Results for 'Altheimer Ad'

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  1.  25
    Search for Supersymmetry in Events with Large Missing Transverse Momentum, Jets, and at Least One Tau Lepton in 20 Fb−1of √s= 8 TeV Proton-Proton Collision Data with the ATLAS Detector. [REVIEW]A. The Atlas Collaboration, G. Aad, B. Abbott, Abdallah Jm, S. Abdel Khalek, Abdinov Ob, R. Aben, Abi Ba, Abolins Ma, Abouzeid Os, H. Abramowicz, H. Abreu, R. Abreu, Y. Abulaiti, Acharya Bs, L. Adamczyk, Adams Dl, J. Adelman, S. Adomeit, Adye Tj, T. Agatonovic-Jovin, Aguilar-Saavedra Ja, M. Agustoni, Ahlen Sp, F. Ahmadov, G. Aielli, Åkerstedt Ho, Åkesson Tpa, G. Akimoto, Akimov Av, Alberghi Gl, Albert Jb, S. Albrand, Alconada Verzini Mj, M. Aleksa, Aleksandrov In, C. Alexa, Alexander Gk, G. Alexandre, Alexopoulos Ta, M. Alhroob, G. Alimonti, L. Alio, Alison Jm, Allbrooke Bmm, Allison Lj, Allport Pp, Almond Je, A. Aloisio, A. Alonso, F. Alonso, C. Alpigiani, Altheimer Ad, B. Álvarez González, Alviggi Mg, K. Amako, Y. Amaral Coutinho, C. Amelung, D. Amidei, Amor Dos Santos Sp, Amorim As, S. Amoroso, N. Amram, G. Amundsen, C. Anastopoulos, Ancu Ls, N. Andari, Andeen Tr, Anders Cf, G. Anders, Anderson Kj, A. Andreazza, V. Andrei, Anduaga Xs, S. Angelidakis, I. Angelozzi, P. Anger, A. Angerami, F. Anghinolfi, Anisenkov Av, N. Anjos, A. Annovi, A. Antonaki, M. Antonelli & A. - unknown
    © 2014, The Author. A search for supersymmetry in events with large missing transverse momentum, jets, at least one hadronically decaying tau lepton and zero or one additional light leptons, has been performed using 20.3fb−1of proton-proton collision data at √ s= 8 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No excess above the Standard Model background expectation is observed in the various signal regions and 95% confidence level upper limits on the visible cross section for new (...)
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  2.  61
    Reductio Ad Absurdum From a Dialogical Perspective.Catarina Dutilh Novaes - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (10):2605-2628.
    It is well known that reductio ad absurdum arguments raise a number of interesting philosophical questions. What does it mean to assert something with the precise goal of then showing it to be false, i.e. because it leads to absurd conclusions? What kind of absurdity do we obtain? Moreover, in the mathematics education literature number of studies have shown that students find it difficult to truly comprehend the idea of reductio proofs, which indicates the cognitive complexity of these constructions. In (...)
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  3. Ad Hominem Fallacies, Bias, and Testimony.Audrey Yap - 2013 - Argumentation 27 (2):97-109.
    An ad hominem fallacy is committed when an individual employs an irrelevant personal attack against an opponent instead of addressing that opponent’s argument. Many discussions of such fallacies discuss judgments of relevance about such personal attacks, and consider how we might distinguish those that are relevant from those that are not. This paper will argue that the literature on bias and testimony can helpfully contribute to that analysis. This will highlight ways in which biases, particularly unconscious biases, can make ad (...)
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  4.  58
    Ad Hominem Arguments.Douglas Walton - 1998 - University Alabama Press.
    Walton gives a clear method for analyzing and evaluating cases of ad hominem arguments found in everyday argumentation.
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  5. Seine letzte stunde. Von Erich Esper (neustadt ad saale). Der greise philosoph stand am fenster seines arbeits-zimmers und blickte mit seinen noch immer scharfen augen.Erich Esper Neustadt Ad Saale - 1927 - Schopenhauer Jahrbuch 14.
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  6.  35
    Argumentum Ad Verecundiam: New Gender-Based Criteria for Appeals to Authority.Michelle Ciurria & Khameiel Altamimi - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (4):437-452.
    In his influential work on critical argumentation, Douglas Walton explains how to judge whether an argumentum ad verecundiam is fallacious or legitimate. He provides six critical questions and a number of ancillary sub-questions to guide the identification of reasonable appeals to authority. While it is common for informal logicians to acknowledge the role of bias in sampling procedures and hypothesis confirmation , there is a conspicuous lack of discourse on the effect of identity prejudice on judgments of authority, even though (...)
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  7.  22
    The Riddle of Human Emotional Crying: A Challenge for Emotion Researchers.Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets & Lauren M. Bylsma - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (3):207-217.
    Until now, adult crying has received relatively little interest from investigators, whereas in the popular media there are many strong claims about crying of which the scientific basis is not clear. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of the scientific literature with respect to crying. We identify gaps in knowledge and propose questions for future research. The following topics receive special attention: Ontogenetic development, antecedents, individual and gender differences, and the intra- and interindividual effects of (...)
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  8.  87
    The Ad Hominem Argument as an Informal Fallacy.Douglas N. Walton - 1987 - Argumentation 1 (3):317-331.
    This article outlines criteria for the evaluation of the argumentum ad hominem (argument against the person, or personal attack in argument) that is traditionally a part of the curriculum in informal logic. The argument is shown to be a kind of criticism which works by shifting the burden of proof in dialogue through citing a pragmatic inconsistency in an arguer's position. Several specific cases of ad hominem argumentation which pose interesting problems in analyzing this type of criticism are studied.
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  9.  27
    The Ad Baculum Re-Clothed.Alan Brinton - 1992 - Informal Logic 14 (2).
    In several recent articles, Michael Wreen has given a plausible account of the structure of ad baculum argument and argued that it is neither inherently fallacious nor even commonly so. He has also, arguing mainly in terms of examples, attempted to show that a number of common assumptions about the ad baculum are incorrect. Most controversially, he argues that the ad baculum is not essentially dialectical and that it does not essentially involve threatening. I argue that the genuineness of his (...)
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  10. Philosophical Perspectives on Ad Hoc Hypotheses and the Higgs Mechanism.Simon Friederich, Robert V. Harlander & Koray Karaca - 2014 - Synthese 191 (16):3897-3917.
    We examine physicists’ charge of ad hocness against the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particle physics. We argue that even though this charge never rested on a clear-cut and well-entrenched definition of “ad hoc”, it is based on conceptual and methodological assumptions and principles that are well-founded elements of the scientific practice of high-energy particle physics. We further evaluate the implications of the recent discovery of a Higgs-like particle at the CERN’s Large Hadron Collider for the charge (...)
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  11. Ad Hominem Arguments and Intelligent Design: Reply to Koperski.Christopher A. Pynes - 2012 - Zygon 47 (2):289-297.
    Abstract Jeffrey Koperski claims in Zygon (2008) that critics of Intelligent Design engage in fallacious ad hominem attacks on ID proponents and that this is a “bad way” to engage them. I show that Koperski has made several errors in his evaluation of the ID critics. He does not distinguish legitimate, relevant ad hominem arguments from fallacious ad hominem attacks. He conflates (or equates) the logical use of valid with the colloquial use of valid. Moreover, Koperski doesn't take seriously the (...)
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  12. Attacking Character: Ad Hominem Argument and Virtue Epistemology.Heather Battaly - 2010 - Informal Logic 30 (4):361-390.
    The recent literature on ad hominem argument contends that the speaker’s character is sometimes relevant to evaluating what she says. This effort to redeem ad hominems requires an analysis of character that explains why and how character is relevant. I argue that virtue epistemology supplies this analysis. Three sorts of ad hominems that attack the speaker’s intellectual character are legitimate. They attack a speaker’s: (1) possession of reliabilist vices; or (2) possession of responsibilist vices; or (3) failure to perform intellectually (...)
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  13.  74
    Ad Hoc Auxiliary Hypotheses and Falsificationism.Adolf Grünbaum - 1976 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):329-362.
  14.  95
    On Ad Hoc Hypotheses.J. Christopher Hunt - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (1):1-14.
  15.  16
    Kitāb Al-Mawt and Kitāb Al-Qubūr , by Ibn Abī Ad-Dunyā Kitab Al-Mawt and Kitab Al-Qubur , by Ibn Abi Ad-Dunya. [REVIEW]Reinhard Weipert, Leah Kinberg, Ibn Abī ad-Dunyā & Ibn Abi ad-Dunya - 1987 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 107 (1):180.
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  16. Metaphor, Ad Hoc Concepts and Word Meaning - More Questions Than Answers.Robyn Carston - unknown
    Recent work in relevance-theoretic pragmatics develops the idea that understanding verbal utterances involves processes of ad hoc concept construction. The resulting concepts may be narrower or looser than the lexical concepts which provide the input to the process. Two of the many issues that arise are considered in this paper: (a) the applicability of the idea to the understanding of metaphor, and (b) the extent to which lexical forms are appropriately thought of as encoding concepts.
     
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  17.  79
    Lightening Up on the Ad Hominem.John Woods - 2007 - Informal Logic 27 (1):109-134.
    In all three of its manifestations, —abusive, circumstantial and tu quoque—the role of the ad hominem is to raise a doubt about the opposite party’s casemaking bona-fides.Provided that it is both presumptive and provisional, drawing such a conclusion is not a logical mistake, hence not a fallacy on the traditional conception of it. More remarkable is the role of the ad hominem retort in seeking the reassurance of one’s opponent when, on the face of it, reassurance is precisely what he (...)
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  18.  16
    Images of Abraham in the Writings of Jalāl Ad-Dīn RūmīImages of Abraham in the Writings of Jalal Ad-Din Rumi.John Renard, Jalāl ad-Dīn Rūmī & Jalal ad-Din Rumi - 1986 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 106 (4):633.
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  19. Reductio Ad Absurdum.Nicholas Rescher - 2002 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
     
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  20.  98
    Virtues, Evidence, and Ad Hominem Arguments.Patrick Bondy - 2015 - Informal Logic 35 (4):450-466.
    Argumentation theorists are beginning to think of ad hominem arguments as generally legitimate. Virtue argumentation theorists argue that a character trait approach to argument appraisal can explain why ad hominems would are legitimate, when they are legitimate. But I argue that we do not need to appeal to virtue argumentation theory to explain the legitimacy of ad hominem arguments; a more straightforward evidentialist approach to argument appraisal is also committed to their legitimacy. I also argue that virtue argumentation theory faces (...)
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  21.  1
    The Ad Hoc Collective Work of Building Gothic Cathedrals with Templates, String, and Geometry.David Turnbull - 1993 - Science, Technology and Human Values 18 (3):315-340.
    Gothic cathedrals like Chartres were built in a discontinuous process by groups of masons using their own local knowledge, measures, and techniques. They had neither plans nor knowledge of structural mechanics. The success of the masons in building such large complex innovative structures lies in the use of templates, string, constructive geometry, and social organization to assemble a coherent whole from the messy heterogeneous practices of diverse groups of workers. Chartres resulted from the ad hoc accumulation of the work of (...)
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  22.  26
    Personalized Ad in Your Google Glass? Wearable Technology, Hands-Off Data Collection, and New Policy Imperative.Yong Jin Park & Marko Skoric - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (1):71-82.
    This study analyzes the increasing presence and capabilities of wearable computing devices in the cornucopia of personalized digital data. We argue that the institutional data practices typical of Google Glass will pose policy challenges and herald yet another dramatic shift to personalized data marketing. We also highlight the characteristics of Google’s existing synergetic data practices that will shape the development of not only Google Glass, but also all subsequent wearable mobile devices in light of 360-degree data collection. The key organizing (...)
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  23.  56
    Valid Ad Hominem Arguments in Philosophy: Johnstone's Metaphilosophical Informal Logic.Maurice A. Finocchiaro - 2001 - Informal Logic 21 (1).
    This is a critical examination of Johnstone's thesis that all valid philosophical arguments are ad hominem. I clarify his notions of valid, philosophical, and ad hominem. I illustrate the thesis with his refutation ofthe claim that only ordinary language is correct. r discuss his three supporting arguments (historical, theoretical, and intermediate). And r criticize the thesis with the objections that if an ad hominem argument is valid, it is really ad rem; that it's unclear how his own theoretical argument can (...)
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  24.  10
    $$AD_{Mathbb {R}}$$ A D R Implies That All Sets of Reals Are $$Theta $$ Θ Universally Baire.Grigor Sargsyan - 2021 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 60 (1-2):1-15.
    We show that assuming the determinacy of all games on reals, every set of reals is \ universally baire.
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  25.  54
    Ad Hominem Arguments in Practical Argumentation.Eerik Lagerspetz - 1995 - Argumentation 9 (2):363-370.
    This paper is ultimately about the nature of argumentation in general and about the nature of practical argumentation in particular. (Practical argumentation is the form of argumentation which aims at answering the question: ‘What is to be done?’) The approach adopted here is an indirect one. I analyze one traditional form of argumentive fallacyargumentum ad hominem and try to show that in some argumentative situations it is an intuitively legitimate move. These intuitions can be explained if we accept that practical (...)
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  26.  24
    Argumentum ad Verecundiam.John Woods & Douglas Walton - 1974 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 7 (3):135 - 153.
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  27.  16
    Jus Ad Vim: A Rejoinder to Helen Frowe.Daniel Brunstetter - 2016 - Ethics and International Affairs 30 (1):131-136.
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  28.  49
    Perelman, Ad Hominem Argument, and Rhetorical Ethos.Michael Leff - 2009 - Argumentation 23 (3):301-311.
    Perelman’s view of the role of persons in argument is one of the most distinctive features of his break with Cartesian assumptions about reasoning. Whereas the rationalist paradigm sought to minimize or eliminate personal considerations by dismissing them as distracting and irrelevant, Perelman insists that argumentation inevitably does and ought to place stress on the specific persons engaged in an argument and that the relationship between speaker and what is spoken is always relevant and important. In taking this position, Perelman (...)
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  29.  15
    Conversio Ad Docelitam: John Calvin on Conversion and Being a Christian.Wim A. Dreyer - 2014 - Hts Theological Studies 70 (3):01-05.
    This contribution describes John Calvin's understanding of what it means to be a Christian. When Calvin 'converted' to the Reformation in the early 1530s, the term 'Protestant' did not exist. There was no systematic body of doctrine or a confession you could put your signature under. So Calvin became a 'lover of Christ'. The unity with Christ was a central part of his theology but also his personal spirituality. Calvin also understood his own conversion as a 'conversio subita ad docelitam', (...)
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  30.  2
    An Ad Hoc Save of a Theory of Adhocness? Exchanges with John Worrall.Deborah G. Mayo - 2010 - In Deborah G. Mayo & Aris Spanos (eds.), Error and Inference: Recent Exchanges on Experimental Reasoning, Reliability, and the Objectivity and Rationality of Science. Cambridge University Press.
  31. Ad Infinitum: New Essays on Epistemological Infinitism.John Turri & Peter D. Klein (eds.) - 2014 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Infinitism is an ancient view in epistemology about the structure of knowledge and epistemic justification, according to which there are no foundational reasons for belief. The view has never been popular, and is often associated with skepticism, but after languishing for centuries it has recently begun a resurgence. Ad Infinitum presents new work on the topic by leading epistemologists. They shed new light on infinitism's distinctive strengths and weaknesses, and address questions, new and old, about its account of justification, reasoning, (...)
     
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  32.  16
    The Ad Hoc Advisory Group's Proposals for Research Ethics Committees: A Mixture of the Timid, the Revolutionary, and the Bizarre.A. J. Dawson - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (8):435-436.
    The Report of the Ad Hoc Adivisory Group on the Operation of NHS Research Ethics Committees has resulted in a strange mixture of the timid, the revolutionary, and the bizarre.The Report of the Ad Hoc Advisory Group on the Operation of NHS Research Ethics Committees is a curious document.1 The remit of the review was focused on the workings and effectiveness of NHS research ethics committees and the multicentre committees ). The Group was primarily set up in response to a (...)
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  33.  20
    Argumentum Ad Feminam.Christina Sommers - 1991 - Journal of Social Philosophy 22 (1):5-19.
    The last issue of this journal published an exchange between Marilyn Friedman and me that had taken place at a lively session of the American Philosophical Association in December, 1990. Friedman's paper “‘They Lived Happily Ever After’: Sommers on Women and Marriage” was a barbed critique of my views on the family. My rejoinder, “Do These Feminist Like Women?” pointed out that Friedman's orthodox brand of feminism was not sensitive to the values and aspirations of most American women. That issue (...)
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  34.  7
    Shared Decision‐Making in Dentistry: A Concise Narrative Review.Farah Asa'ad - 2019 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 25 (6):1088-1093.
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  35.  50
    The Disguised Abusive Ad Hominem Empirically Investigated: Strategic Manoeuvring with Direct Personal Attacks.Frans H. van Eemeren, Bart Garssen & Bert Meuffels - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (3):344 - 364.
    The main finding of a comprehensive empirical research project on the intersubjective acceptability of the pragma-dialectical discussion rules (Van Eemeren, Garssen & Meuffels, 2009) is that ordinary language users judge discussion moves that are considered fallacious from an argumentation-theoretical perspective as unreasonable. In light of this finding it is remarkable that in everyday argumentative discourse fallacies occur regularly and seem many times not to be noticed by the participants in the discourse. This also goes for the abusive argumentum ad hominem. (...)
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  36.  2
    Ad Baculum.John Woods - 1976 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 2 (1):133-140.
    In an attempt to overcome the traditional casual neglect of the study of the informal fallacies, we here treat one fallacy, the ad baculum, at an adequate theoretical level in order to determine how it may best be understood as a fallacy. We conclude, after following through a number of plausible routes of tracking down the essential fallaciousness of the ad baculum, that the type of phenomenon apparently so typically thought to constitute ad baculum by the texts is not, so (...)
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  37.  31
    Ad Hominem Arguments.Lawrence H. Powers - unknown
    Ad hominem arguments argue that some opponent should not be heard and no argument of that opponent should be heard or considered. The opponent has generally pernicious views, false and harmful. Moreover he is diabolically clever at arguing for his views. Thus, the ad hominem argument is essentially a device by which non-intellectuals try to wrest control of a dialectical situation from intellectuals. Stifling intellectuals, disrupting the dialectical situation, is an unpleasant conclusion, but no fallacy has been shown in what (...)
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  38.  40
    Ad and Patterns of Singular Cardinals Below Θ.Arthur W. Apter - 1996 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (1):225-235.
    Using Steel's recent result that assuming AD, in L[R] below Θ, κ is regular $\operatorname{iff} \kappa$ is measurable, we mimic below Θ certain earlier results of Gitik. In particular, we construct via forcing a model in which all uncountable cardinals below Θ are singular and a model in which the only regular uncountable cardinal below Θ is ℵ 1.
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  39.  64
    Material Constitution is Ad Hoc.Jeroen Smid - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (2):305-325.
    The idea that two objects can coincide—by sharing all their proper parts, or matter—yet be non-identical, results in the “Problem of Coincident Objects”: in what relation do objects stand if they are not identical but share all their proper parts? One solution is to introduce material constitution. In this paper, I argue that this is ad hoc since, first, this solution cannot be generalized to solve similar problems, and, second, there are pseudo cases of coincidence that should not trigger the (...)
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  40.  73
    Reconsidering the Ad Hominem.Christopher M. Johnson - 2009 - Philosophy 84 (2):251-266.
    Ad hominem arguments are generally dismissed on the grounds that they are not attempts to engage in rational discourse, but are rather aimed at undermining argument by diverting attention from claims made to assessments of character of persons making claims. The manner of this dismissal however is based upon an unlikely paradigm of rationality: it is based upon the presumption that our intellectual capacities are not as limited as in fact they are, and do not vary as much as they (...)
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  41.  16
    Ad Baculum.John Woods - 1976 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 2 (1):133-140.
    In an attempt to overcome the traditional casual neglect of the study of the informal fallacies, we here treat one fallacy, the ad baculum, at an adequate theoretical level in order to determine how it may best be understood as a fallacy. We conclude, after following through a number of plausible routes of tracking down the essential fallaciousness of the ad baculum, that the type of phenomenon apparently so typically thought to constitute ad baculum by the texts is not, so (...)
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  42. Moral Deliberation and Ad Hominem Fallacies.Uri D. Leibowitz - 2016 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (5):507-529.
    Many of us read Peter Singer ’ s work on our obligations to those in desperate need with our students. Famously, Singer argues that we have a moral obligation to give a significant portion of our assets to famine relief. If my own experience is not atypical, it is quite common for students, upon grasping the implications of Singer ’ s argument, to ask whether Singer gives to famine relief. In response it might be tempting to remind students of the (...)
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  43.  22
    Ad Hocness and the Appraisal of Theories.Michael Redhead - 1978 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (4):355-361.
  44.  97
    Comments on Pullum.Ad Neeleman - 2013 - Mind and Language 28 (4):522-531.
  45.  65
    Non-Inferential Aspects of Ad Hominem and Ad Baculum.Katarzyna Budzynska & Maciej Witek - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (3):301-315.
    The aim of the paper is to explore the interrelation between persuasion tactics and properties of speech acts. We investigate two types of arguments ad: ad hominem and ad baculum. We show that with both of these tactics, the structures that play a key role are not inferential, but rather ethotic, i.e., related to the speaker’s character and trust. We use the concepts of illocutionary force and constitutive conditions related to the character or status of the speaker in order to (...)
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  46.  41
    The Ad Verecundiam Fallacy and Appeals to Expert Testimony.Michael J. Shaffer - 2007 - In Proceedings of the 6th ISSA Conference on Argumentation.
    In this paper I argue that Tyler Burge's non-reductive view of testiomonial knowledge cannot adeqautrely discriminate between fallacious ad vericumdium appeals to expet testimony and legitimate appeals to authority.
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  47.  49
    Ad Hick.Alvin Plantinga - 1997 - Faith and Philosophy 14 (3):295-298.
  48.  35
    Search for the Direct Production of Charginos, Neutralinos and Staus in Final States with at Least Two Hadronically Decaying Taus and Missing Transverse Momentum in Pp Collisions at √ $$ \Sqrt{s}=8 $$ TeV with the ATLAS Detector.The Atlasc, G. Aad, B. Abbott, J. Abdallah, Khalek Sa, O. Abdinov, R. Aben, B. Abi, M. Abolins, Abouzeid Os, H. Abramowicz, H. Abreu, R. Abreu, Y. Abulaiti, Acharya Bs, L. Adamczyk, Adams Dl, J. Adelman, S. Adomeit, T. Adye, T. Agatonovic-Jovin, Aguilar-Saavedra Ja, M. Agustoni, Ahlen Sp, F. Ahmadov, G. Aielli, H. Akerstedt, Åkesson Tpa, G. Akimoto, Akimov Av, Alberghi Gl, J. Albert, S. Albrand, Alconada Verzini Mj, M. Aleksa, Aleksandrov In, C. Alexa, G. Alexander, G. Alexandre, T. Alexopoulos, M. Alhroob, G. Alimonti, L. Alio, J. Alison, Allbrooke Bmm, Allison Lj, Allport Pp, J. Almond, A. Aloisio, A. Alonso, F. Alonso, C. Alpigiani, A. Altheimer, Gonzalez Ba, Alviggi Mg, K. Amako, Y. Amaral Coutinho, C. Amelung, D. Amidei, Amor Dos Santos Sp, A. Amorim, S. Amoroso, N. Amram, G. Amundsen, C. Anastopoulos, Ancu Ls, N. Andari, T. Andeen, Anders Cf, G. Anders, Anderson Kj, A. Andreazza, V. Andrei, Anduaga Xs, S. Angelidakis, I. Angelozzi, P. Anger, A. Angerami, F. Anghinolfi, Anisenkov Av, N. Anjos, A. Annovi, A. Antonaki, M. Antonelli, A. Antonov, J. Antos, F. Anulli & A. - unknown
    : Results of a search for the electroweak associated production of charginos and next-to-lightest neutralinos, pairs of charginos or pairs of tau sleptons are presented. These processes are characterised by final states with at least two hadronically decaying tau leptons, missing transverse momentum and low jet activity. The analysis is based on an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb−1 of proton-proton collisions at recorded with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. No significant excess is observed with respect to the (...)
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  49.  84
    Popper's Explications of Ad Hocness: Circularity, Empirical Content, and Scientific Practice.Greg Bamford - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (2):335-355.
    Karl Popper defines an ad hoc hypothesis as one that is introduced to immunize a theory from some (or all) refutation but which cannot be tested independently. He has also attempted to explicate ad hocness in terms of certain other allegedly undesirable properties of hypotheses or of the explanations they would provide, but his account is confused and mistaken. The first such property is circularity, which is undesirable; the second such property is reduction in empirical content, which need not be. (...)
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  50. XIII-Metaphor: Ad Hoc Concepts, Literal Meaning and Mental Images.Robyn Carston - 2010 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 110 (3_pt_3):295-321.
    I propose that an account of metaphor understanding which covers the full range of cases has to allow for two routes or modes of processing. One is a process of rapid, local, on-line concept construction that applies quite generally to the recovery of word meaning in utterance comprehension. The other requires a greater focus on the literal meaning of sentences or texts, which is metarepresented as a whole and subjected to more global, reflective pragmatic inference. The questions whether metaphors convey (...)
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