Responding to bivalent stimuli slows subsequent performance. In prospective memory research, prospective memory targets can be considered as bivalent stimuli because they typically involve features relevant for both the prospective memory task and the ongoing task. The purpose of this study was to investigate how responding to a prospective memory target slows subsequent performance. In two experiments, we embedded the prospective memory task in a task-switching paradigm and we manipulated the degree of task-set overlap between the prospective memory task and (...) the ongoing task. The results showed consistent after-effects of responding to prospective memory targets. The specific trajectory of the slowing depended on the amount of task-set overlap. These results demonstrate that responding to prospective memory targets results in after-effects, a so far neglected cost on ongoing task performance. (shrink)
In this interview, Cornelius Castoriadis explains and develops many of the central themes in his later writings on politics and social criticism. In particular, he poignantly articulates his critique of contemporary pseudo-democracy, while advocating a form of democracy founded on collective education and self-government. He also explores how the “insignificance” in the current political arena relates to insignificance in other areas, such as the arts and philosophy, to form the core feature of our Zeitgeist. Finally, he seeks to break through (...) the ideological fog of liberalism and privatization in order to voice a radical appeal for an autonomous, self-limiting society. (shrink)
Cassirer and Panofsky: A Philosophical Misunderstanding This paper argues that German art historian and iconologist Erwin Panofsky unintentionally misused the concept of "symbolic form" coined by his friend and colleague, philosopher Ernst Cassirer. Although both shared the same neo-Kantian background, I contend that Panofsky clung to Kant’s dualistic theory of knowledge, while Cassirer explicitly adopted a non-dualistic way of thinking largely inspired by Goethean morphology. That is why Panofsky could distinguish between the "natural" space of perception and the cultural space (...) of artistic representation, when Cassirer refused such a possibility. In so doing, Panofsky proved that he totally missed Cassirer’s point: according to the philosopher of symbolic forms, there is no such thing as a "nature," unless this "nature" is grasped as inherently cultural and historical. (shrink)
Le long terme appelle de nouveaux développements de la prospective. De nombreuses disciplines sont déjà engagées dans ce sens. Les sciences de la communication pourraient utilement investir dans ce domaine, en particulier pour l'analyse des processus de communication dans les forums prospectifs, et pour la mobilisation des théories du récit dans l'examen des fondements théoriques des méthodes de scénarios.Long term policies require new developments in Future Studies. Many disciplines are already actively involved. Communication science could - and indeed should - (...) increasingly participate in such efforts, in analysing communication issues and processes within various Future Studies arenas, and mobilizing theories on narratives for a re-examination of the theoretical bases for scenario methodologies. (shrink)
Resumen: Chela Reyes, es una escritora chilena nacida en Santiago el mismo año que Pablo Neruda. Ella tiene una relevante producción poética, casi desconocida, que puede y debería considerarse como parte de la tradición de la vanguardia histórica chilena. Este trabajo pretende evidenciar cómo en Ola nocturna, su tercer poemario publicado en 1945, la autora utiliza personajes y referencias de la mitología griega para dar forma a su imaginario. Su universo figurativo está constituido por poderosas evocaciones de un espacio marítimo (...) en el que se confunde Eros y Tanatos. Personajes como Eolo, Hipocampos, Sirenas, Neptuno, Eco, Venus, forman parte de su galería mitológica-poética. Mediante estas figuras la poeta construye un mundo sorprendente y fascinante en donde el erotismo es tanto creación como destrucción.: Chela Reyes is a chilean writer born in Santiago, the same year as Pablo Neruda. She has a relevant poetic production, almost unknown, that can and should be considered as part of the tradition of the Chilean historical avant-garde. This work aims to show how, in Ola nocturna, her third book of poems published in 1945, the author uses characters and references from Greek mythology to shape her imaginary. Its figurative universe is constituted by powerful evocations of a maritime space in which Eros and Thanatos are confused. Characters such as Eolo, Hippocampus, Sirens, Neptune, Echo, Venus, are part of its mythological-poetic gallery. Through these figures the poet builds a surprising and fascinating world in which eroticism is both creation and destruction. (shrink)
The compliance-based approach and the integrity approach have been the mainstream responses to corporate scandals. This paper proposes that, despite each approach comprising necessary elements, neither offers a comprehensive solution. Compliance and integrity, far from being mutually exclusive, reinforce each other. Working together, in a correct relationship, they build a harmonized system that yields positive synergies and which also advocates prudence. It enables the generation of a culture of compliance that tends to minimize the technical and ethical errors in decision (...) making. In order to explore an applied harmonized approach, we analyze the audit committee, a specific and broadly accepted regulatory instrument. Formed by non-executive members, regulation requires these members to be dedicated, qualified, and independent as a guarantee of efficiency. We show how the compound of those elements produces positive effects in a context of solid governance. We conclude that it is the strong relationship between efficiency and prudence, in the creation of a culture of compliance, which enables the minimization of errors. (shrink)
Martin Heidegger once wrote that the world had, in the age of modern science, become a world picture. For Rey Chow, the world has, in the age of atomic bombs, become a world target, to be attacked once it is identified, or so global geopolitics, dominated by the United States since the end of the Second World War, seems repeatedly to confirm. How to articulate the problematics of knowledge production with this aggressive targeting of the world? Chow attempts such an (...) articulation by probing the significance of the chronological proximity of area studies, poststructuralist theory, and comparative literature—fields of inquiry that have each exerted considerable influence but whose mutual implicatedness as postwar U.S. academic phenomena has seldom been theorized. Central to Chow’s discussions is a critique of the predicament of self-referentiality—the compulsive move to interiorize that, in her view, constitutes the collective frenzy of our age—in different contemporary epistemic registers, including the self-consciously avant-garde as well as the militaristic and culturally supremacist. Urging her readers to think beyond the inward-turning focus on EuroAmerica that tends to characterize even the most radical gestures of Western self-deconstruction, Chow envisions much broader intellectual premises for future transcultural work, with reading practices aimed at restoring words and things to their constitutive exteriority. (shrink)
El autor aprovecha el fallido debate que tuvo lugar entre John Searle y Jacques Derrida desde finales de los anos setenta, en torno a la teoria de los actos de habla de John L. Austin. Este desencuentro no solo es analizado minuciosamente sino que ofrece sendas visiones retrospectivas de las tradiciones de Searle y Derrida, al tiempo que aprovecha el episodio para retratar algunos momentos de la filosofia contemporanea y reflexionar sobre los grande problemas de la filosofia del lenguaje y (...) de la mente: la palabra como instrumento de comunicacion, la intencionalidad de la conciencia y la diferancia como aspecto constitutivo de todo texto. (shrink)
La influencia de José Ortega y Gasset en el pensamiento mexicano ha sido estudiada con detalle, pero no así la relación que guardó con el insigne literato y diplomático mexicano, don Alfonso Reyes. En este artículo se muestra, desde la perspectiva del pensador regiomontano, esa reacia amistad o ese largo malentendido que se dio entre él y el filósofo español. En el texto se da cuenta minuciosamente de la presencia de Ortega y Gasset en México, gracias a la ayuda de (...) Reyes. Esta relación no solo se detiene en las influencias intelectuales, sino que va hasta el encuentro personal, en donde se identifica la circunstancia que hace a cada uno. (shrink)
Suele considerarse que los ensayos de Montaigne contienen el germen del subjetivismo moderno: incapaz de superar su crisis escéptica, Montaigne habría iniciado el giro de la filosofía hacia la interioridad del yo, ensayándose a sí mismo en su escritura, replegándose sobre sí. Sin embargo, conviene no olvidar que los Ensayos carecieron del firme -y falaz- apoyo de la certeza; por ese motivo Montaigne no nos ofrece un decálogo a seguir por un sujeto solitario en el ejercicio autárquico de su razón. (...) Por el contrario, consciente de que la incertidumbre nunca podrá ser despejada, centra su reflexión en el ejercicio de la conversación asumiendo la relación y el comercio con el otro como elementos constitutivos de su propia identidad. (shrink)
1) La obra Edipo rey, de Sófocles, es tomada como paradigma del reconocimiento de sí por sí mismo, aunque 2) podemos encontrar en la cultura judía pasajes de estructura en cierto modo similar, tal como se examinan a propósito del rey David. 3) De ahí pasamos a considerar el reconocimiento mutuo y la lucha por el reconocimiento de la mano de Hegel, algunos de cuyos límites se abordan. 4) Finalmente, se apuntan algunos otros importantes sentidos del término reconocimiento.
, Pietroski and Rey () suggested a reconstruction of ceteris paribus (CP)-laws, which — as they claim — saves CP-laws from vacuity. This discussion note is intended to show that, although Pietroski and Rey's reconstruction is an improvement in comparison to previous suggestions, it cannot avoid the result that CP-laws are almost vacuous. It is proved that if Cx is an arbitrary (nomological) event-type which has independently identifiable deterministic causes, then for every other (nomological) event-type Ax which is not strictly (...) connected with Cx or with ¬Cx, ‘CP if Ax then Cx’ satisfies the conditions of Pietroski and Rey for CP-laws. It is also shown that Pietroski and Rey's reconstruction presupposes the assumption of determinism. The conclusion points towards some alternatives to Piectroski and Rey's reconstruction. (shrink)
The end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century was an extraordinary period in terms of the formation of the modern philosophical spirit due to the opposing positions that arose in it. Characteristic of this period was the coexistence of an unbridled faith and enthusiasm for technological development together with a no less intense pessimism with respect to the future of society. Throughout the twentieth century several thinkers devoted their time to reflect on technology and its (...) social interrelations. This paper is divided into three parts. The first is intended to be a journey and an approach to the formation of the philosophy of technology as a discipline. The second part situates Habermas in the midst of a constellation of philosophers related to the Frankfurt School. The last part deals with the debate between Habermas and Sloterdijk on the limits of biotechnology facing the 21st century. (shrink)
El papa Francisco, a través de la bula Misericordiae Vultus, ha convocado a toda la Iglesia para la celebración jubilar extraordinaria de la misericordia. Dicha celebración dará comienzo el próximo día 8 de diciembre del 2015 con la solemne apertura de la Puerta Santa o de la Misericordia en San Pedro. Una vez que todos los fieles la hayan atravesado experimentando “el amor de Dios que consuela, que perdona y ofrece esperanza”, se cerrará en la festividad de Jesucristo Rey del (...) Universo. Por tanto, es un año en el que se nos invita a reflexionar y meditar entorno a esta gran “virtud”. En este trabajo, pues, reflexionaremos sobre la identidad filosófica y teológica de la virtud de la misericordia. (shrink)
Speech Acts, Criteria and Intentions What makes a speech act a speech act? Which are its necessary and sufficient conditions? I claim in this paper that we cannot find an answer to those questions in Austin's doctrine of the infelicities, since some infelicities take place in fully committing speech acts, whereas others prevent the utterance from being considered as a speech act at all. With this qualification in mind, I argue against the idea that intentions—considered as mental states accomplishing a (...) causal role in the performance of the act—should be considered among the necessary conditions of speech acts. I would thus like to deny a merely ‘symptomatic’ account of intentions, according to which we could never make anything but fallible hypotheses about the effective occurrence of any speech act. I propose an alternative ‘criterial’ account of the role of intentions in speech acts theory, and analyse Austin's and Searle's approaches in the light of this Wittgensteinian concept. Whether we consider, with Austin, that speech acts ‘imply’ mental states or, with Searle, that they ‘express’ them, we could only make sense of this idea if we considered utterances as criteria for intentions, and not as alleged behavioural effects of hidden mental causes. (shrink)
Turing progressions arise by iteratedly adding consistency statements to a base theory. Different notions of consistency give rise to different Turing progressions. In this paper we present a logic that generates exactly all relations that hold between these different Turing progressions given a particular set of natural consistency notions. Thus, the presented logic is proven to be arithmetically sound and complete for a natural interpretation, named the formalized Turing progressions interpretation.
Reyes Mate's Memory of the West looks back in order to look forward. It is a sustained reflection on the great disillusion Europe experienced after World War I. Europeans understood that bombs had buried the Enlightenment. They knew that, to avoid catastrophe, they had to think anew. The catastrophe came, but Cohen, Benjamin, Kafka, and Rosenzweig had sounded the warning.
Abductive problems have been widely studied in propositional logic. First order abduction, however, has been viewed as intractable, for the undecidability of logical consequence. In this paper, we propose a notion of abductive problem, N-abductive problem, which is relative to the cardinality of the minimal model satisfying the given theory. We use a notion of restricted satisfaction, also relative to a domain cardinality. Finally, we propose an effective procedure for the searching of abductive solutions, by means of a modification of (...) Beth's tableaux. (shrink)
Vygotsky, at the end of his life, advanced a new representation of a psychological system that was ruled by a cognitive-emotional unity, a theorization that remains inconclusive due to Vygotsky's early death. This article discusses the advances made by Vygotsky in the comprehension of human motivation through his concepts of sense and perezhivanie at the end of his work. Through these concepts, he further advanced the discussion of motivation, despite the fact that these concepts have only very recently been considered (...) a relevant part of his legacy in both Russian and Western psychology. This paper discusses the departure from and the historical presentations of the concept of motive in the following two main approaches of Soviet psychology that were mistakenly equated in Western interpretations: Vygotsky's approach, mainly at the first as last moment of his work, and Leontiev's Activity Theory. Based on the final theoretical positions of Vygotsky and of other Soviet authors, and further developing this legacy, this article proposes a new definition of motivation as a specific quality of subjectively configured systems and defines motive as intrinsic to the functioning of all psychological function defines subjective functions as subjectively configured processes. This new proposal of human motivation within a new way of defining subjectivity defines new categories as subjective senses and subjective configurations on which the author bases a specific approach for advancing the topic of subjectivity and motivation within a cultural-historical framework. (shrink)
This paper draws a picture of how topics related to subjectivity have appeared in different psychological theories, such as psychoanalysis, Gestalt and post-structuralist approaches, discussing in depth a specific proposition from a cultural-historical standpoint. I argue that, in most of these theories, subjectivity has been used to refer to specific processes and phenomena without advancing a more general theory about it. The way in which subjectivity was treated within the Cartesian/Enlightenment tradition, taken together with the individualistic tradition of psychology, led (...) critical psychological theories to reject the concept. In this way, such critical theories have omitted the heuristic value of subjectivity to study processes that can neither be exhausted by language, nor by discourse. A new proposal of subjectivity is highlighted, based on the cultural-historical tradition in psychology. From this perspective, subjectivity is defined by units of emotions and symbolical processes generated throughout human experience. On the basis of such definition, I discuss how institutionalized orders can be subverted by subjective productions that represent new social pathways. Far from being a remnant of Modernity, in this way subjectivity is defined as a human production, capable of transcending the apparent objective limits of human existence. (shrink)
El presente estudio busca describir fenomenológicamente la forma que exhibe la pena en el cuerpo, después de la pérdida de un ser querido. Para esto, se consideran las hipótesis de movimiento centrı́peto orientado a la autoafección, y movimiento centrı́fugo aludido a la ruptura de la intercorpereidad. Ambos movimientos, hacen referencia a la sensación ambigua que el cuerpo vive en la pena asociados a la presencia y ausencia del otro que ya no está, ya que el dolor provee un estado de (...) desincronización temporal que vuelve simultáneos el presente-pasado y presente-futuro. Esto trae como consecuencias, la contracción y extensión del cuerpo a partir de la maleabilidad de sus propios lı́mites. (shrink)
On 31 August 2001 in Lima, Peru, Christian Pardo Reyes started a campaign – operating through events and publications – to introduce a quota system to reflect the need to involve youth at all levels of government power. His organisation became the Internacional Juvenil. To achieve its goals, it established strong relationships with other youth organisations, state agencies and influential political leaders. Here Christian Pardo Reyes tells the story.
The aim of this paper is to discuss a basic assumption tacitly shared by many philosophers of mind and language: that whatever can be meant, can be said. It specifically targets John Searle’s account of this idea, focussing on his Principle of Expressibility (PE henceforth). In the first part of the paper, PE is exposed underlining its analyticity (1) and its relevance for the philosophy of language (2), mind (3), society and action (4). In the critical part, the notion of (...) Background is taken into account in order to re-evaluate two basic distinctions: the one between sentence and utterance meanings (5), and the one between native and type speakers (6). PE is reconsidered in the light of the previous arguments as a methodological strategy that does not prevent uses of language from eventual semantic excesses and deficits (7), and a complementary Principle of Expression Fallibility is finally proposed (8). (shrink)
This paper investigates the differences between ancient Greek and modern ethical naturalism, through the account of the whole classical tradition provided by Cicero in De finibus bonorum et malorum. Ever since Hume’s remarks on the topic, it is usually held that derivations of normative claims from factual claims require some kind of proper justification. It ́s a the presence of such justifications in the Epicurean, Stoic, and Academic-Peripatetic ethical theories (as portrayed in De finibus), and, after a negative conclusion, I (...) argue that we should conceive of this issue within a social-historical perspective: The radical difference between ancient and modern naturalistic ethics is due (in Weber’s terms) to the rationalization processes that generated the modern outlook on nature. (shrink)
Sound has given rise to many rich theoretical reflections, but when compared to the study of images, the study of sound continues to be marginalized. How is the “sense” of sound constituted and elaborated linguistically, textually, technologically, phenomenologically, and geologically, as well as acoustically? How is sound grasped as an object? Considering sound both within and beyond the scope of the human senses, contributors from literature, film, music, philosophy, anthropology, media and communication, and science and technology studies address topics that (...) range from Descartes’s resonant subject to the gendering of hearing physiology in the nineteenth century, Cold War politics and the opera _Nixon in China_, sounds from the Mediterranean, the poetics of signal processing, and the acousmatic voice in the age of MP3s. In the interpretive challenges posed by voice, noise, antinoise, whispering, near inaudibility, and silence and in the frequent noncoincidence of emission and reception, sound confronts us with what might be called its inhuman qualities—its irreducibility to meaning, to communication, to information, and even to recognition and identification. _Rey Chow_ is Anne Firor Scott Professor of Literature at Duke University. She is the author of _The Age of the World Target _and_ Modern Chinese Literary and Cultural Studies in the Age of Theory_, both_ _published by Duke University Press. _James A. Steintrager _is Professor and Chair of English at the University of California, Irvine. _ Contributors:_ Caroline Bassett, Eugenie Brinkema, Iain Chambers, Michel Chion, Rey Chow,_ _Mladen Dolar, Veit Erlmann, Evan Johnson, Christopher Lee, Mara Mills, John Mowitt, Dominic Pettman, Tara Rodgers, Nicholas Seaver, James A. Steintrager, Jonathan Sterne. (shrink)