Results for 'Alternative'

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  1. Kant's Neglected Alternative: Neither Neglected nor An Alternative.Necip Fikri Alican - 2017 - Philosophical Forum 48 (1):69–90.
    This is a defense of Kant against the allegedly neglected alternative in his formulation of transcendental idealism. What sets it apart from the contributions of others who have spoken for Kant in this regard is the construction of a general interpretive framework — a reconstruction of the one Kant provides for transcendental idealism — as opposed to the development of an ad hoc defensive strategy for refuting the charges. Hence, comprehensive clarification instead of pointed rebuttal. The difference is between (...)
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  2. Neo-Frankfurtians and Buffer Cases: The New Challenge to the Principle of Alternative Possibilities.Christopher Evan Franklin - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 152 (2):189–207.
    The debate over whether Frankfurt-style cases are counterexamples to the principle of alternative possibilities has taken an interesting turn in recent years. Frankfurt originally envisaged his attack as an attempting to show that PAP is false—that the ability to do otherwise is not necessary for moral responsibility. To many this attack has failed. But Frankfurtians have not conceded defeat. Neo-Frankfurtians, as I will call them, argue that the upshot of Frankfurt-style cases is not that PAP is false, but that (...)
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  3.  19
    A Pluralist Challenge to 'Integrative Medicine': Feyerabend and Popper on the Cognitive Value of Alternative Medicine.Ian James Kidd - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):392–400.
    This paper is a critique of ‘integrative medicine’ as an ideal of medical progress on the grounds that it fails to realise the cognitive value of alternative medicine. After a brief account of the cognitive value of alternative medicine, I outline the form of ‘integrative medicine’ defended by the late Stephen Straus, former director of the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Straus’ account is then considered in the light of Zuzana Parusnikova’s recent criticism of (...)
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  4.  11
    Effects of Alternative Outcome Scenarios and Structured Outcome Evaluation on Case-Based Ethics Instruction.Juandre Peacock, Lauren N. Harkrider, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Shane Connelly, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Michael D. Mumford & Lynn D. Devenport - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1283-1303.
    Case-based instruction has been regarded by many as a viable alternative to traditional lecture-based education and training. However, little is known about how case-based training techniques impact training effectiveness. This study examined the effects of two such techniques: (a) presentation of alternative outcome scenarios to a case, and (b) conducting a structured outcome evaluation. Consistent with the hypotheses, results indicate that presentation of alternative outcome scenarios reduced knowledge acquisition, reduced sensemaking and ethical decision-making strategy use, and reduced (...)
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  5.  53
    Responding to Alternative and Polar Questions.María Biezma & Kyle Rawlins - 2012 - Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (5):361-406.
    This paper gives an account of the differences between polar and alternative questions, as well as an account of the division of labor between compositional semantics and pragmatics in interpreting these types of questions. Alternative questions involve a strong exhaustivity presupposition for the mentioned alternatives. We derive this compositionally from the meaning of the final falling tone and its interaction with the pragmatics of questioning in discourse. Alternative questions are exhaustive in two ways: they exhaust the space (...)
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  6.  12
    Scaling Up Alternative Food Networks: Farmers' Markets and the Role of Clustering in Western Canada. [REVIEW]Mary A. Beckie, Emily Huddart Kennedy & Hannah Wittman - 2012 - Agriculture and Human Values 29 (3):333-345.
    Farmers’ markets, often structured as non-profit or cooperative organizations, play a prominent role in emerging alternative food networks of western Canada. The contribution of these social economy organizations to network development may relate, in part, to the process of regional clustering. In this study we explore the nature and significance of farmers’ market clustering in the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Alberta, focusing on the possible connection between clustering and a “scaling up” of alternative food networks. (...)
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  7. Error-Statistical Elimination of Alternative Hypotheses.Kent Staley - 2008 - Synthese 163 (3):397 - 408.
    I consider the error-statistical account as both a theory of evidence and as a theory of inference. I seek to show how inferences regarding the truth of hypotheses can be upheld by avoiding a certain kind of alternative hypothesis problem. In addition to the testing of assumptions behind the experimental model, I discuss the role of judgments of implausibility. A benefit of my analysis is that it reveals a continuity in the application of error-statistical assessment to low-level empirical hypotheses (...)
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  8.  25
    Alternative Modes of Governance: Organic as Civic Engagement. [REVIEW]E. Melanie DuPuis & Sean Gillon - 2009 - Agriculture and Human Values 26 (1-2):43-56.
    A major strategy in the creation of sustainable economies is the establishment of alternative market institutions, such as fair trade and local market systems. However, the dynamics of these alternative markets are poorly understood. What are the rules of behavior by which these markets function? How do these markets maintain their separate identity as “alternative”: apart from the conventional (“free”) market system? Building on Lyson’s notion of civic agriculture, we argue that alternative markets maintain themselves through (...)
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  9.  13
    Alternative Trade in Bananas: Obstacles and Opportunities for Progressive Social Change in the Global Economy. [REVIEW]Douglas L. Murray & Laura T. Raynolds - 2000 - Agriculture and Human Values 17 (1):65-74.
    Fair trade bananas are the latest inan increasing array of commodities that are beingpromoted by various organizations in an effort tocreate alternative production and consumption patternsto the environmentally destructive and sociallyinequitable patterns inherent in traditionalproduction and trade systems. Fair trade is touted asa strategy to achieve more sustainable developmentthrough linking environmentally and socially consciousconsumers in the North with producers pursuingenvironmentally sound and socially just productionpractices in the South. Promotion of fair tradebananas in Europe has achieved impressive initialgains on the (...)
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  10.  39
    Choosing a Food Future: Differentiating Among Alternative Food Options. [REVIEW]Jeffrey R. Follett - 2009 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (1):31-51.
    This article examines the diversity of food networks that fit within the alternative food system of the United States. While farmers’ markets, community supported agriculture schemes, and corporate organic food markets all fit within the alternative food system, they differ greatly in the conventions and beliefs that they represent. The alternative food system has divided into two movements: corporate, weak alternative food networks; and local, strong alternative food networks. The weak corporate version focuses on protecting (...)
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  11.  43
    Gender, Health, Labor, and Inequities: A Review of the Fair and Alternative Trade Literature. [REVIEW]Vincent Terstappen, Lori Hanson & Darrell McLaughlin - 2013 - Agriculture and Human Values 30 (1):21-39.
    Although research into fair and alternative trade networks has increased significantly in recent years, very little synthesis of the literature has occurred thus far, especially for social considerations such as gender, health, labor, and equity. We draw on insights from critical theorists to reflect on the current state of fair and alternative trade, draw out contradictions from within the existing research, and suggest actions to help the emancipatory potential of the movement. Using a systematic scoping review methodology, this (...)
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  12.  27
    Problems with the Defetishization Thesis: Ethical Consumerism, Alternative Food Systems, and Commodity Fetishism. [REVIEW]Ryan Gunderson - 2014 - Agriculture and Human Values 31 (1):109-117.
    The defetishization thesis claims alternative markets can lead to a more honest, less mystified relationship with food production and, in turn, strengthen civil society. Drawing from Marxian political economic and environmental sociological theory, I make three general claims: capitalism is inherently ecologically and socially harmful; “ethical” commodities derived from alternative markets cannot fundamentally counteract the pervasiveness and scale of ; and, because of and, ethical consumerism does not defetishize the commodity form, but acts as a new layer of (...)
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  13.  15
    Social Representations, Alternative Representations and Semantic Barriers.Alex Gillespie - 2008 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 38 (4):375-391.
    Social representations research has tended to focus upon the representations that groups have in relation to some object. The present article elaborates the concept of social representations by pointing to the existence of “alternative representations” as sub-components within social representations. Alternative representations are the ideas and images the group has about how other groups represent the given object. Alternative representations are thus representations of other people's representations. The present article uses data from Moscovici's analysis of the diffusion (...)
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  14. Kizel, A. (2016). “Pedagogy Out of Fear of Philosophy as a Way of Pathologizing Children”. Journal of Unschooling and Alternative Learning, Vol. 10, No. 20, Pp. 28 – 47.Kizel Arie - 2016 - Journal of Unschooling and Alternative Learning 10 (20):28 – 47.
    The article conceptualizes the term Pedagogy of Fear as the master narrative of educational systems around the world. Pedagogy of Fear stunts the active and vital educational growth of the young person, making him/her passive and dependent upon external disciplinary sources. It is motivated by fear that prevents young students—as well as teachers—from dealing with the great existential questions that relate to the essence of human beings. One of the techniques of the Pedagogy of Fear is the internalization of the (...)
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  15.  39
    When Listening to the People: Lessons From Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Cam) for Bioethics. [REVIEW]Monika Clark-Grill - 2010 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (1):71-81.
    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have become increasingly popular over recent decades. Within bioethics CAM has so far mostly stimulated discussions around their level of scientific evidence, or along the standard concerns of bioethics. To gain an understanding as to why CAM is so successful and what the CAM success means for health care ethics, this paper explores empirical research studies on users of CAM and the reasons for their choice. It emerges that there is a close connection to (...)
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  16.  28
    Innocent Exclusion in an Alternative Semantics.Luis Alonso-Ovalle - 2008 - Natural Language Semantics 16 (2):115-128.
    The exclusive component of unembedded disjunctions is standardly derived as a conversational implicature by assuming that or forms a lexical scale with and. It is well known, however, that this assumption does not suffice to determine the required scalar competitors of disjunctions with more than two atomic disjuncts (McCawley, Everything that linguists have always wanted to know about logic* (But were ashamed to ask). Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1993, p. 324; Simons, “Or”: Issues in the semantics and pragmatics of disjunction. (...)
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  17.  80
    Can the Best-Alternative Justification Solve Hume's Problem? On the Limits of a Promising Approach.Eckhart Arnold - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (4):584-593.
    In a recent Philosophy of Science article Gerhard Schurz proposes meta-inductivistic prediction strategies as a new approach to Hume's. This comment examines the limitations of Schurz's approach. It can be proven that the meta-inductivist approach does not work any more if the meta-inductivists have to face an infinite number of alternative predictors. With his limitation it remains doubtful whether the meta-inductivist can provide a full solution to the problem of induction.
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  18.  1
    Are Farmers in Alternative Food Networks Social Entrepreneurs? Evidence From a Behavioral Approach.Giuseppina Migliore, Giorgio Schifani, Pietro Romeo, Shadi Hashem & Luigi Cembalo - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):885-902.
    Social entrepreneurship, individual activities with a social objective, is used in this study as a conceptual tool for empirically examining farmers’ participation in alternative food networks. This study verifies whether their participation is driven by the social entrepreneurship dimension to satisfy social and environmental needs. We develop a more inclusive view of how social entrepreneurship is present among farmers participating in AFNs by using a behavioural approach based on three main psychological constructs: attitude, objective, and behaviour. The empirical results (...)
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  19. Two Intuitions About Free Will: Alternative Possibilities and Intentional Endorsement.Wlodek Rabinowicz & Christian List - 2014 - Philosophical Perspectives 28 (1):155-172.
    Free will is widely thought to require (i) the possibility of acting otherwise and (ii) the intentional endorsement of one’s actions (“indeterministic picking is not enough”). According to (i), a necessary condition for free will is agential-level indeterminism: at some points in time, an agent’s prior history admits more than one possible continuation. According to (ii), however, a free action must be intentionally endorsed, and indeterminism may threaten freedom: if several alternative actions could each have been actualized, then none (...)
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  20.  45
    Intrinsic Value, Alternative Possibilities, and Reason.Ishtiyaque Haji - 2010 - Journal of Ethics 14 (2):149-171.
    I address three issues in this paper: first, just as many have thought that there is a requirement of alternative possibilities for the truth of judgments of moral responsibility, is there reason to think that the truth of judgments of intrinsic value also presupposes our having alternatives? Second, if there is this sort of requirement for the truth of judgments of intrinsic value, is there an analogous requirement for the truth of judgments of moral obligation on the supposition that (...)
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  21.  21
    No Alternative? The Politics and History of Non-GMO Certification.Robin Jane Roff - 2009 - Agriculture and Human Values 26 (4):351-363.
    Third-party certification is an increasingly prevalent tactic which agrifood activists use to “help” consumers shop ethically, and also to reorganize commodity markets. While consumers embrace the chance to “vote with their dollar,” academics question the potential for labels to foster widespread political, economic, and agroecological change. Yet, despite widespread critique, a mounting body of work appears resigned to accept that certification may be the only option available to activist groups in the context of neoliberal socio-economic orders. At the extreme, Guthman (...)
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  22.  12
    Farm to School Programs: Exploring the Role of Regionally-Based Food Distributors in Alternative Agrifood Networks. [REVIEW]Betty T. Izumi, D. Wynne Wright & Michael W. Hamm - 2010 - Agriculture and Human Values 27 (3):335-350.
    Farm to school programs are at the vanguard of efforts to create an alternative agrifood system in the United States. Regionally-based, mid-tier food distributors may play an important role in harnessing the potential of farm to school programs to create viable market opportunities for small- and mid-size family farmers, while bringing more locally grown fresh food to school cafeterias. This paper focuses on the perspectives of food distributors. Our findings suggest that the food distributors profiled have the potential to (...)
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  23.  11
    Local or Localized? Exploring the Contributions of Franco-Mediterranean Agrifood Theory to Alternative Food Research.Sarah Bowen & Tad Mutersbaugh - 2014 - Agriculture and Human Values 31 (2):201-213.
    Notions such as terroir and “Slow Food,” which originated in Mediterranean Europe, have emerged as buzzwords around the globe, becoming commonplace across Europe and economically important in the United States and Canada, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Given the increased global prominence of terroir and regulatory frameworks like geographical indications, we argue that the associated conceptual tools have become more relevant to scholars working within the “alternative food networks” framework in the United States and United Kingdom. Specifically, the Local (...)
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  24. A Reflection on the Alternative Philosophy of Science.Liu Dachun & Liu Yongmou - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (4):576-588.
    A prominent phenomenon in contemporary philosophy of science has been the unexpected rise of alternative philosophers of science. This article analyses in depth such alternative philosophers of science as Paul Feyerabend, Richard Rorty, and Michel Foucault, summarizing the similarities and differences between alternative philosophies of science and traditional philosophy of science so as to unveil the trends in contemporary philosophy of science. With its different principles and foundation, alternative philosophy of science has made breakthroughs in terms (...)
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  25.  30
    Complementary and Alternative Medicine: The Challenges of Ethical Justification. [REVIEW]Marcel Mertz - 2007 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (3):329-345.
    With the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) increasing in western societies, questions of the ethical justification of these alternative health care approaches and practices have to be addressed. In order to evaluate philosophical reasoning on this subject, it is of paramount importance to identify and analyse possible arguments for the ethical justification of CAM considering contemporary biomedical ethics as well as more fundamental philosophical aspects. Moreover, it is vital to provide adequate analytical instruments for this task, (...)
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  26.  10
    Values in Complementary and Alternative Medicine.Stephen Tyreman - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):209-217.
    In recent years so-called Complementary and Alternative Medicine practices have made significant political and professional advances particularly in the United Kingdom : osteopathy and chiropractic were granted statutory self-regulation in the 1990s effectively giving them more professional autonomy and independence than health care professions supplementary to medicine ; the practice of acupuncture is widespread within the National Health Service for pain control; and homoeopathy is offered to patients by a few General Practitioners alongside conventional treatments. These developments have had (...)
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  27. Biological Dynamic Farming — an Occult Form of Alternative Agriculture?Holger Kirchmann - 1994 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (2):173-187.
    An analysis of the theory of biodynamic farming is presented. The founder of biological dynamic agriculture, the Austrian Rudolf Steiner, Ph.D., (1861–1925), introduced methods of preparation and use of eight compounds forming the nucleus of his agricultural theory. His instructions were based on insights and inner visions from spiritualistic exercises and not on agricultural experiments. His purpose was to show mankind a form of agriculture that enables not only the production of healthy foods but also the achievement of harmonious interactions (...)
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  28.  98
    Ultimacy and Alternative Possibilities.John Martin Fischer - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 144 (1):15-20.
    I explore a key feature of Robert Kane’s libertarianism. Kane claims that we should separate issues of alternative possibilities from issues of ultimacy, but he further argues that they are connected in a certain way. I call into question this connection, and I continue to argue for a strict separation of considerations pertaining to alternative possibilities and “actual-sequence” considerations.
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  29.  30
    Context Effects in Multi-Alternative Decision Making: Empirical Data and a Bayesian Model.Guy Hawkins, Scott D. Brown, Mark Steyvers & Eric-Jan Wagenmakers - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (3):498-516.
    For decisions between many alternatives, the benchmark result is Hick's Law: that response time increases log-linearly with the number of choice alternatives. Even when Hick's Law is observed for response times, divergent results have been observed for error rates—sometimes error rates increase with the number of choice alternatives, and sometimes they are constant. We provide evidence from two experiments that error rates are mostly independent of the number of choice alternatives, unless context effects induce participants to trade speed for accuracy (...)
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  30.  8
    No Understanding, No Consent: The Case Against Alternative Medicine.Arianne Shahvisi - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (2):69-76.
    The demand for informed consent in clinical medicine is usually justified on the basis that it promotes patient autonomy. In this article I argue that the most effective way to promote autonomy is to improve patient understanding in order to reduce the epistemic disparity between patient and medical professional. Informed consent therefore derives its moral value from its capacity to reduce inequalities of power as they derive from epistemic inequalities. So in order for a patient to have given informed consent, (...)
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  31.  38
    More on Blameworthiness and Alternative Possibilities.G. C. Goddu - 2006 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (1):69-75.
    The derivation of the generally held Principle of Alternative Possibilities (PAP), roughly ‘you are morally responsible only if you could do otherwise’, from an even more generally held moral principle, K (for Kant), that roughly speaking ‘ought implies can’, has recently been the focus of significant debate. In this paper I shall argue that by focusing on PAP interpreted in terms of commissions alone an alternative derivation of PAP interpreted in terms of omissions is being overlooked. The advantage (...)
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  32.  9
    Analysis of Plant Nutrient Management Strategies: Conventional and Alternative Approaches. [REVIEW]Stephen E. Gareau - 2003 - Agriculture and Human Values 21 (4):347-353.
    During times of economic uncertainty, such as the current period, all costs of agricultural production become important and worthy of close scrutiny if the threat of farm foreclosures is to be minimized. This concern particularly applies to the cost of plant nutrients, which, under conventional approaches, typically represents 24%–30% (or more) of the total variable costs of production [Lu et al. (2000) Food Reviews International 16(2): 121–157; Bullen and Brown (2001) Economic Evaluation of UNR Cotton, NC State University, Raleigh, North (...)
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  33.  11
    Bringing Southeast Asia to the Southeast United States: New Forms of Alternative Agriculture in Homestead, Florida. [REVIEW]Valerie Imbruce - 2007 - Agriculture and Human Values 24 (1):41-59.
    Immigrant farmers from Southeast Asia have brought knowledge of tropical fruit and vegetable production from their home countries to Homestead, Florida. They have developed a new style of farming, one that most closely resembles agricultural systems described as “homegardens.” Although biodiverse agricultural systems are generally thought to be commercially unviable, homegarden farmers successfully manage crop diversity as an economic strategy. By focusing on growing a mixture of specialty Southeast Asian herbs, fruits, and vegetables, the farmers have created their own economic (...)
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  34.  27
    Focus Interpretation in Thetic Statements: Alternative Semantics and Optimality Theory Pragmatics. [REVIEW]Kjell Johan Sæbø - 2006 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (1):15-33.
    Broad focus (or informational integration or nonautonomy) is lexically and contextually constrained, but these constraints are not well understood. On a standard theory of focus interpretation, the presupposition of a broad focus is verified whenever those of two narrow foci are. I argue that to account for cases where two narrow foci are preferred, it is necessary to assume that broad focus competes with two narrow foci and implicates the opposite of what they presuppose. Central constraints on thetic statements are (...)
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  35.  19
    From the “Alternative School of Principles” to the Lay Buddhism: On the Conceptual Features of Modern Consciousness-Only School From the Perspective of the Evolution of Thought During the Ming and Qing Dynasties. [REVIEW]Zhiqiang Zhang - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):64-87.
    The best representatives of the self-reflection of xinxue 心学 (the School of Mind) and its development during the Ming and Qing Dynasties are the three masters from the late Ming Dynasty. The overall tendency is to shake off the internal constraints of the School of Mind by studying the Confucian classics and history. During the Qing Dynasty, Dai Zhen had attempted to set up a theoretical system based on Confucian classics and history, offering a theoretical foundation for a new academic (...)
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  36.  24
    Reflexive Biomedicalization and Alternative Healing Systems.Stephen Lyng - 2010 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (1):53-69.
    The utilization of alternative medical therapies and practitioners has increased dramatically in the U.S. in the last two to three decades. This trend seems paradoxical when one considers the rapid advances taking place in biomedical knowledge and technology during this same time period. Observers both inside and outside of the medical profession have attempted to explain the rising popularity of alternative medicine by proposing that it signals a growing sense of dissatisfaction and disenchantment with professional biomedical practices on (...)
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  37.  10
    From the "Alternative School of Principles" to the Lay Buddhism: On the Conceptual Features of Modern Consciousness-Only School From the Perspective of the Evolution of Thought During the Ming and Qing Dynasties.Zhiqiang Zhang & Deyuan Huang - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):64 - 87.
    The best representatives of the self-reflection of xinxue 心学 (the School of Mind) and its development during the Ming and Qing Dynasties are the three masters from the late Ming Dynasty. The overall tendency is to shake off the internal constraints of the School of Mind by studying the Confucian classics and history. During the Qing Dynasty, Dai Zhen had attempted to set up a theoretical system based on Confucian classics and history, offering a theoretical foundation for a new academic (...)
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  38.  10
    Christopher Partridge, The Re-Enchantment of the West. Volume II. Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization, Popular Culture, and Occulture.Mihaela Frunza - 2007 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 6 (16):179-181.
    Christopher Partridge, The Re-Enchantment of the West. Volume II. Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization, Popular Culture, and Occulture T&T Clark, New York, 2005.
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  39.  9
    A Socio-Anthropological Analysis of Deficits of Transition Process in Serbia 2005-2006 and Possibilities for Elaborating Alternative Projects. [REVIEW]Zagorka Golubovic - 2006 - Filozofija I Društvo 30:91-105.
    The paper is an outline of the author’s research project to be undertaken in 2006. It is focused on the process of transition from authoritarian to democratic order in Serbia after 2000. Starting from the findings of previous studies of transition, in Serbia and in other post socialist countries, the research will adopt a socio-anthropological approach and deal with the following topics: the model of transition being applied in Serbia preconditions for democratic transformation; a balance sheet of positive achievements accomplished (...)
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  40.  10
    The Logic of the Gift: The Possibilities and Limitations of Carlo Petrini's Slow Food Alternative[REVIEW]Justin Myers - 2013 - Agriculture and Human Values 30 (3):405-415.
    The majority of literature on Slow Food focuses on the organization or actors involved in the movement. There is a dearth of material analyzing Carlo Petrini’s aspirations for Slow Food, particularly in light of his desire within Slow Food Nation (2007) and Terra Madre (2010) to make “freewill giving a part of economic discourse.” This essay corrects the literature gap through historicizing and critiquing Petrini’s alternative to global capitalism while rooting it in actually existing practices. First, Petrini’s problematic conceptualization (...)
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  41.  7
    Regulating Internal Protection Alternative as the Element of Refugee Definition in the EU Directive 2004/83/EC and its Recast Proposal (article in Lithuanian). [REVIEW]Laurynas Biekša - 2011 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 18 (3):871-882.
    Internal protection alternative (further—IPA) as the element of refugee definition is interpreted very differently in the practice of the State Parties to the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (further—Geneva Convention). Thus it is important to regulate this concept clearly in the EC directive 2004/83/EB (further—Qualification directive) and its coming amendments. The definition of the IPA concept does not contain adequate criteria for assessing the level and effectiveness of protection required, in line with (...)
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  42.  6
    The UK Alternative Investment Market — Ethical Dimensions.Chris Mallin & Kean Ow-Yong - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (2):223 - 239.
    The UK Alternative Investment Market (AIM) was launched in 1995 and has been a great success with over 1200 companies now listed. In this article, we examine the development of AIM as it reaches its 15th year and discuss the potential pitfalls of the light touch regulation that is one of the attractions of AIM and identify potential corporate governance and ethical issues that may arise as a result of light touch regulation. We examine the central role of the (...)
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  43.  4
    Omega‐ and Beta‐Models of Alternative Set Theory.Athanassios Tzouvaras - 1994 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (4):547-569.
    We present the axioms of Alternative Set Theory in the language of second-order arithmetic and study its ω- and β-models. These are expansions of the form , M ⊆ P, of nonstandard models M of Peano arithmetic such that ⊩ AST and ω ϵ M. Our main results are: A countable M ⊩ PA is β-expandable iff there is a regular well-ordering for M. Every countable β-model can be elementarily extended to an ω-model which is not a β-model. The (...)
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  44.  10
    Complementary Alternative Benefits to Promote Peace.Norman D. Bishara & Cindy A. Schipani - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (4):539 - 557.
    Recent research has focused on business as a mediating institution that can influence society while engaging in the traditional profit-making and value generation functions. This work includes Professors Fort's and Schipani's arguments about how business may be able to play a role in promoting more peaceful societies, and other research addressing how businesses might serve a role in reducing violence in society and the workplace. Although there is a significant body of scholarship on the role of business in reducing violence (...)
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  45.  3
    The Case That Alternative Argumentation Drives the Growth of Knowledge-Some Preliminary Evidence.Connie Missimer - 1995 - Informal Logic 17 (2).
    Argumentation theorists can make a much larger case for the significance of their discipline than they appear to do. This larger case entails asking the overarching question, "How is knowledge driven?" and seeking the answer in arguments for which there is near universal agreement that they drove the growth of knowledge. Three such benchmark arguments are Newton's on motion, Darwin's on evolution, and Mill's on women's intellectual equality to men. These and other seminal historical arguments suggest that alternative argumentation (...)
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  46.  3
    Argument and Alternative Dispute Resolution Systems.Gregg B. Walker & Steven E. Daniels - 1995 - Argumentation 9 (5):693-704.
    Alternative dispute resolution occurs outside the litigation process. The alternative dispute resolution (ADR) movement in North America has emphasized viable alternatives to the litigation framework, such as arbitration, mediation, med-arb, multi-party facilitation, non-legal negotiation, mini-trials, administrative hearings, private judging (“renta-judge”), fact finding, and moderated settlement conferences. This essay addresses argument in the dominant alternatives: arbitration, mediation, and multi-party facilitation. Prior to comparing argument in these ADR systems, each will be briefly described.
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  47.  2
    Development of Alternative Consumers and Business Dispute Resolution and their Reglamentation (article in Lithuanian).Feliksas Petrauskas - 2011 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 18 (2):631-658.
    Out-of-court proceedings or alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is a peaceful, voluntary alternative method for settling disputes without litigation in the court. ADR institutions usually use a third party to help the consumer and the trader reach a solution. The main purpose of this article is to share the main insights and experience about the out-of-court proceedings in various countries and present main trends of ADR development. First of all, in this article, ADR is presented and its main advantages (...)
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  48.  2
    Alternative Dispute Resolution in the Field of Consumer Financial Services.Feliksas Petrauskas & Aida Gasiūnaitė - 2012 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 19 (1):179-194.
    Financial services have a very significant impact on and meaning to the daily life and welfare of consumers. The spectrum of these types of services is very broad, and their regulation is also changing both at EU and national (Member State) level. In order to implement the main or the most relevant EU level goals, such as high level consumer rights protection, consumer trust in business sector, proper and effective functioning of the EU internal market it is essential to ensure (...)
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  49.  2
    Alternative Dispute Resolution in the Field of Consumer Energy Services in the Eu.Feliksas Petrauskas & Aida Gasiūnaitė - 2013 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 20 (1):119-139.
    Energy services have a particularly significant impact on the daily life and welfare of consumers. The importance of such services is high, and their regulation is also changing both at the EU and Member States level, especially after the adoption of the Third Energy Package1, which is focused on improving the operation of retail markets to yield real benefits for both electricity and gas consumers. In order to implement the main or the most relevant goal of the EU, such as (...)
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  50.  1
    Forms of Alternative Consumers and Business Disputes and Conflicts Resolution. Their Characteristics (text only in Lithuanian).Feliksas Petrauskas - 2010 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 122 (4):295-318.
    Out-of-court proceedings or alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is a peaceful, voluntary alternative method for settling disputes without litigation in the court. ADR institutions usually use a third party to help the consumer and the trader to reach a solution. The main purpose of this article is to share the main insights and experience about the out-of-court proceedings in various countries and European Union Member States, to discuss the most important problems concerning ADR and propose possible solutions of these (...)
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