NCG 4.0 is the latest update of the Network of Cancer Genes, a web-based repository of systems-level properties of cancer genes. In its current version, the database collects information on 537 known (i.e. experimentally supported) and 1463 candidate (i.e. inferred using statistical methods) cancer genes. Candidate cancer genes derive from the manual revision of 67 original publications describing the mutational screening of 3460 human exomes and genomes in 23 different cancer types. For all 2000 cancer genes, duplicability, evolutionary origin, expression, (...) functional annotation, interaction network with other human proteins and with microRNAs are reported. In addition to providing a substantial update of cancer-related information, NCG 4.0 also introduces two new features. The first is the annotation of possible false-positive cancer drivers, defined as candidate cancer genes inferred from large-scale screenings whose association with cancer is likely to be spurious. The second is the description of the systems-level properties of 64 human microRNAs that are causally involved in cancer progression (oncomiRs). Owing to the manual revision of all information, NCG 4.0 constitutes a complete and reliable resource on human coding and non-coding genes whose deregulation drives cancer onset and/or progression. NCG 4.0 can also be downloaded as a free application for Android smart phones. (shrink)
El objetivo de este trabajo es valorar el reciente proyecto de Jeriy Fodor consistente en combinar una semántica informacional para el lenguaje del pensamiento y una teoría computacional de los procesos mentales. Examinamos, en primer lugar, una noción central en la obra de Fodor: la noción de "mecanismo". Defendemos entonces que, al menos para los llamados "casos-Frege", la propuesta de Fodor en The Blm and tite Expert (1994) no es satisfactoria.
Categories, as mental structures, are more than simply sums of property frequencies. A number of recent studies have supported the view that the properties of categories may be organised along functional lines and possibly dependency structures more generally. The study presented here investigates whether earlier findings reflect something unique in the English language/North American culture or whether the functional structuring of categories is a more universal phenomenon. A population of English-speaking Americans was compared to a population of Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong (...) Chinese. The findings clearly support the view that functional influences on category centrality are universal (or at least common to Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong Chinese and English-speaking Americans), albeit with specific cross-cultural/cross-linguistic group differences in the particular properties that are considered central to categories. (shrink)
El Repertorio bibliográfico sobre Martin Heidegger que se presenta a continuación, reúne la información obtenida de las más de 240 revistas de filosofía disponibles en la Hemeroteca de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. El Repertorio incluye referencias bibliográficas completas de los artículos, reseñas, estudios críticos, traducciones y otros documentos que abordan la obra del importante pensador alemán hasta el año 2010.
El mal no es. El significado del mal es revisado, desde la perspectiva spinozista, para teorizar al mal como carencia. El espacio que genera el uso inadecuado de las palabras es ocupado por una realidad que se concibe a sí misma por comparación. Las categorías bueno y malo dejan de tener sentido en el momento en el que el conocimiento prescinde de la imaginación para entender. Lo malo lo es para mí, pero el mal no es más que una negación (...) de lo particular, luego como tal no existe. (shrink)
This volume began as a remembrance of Alonzo Church while he was still with us and is now finally complete. It contains papers by many well-known scholars, most of whom have been directly influenced by Church's own work. Often the emphasis is on foundational issues in logic, mathematics, computation, and philosophy - as was the case with Church's contributions, now universally recognized as having been of profound fundamental significance in those areas. The volume will be of interest to logicians, (...) computer scientists, philosophers, and linguists. The contributions concern classical first-order logic, higher-order logic, non-classical theories of implication, set theories with universal sets, the logical and semantical paradoxes, the lambda-calculus, especially as it is used in computation, philosophical issues about meaning and ontology in the abstract sciences and in natural language, and much else. The material will be accessible to specialists in these areas and to advanced graduate students in the respective fields. (shrink)
L.A. Paul has recently defended the methodology of metaphysics on the grounds that it is continuous with the sciences. She claims that both scientists and metaphysicians use inference to the best explanation to choose between competing theories, and that the success of science vindicates the use of IBE in metaphysics. Specifically, the success of science shows that the theoretical virtues are truth-conducive. I challenge Paul’s claims on two grounds. First, I argue that, at least in biology, scientists adhere to the (...)vera causa ideal, which allows the theoretical virtues to play a much more limited role in scientific reasoning than Paul requires for metaphysical reasoning. The success of biology thus does not vindicate the methodology of metaphysics. Second, I argue that, at least in many cases, the successful reliance on the theoretical virtues in scientific contexts shows only that the theoretical virtues are truth-conducive within those local contexts, and not that they are truth-conducive generally. The upshots are that Paul’s defense of the methodology of metaphysics fails, and that any attempt to rescue her defense must pay more careful attention to what precisely is vindicated by successful science. (shrink)
As descrições da flora brasílica efectuadas desde a chegada de Pedro Álvares Cabral traduzem não só as perplexidades do passado no reconhecimento de exemplares botânicos desconhecidos na Europa, mas essencialmente formas de intelegibilidade distintas sobre um mesmo objecto, cuja exploração ao longo dos últimos quatro séculos tem vindo a acompanhar o desenvolvimento da ciência.Os primeiros registos de plantas de Terras de Vera Cruz, efectuados no século XVI, apresentam-se como limitados tanto pela forma narrativa e descritiva então corrente como pela (...) subjectividade do seu redactor. Algumas das lacunas destas formas descritivas foram preenchidas pelo recurso a elementos gráficos que procuravam veicular informação mais precisa quantoàs espécies botânicas identificadas.No século XVIII a Botânica assumiu-se como disciplina autónoma, adoptando-se desde então uma nomenclatura que se viria a considerar como internacional e um sistema de “catalogação” dos mais diversos tipos botânicos conhecidos, ainda extensível a outros por descobrir nomeadamente em terras do Brasil. Este processo objectivo não se sobrepôs às restantes abordagens subjectivas, coexistindo na actualidade. The descriptions of Brazilian flora made since the arrival of Pedro Álvares Cabral express not only the perplexities of those times in recognising botanical species unknown in Europe, but manly distinct forms of intelligibility concerning a same object, whose exploration all long last four centuries follow closely the science rise.The first registers of the plants of Vera Cruz, dated from sixteen century, they were limited as much for the narrative and descriptive form current in those times, as for the subjectivity of its redactor. Some of the gaps of these descriptive forms had been filled by the resource of graphical elements, which tried to propagate precise information of the botanical species identified. In century XVIII Botanic assumed it self as a autonomous subject, adapting since then a terminology that it would come to consider as international and a system of cataloguing of the different botanical types, still extensible to others for discovering, namely in lands of Brazil. This objective process was not overlapped to the remaining subjective approaches, coexisting in the present time. (shrink)
This paper is dedicated to Alonzo Church, who died in August 1995 after a long life devoted to logic. To Church we owe lambda calculus, the thesis bearing his name and the solution to the Entscheidungsproblem.His well-known book Introduction to Mathematical LogicI, defined the subject matter of mathematical logic, the approach to be taken and the basic topics addressed. Church was the creator of the Journal of Symbolic Logicthe best-known journal of the area, which he edited for several decades (...) This paper is in three sections. The first is written in journalistic style:the story of the life of AlonzoChurch is told, including some of the many anecdotes I have collected from different sources. The secondpart is devoted to his work, but is far from being exhaustive. The last part is more original; in it I attempto show that Church?s great discovery was lambda calculus and that his remaining contributions weremainly inspired afterthoughts in the sense that most of his contributions as well as some of his pupils derivefrom that initial achievement. Included are Kleene?s Recursion Theory and the completeness proof ofHenkin. I have added an appendix in which is presented the typed lambda calculus and a proof of theundecidability of first-order logic. (shrink)
L'examen du parcours personnel et littéraire d'Assia Djebar, femme, écrivain et algérienne, est l'axe de l'approche de Vera Lucia Soares. Pour analyser les différentes composantes de son objet d'étude Soares a recours à quelques-uns des théoriciens les plus renommés Roger Chartier, Paul Ricoeur, Todorov, entre autres et les utilise de façon magistrale pour disséquer l'oeuvre d'Assia Djebar, sous les angles les plus divers. Il faut aussi signaler la bibliographie spécialisée sur laq..
The article analyses the chapter on dreams of the Specchio di vera penitenza by Iacopo Passavanti, a Dominican friar who lived in 14th century Florence, focusing on the philosophical sources employed by the preacher. This section of the Specchio is in fact peculiar, since Iacopo discusses here the value of dreams for human knowledge by means of Aristotelian concepts and doctrines, but it does not mention them explicitly. Moreover, while discussing on dreams, Iacopo lingers on the myth of the (...) magnetic mountain following the pseudo-Aristotelian De lapidibus and the treatise On Minerals by Albert the Great. The article studies also Passavanti’s other sources concerning this passage, such as the De lapidibus by Marbodus of Rennes and the Speculum historiale by Vincent of Beauvais. (shrink)
Neste artigo, o autor apresenta a questão da religião na filosofia de Santo Agostinho, especialmente no De vera religione, ressaltando que, para o doutor hiponense, a verdadeira filosofia e a verdadeira religião não se encontram numa relação de contraposição.
Toward the end of the epistolary preface to the Historia ecclesiastica, Bede asked that none blame him should the narrative contain errors, for he had tried to instruct posterity by setting down, according to what he calls “vera lex historiae,” things collected from common report.