doctrinales contenidos en las dos referidas cartas, por otra, con vistas a mostrar la coherencia de pensamiento y actitud de D. Álvaro Pelayo. (shrink)
Nel 2011 sono mancati Paolo Lucentini e Alfonso Maierù. Nel ricordarne la vicenda umana e professionale come ricercatori e come docenti, questo articolo intende mettere in luce in particolare il contributo che essi hanno dato alla Storia del pensiero medievale accompagnando gli studi dottrinali con importanti edizioni di testi inediti. Paolo Lucentini and Alfonso Maierù passed away in 2011. This article, in remembrance of their personal and professional roles as researchers and teachers, will highlight the contributions that they (...) made to the history of medieval thought, showing how they combined doctrinal studies with important editions of unedited texts. (shrink)
Of the more than four hundred poems written in praise of the Virgin Mary either by Alfonso the Wise or at his behest and known collectively as the Cantigas de Santa María, five in particular, Cantigas 209, 235, 279, 366, and 367, are of inestimable benefit to the historian for the explicit descriptions they provide of the king's ill health and suffering. Cantiga 235 is the most valuable of these informative compositions both for its broad historical perspectives and for (...) its rigorous chronological ordering of significant episodes; it provides information that allows us to review and reassess what is undeniably the most crucial period of Alfonso X's reign as king of Castile. (shrink)
Mediaeval Iberia was rife with inter-religious conflict between Christians, Jews, and Muslims that incited forced conversions and culminated in mass expulsions. Yet, in the midst of such a harrowing time in the peninsula’s history, there were occasional elements of harmony between these three groups, made all the more impressive in their rarity. King Alfonso X, the Wise, was a man whose rule exhibited a relative tranquility in inter-religious relations some have even suggested is deserving of altering his sobriquet to (...)Alfonso the Tolerant. Through an examination of his law code, the Siete Partidas, and a compilation of several hundred canticles, the Cantigas de Santa Maria, this paper pinpoints elements of Alfonso’s rule to critically assess the claims of his tolerance. (shrink)
This paper aims first and foremost to unravel and clarify an interesting 17th century controversy around superposition in projectiles, which allegedly existed between the French Jesuit Honoré Fabri and the Italian physicist and astronomer Giovanni Alfonso Borelli. This conflict ? initially described by the English mathematician John Wallis in a letter from 1670 to the secretary of the Royal Society ? has been erroneously identified with Fabri's Dialogi physici (1669), a work written in response to Borelli's De vi percussionis (...) (1669). In fact, this ?conflict? was nothing but Wallis's account of a contradiction between Borelli's above mentioned work and Fabri's Tractatus physicus de motu locali from 1646, while Fabri's 1669 work expressed views very different from those contained in his Tractatus physicus. I will try here to reconstruct Fabri's change of heart between 1646 and 1669 concerning projectiles and superposition, while tracing the real bone of contention between (the later) Fabri and Borelli ? superimposing contrary motions ? to its Aristotelian origins. My analysis will lead me to problematize the way modern historians usually interpret the relation between Aristotle's physical thinking and projectile theories of early modern theoreticians (e.g. Nicollò Tartaglia's). (shrink)
Este trabajo expone resultados de un estudio sobre la influencia de las ideas contenidas en varias obras de Erasmo de Rotterdam (en especial su Elogio de la Locura) en el Diálogo de Mercurio y Carón de Alfonso de Valdés. Se destacan elementos principales que sustancian dicha influencia, y algunas diferencias entre las ideas de ambos autores que muestran los aportes que Valdés construyó sobre el pensamiento de Erasmo.
On propose une biographie de Petrus Alfonsi de Huesca. On reproduit notre déduction mathématique de l'icone Trinitaire d'un parchemin de Chartres, du Xlll siècle, depuis la figure précabalistique de Petrus Alfonsi, qu'il a introduit dans son oeuvre Dialogue contre les juifs en l'année 1110. On presente aussi trois matérialisations de I'enlacement alterné de trois anneaux deux à deux non enlacés.A Biography of Pedro Alfonso es proposed from the information today known. There is repruduced our mathematical deduction of the icon (...) Trinitario of a parchment of Chartres of the XIIIth century from a figure precabalistica introduced in 1110 by Pedro of Huesca and it is presented three other materializations of the "alternated link of three any two nost linked". (shrink)
back in about 1984 or 1985, when I'd been in graduate school for a couple of years at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, I started hanging around with three chemists who shared a house. They were colleagues of my roommate, a chemistry grad student. One of them, no kidding, was named Lloyd A. Bumm, who would always introduce himself by saying, "My name is the best joke I know." Lloyd was a quirky, curious guy who often explored unusual places around (...) the City, unlike the typical chemistry grad student. For instance, he frequently would head into Chicago on Sunday mornings to go to this crazy street market he knew about. He invited me to go with him one weekend; he was looking for a power supply, whatever... (shrink)