Results for 'Altheimer Ad'

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  1.  12
    Search for Supersymmetry in Events with Large Missing Transverse Momentum, Jets, and at Least One Tau Lepton in 20 Fb−1of √s= 8 TeV Proton-Proton Collision Data with the ATLAS Detector. [REVIEW]A. The Atlas Collaboration, G. Aad, B. Abbott, Abdallah Jm, S. Abdel Khalek, Abdinov Ob, R. Aben, Abi Ba, Abolins Ma, Abouzeid Os, H. Abramowicz, H. Abreu, R. Abreu, Y. Abulaiti, Acharya Bs, L. Adamczyk, Adams Dl, J. Adelman, S. Adomeit, Adye Tj, T. Agatonovic-Jovin, Aguilar-Saavedra Ja, M. Agustoni, Ahlen Sp, F. Ahmadov, G. Aielli, Åkerstedt Ho, Åkesson Tpa, G. Akimoto, Akimov Av, Alberghi Gl, Albert Jb, S. Albrand, Alconada Verzini Mj, M. Aleksa, Aleksandrov In, C. Alexa, Alexander Gk, G. Alexandre, Alexopoulos Ta, M. Alhroob, G. Alimonti, L. Alio, Alison Jm, Allbrooke Bmm, Allison Lj, Allport Pp, Almond Je, A. Aloisio, A. Alonso, F. Alonso, C. Alpigiani, Altheimer Ad, B. Álvarez González, Alviggi Mg, K. Amako, Y. Amaral Coutinho, C. Amelung, D. Amidei, Amor Dos Santos Sp, Amorim As, S. Amoroso, N. Amram, G. Amundsen, C. Anastopoulos, Ancu Ls, N. Andari, Andeen Tr, Anders Cf, G. Anders, Anderson Kj, A. Andreazza, V. Andrei, Anduaga Xs, S. Angelidakis, I. Angelozzi, P. Anger, A. Angerami, F. Anghinolfi, Anisenkov Av, N. Anjos, A. Annovi, A. Antonaki, M. Antonelli & A. - unknown
    © 2014, The Author. A search for supersymmetry in events with large missing transverse momentum, jets, at least one hadronically decaying tau lepton and zero or one additional light leptons, has been performed using 20.3fb−1of proton-proton collision data at √ s= 8 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No excess above the Standard Model background expectation is observed in the various signal regions and 95% confidence level upper limits on the visible cross section for new (...)
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  2.  42
    Reductio Ad Absurdum From a Dialogical Perspective.Catarina Dutilh Novaes - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (10):2605-2628.
    It is well known that reductio ad absurdum arguments raise a number of interesting philosophical questions. What does it mean to assert something with the precise goal of then showing it to be false, i.e. because it leads to absurd conclusions? What kind of absurdity do we obtain? Moreover, in the mathematics education literature number of studies have shown that students find it difficult to truly comprehend the idea of reductio proofs, which indicates the cognitive complexity of these constructions. In (...)
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  3. Philosophical Perspectives on Ad Hoc Hypotheses and the Higgs Mechanism.Simon Friederich, Robert V. Harlander & Koray Karaca - 2014 - Synthese 191 (16):3897-3917.
    We examine physicists’ charge of ad hocness against the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particle physics. We argue that even though this charge never rested on a clear-cut and well-entrenched definition of “ad hoc”, it is based on conceptual and methodological assumptions and principles that are well-founded elements of the scientific practice of high-energy particle physics. We further evaluate the implications of the recent discovery of a Higgs-like particle at the CERN’s Large Hadron Collider for the charge (...)
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  4. Attacking Character: Ad Hominem Argument and Virtue Epistemology.Heather Battaly - 2010 - Informal Logic 30 (4):361-390.
    The recent literature on ad hominem argument contends that the speaker’s character is sometimes relevant to evaluating what she says. This effort to redeem ad hominems requires an analysis of character that explains why and how character is relevant. I argue that virtue epistemology supplies this analysis. Three sorts of ad hominems that attack the speaker’s intellectual character are legitimate. They attack a speaker’s: (1) possession of reliabilist vices; or (2) possession of responsibilist vices; or (3) failure to perform intellectually (...)
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  5. The Hypothesis That Saves the Day: Ad Hoc Reasoning in Pseudoscience.Maarten Boudry - 2013 - Logique Et Analyse 223:245-258.
    What is wrong with ad hoc hypotheses? Ever since Popper’s falsificationist account of adhocness, there has been a lively philosophical discussion about what constitutes adhocness in scientific explanation, and what, if anything, distinguishes legitimate auxiliary hypotheses from illicit ad hoc ones. This paper draws upon distinct examples from pseudoscience to provide us with a clearer view as to what is troubling about ad hoc hypotheses. In contrast with other philosophical proposals, our approach retains the colloquial, derogative meaning of adhocness, and (...)
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  6. Moral Deliberation and Ad Hominem Fallacies.Uri D. Leibowitz - 2016 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (5):507-529.
    Many of us read Peter Singer ’ s work on our obligations to those in desperate need with our students. Famously, Singer argues that we have a moral obligation to give a significant portion of our assets to famine relief. If my own experience is not atypical, it is quite common for students, upon grasping the implications of Singer ’ s argument, to ask whether Singer gives to famine relief. In response it might be tempting to remind students of the (...)
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  7.  73
    Virtues, Evidence, and Ad Hominem Arguments.Patrick Bondy - 2015 - Informal Logic 35 (4):450-466.
    Argumentation theorists are beginning to think of ad hominem arguments as generally legitimate. Virtue argumentation theorists argue that a character trait approach to argument appraisal can explain why ad hominems would are legitimate, when they are legitimate. But I argue that we do not need to appeal to virtue argumentation theory to explain the legitimacy of ad hominem arguments; a more straightforward evidentialist approach to argument appraisal is also committed to their legitimacy. I also argue that virtue argumentation theory faces (...)
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  8. Ad Hominem Fallacies, Bias, and Testimony.Audrey Yap - 2013 - Argumentation 27 (2):97-109.
    An ad hominem fallacy is committed when an individual employs an irrelevant personal attack against an opponent instead of addressing that opponent’s argument. Many discussions of such fallacies discuss judgments of relevance about such personal attacks, and consider how we might distinguish those that are relevant from those that are not. This paper will argue that the literature on bias and testimony can helpfully contribute to that analysis. This will highlight ways in which biases, particularly unconscious biases, can make ad (...)
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  9.  66
    Lightening Up on the Ad Hominem.John Woods - 2007 - Informal Logic 27 (1):109-134.
    In all three of its manifestations, —abusive, circumstantial and tu quoque—the role of the ad hominem is to raise a doubt about the opposite party’s casemaking bona-fides.Provided that it is both presumptive and provisional, drawing such a conclusion is not a logical mistake, hence not a fallacy on the traditional conception of it. More remarkable is the role of the ad hominem retort in seeking the reassurance of one’s opponent when, on the face of it, reassurance is precisely what he (...)
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  10. Take My Advice—I Am Not Following It: Ad Hominem Arguments as Legitimate Rebuttals to Appeals to Authority.Moti Mizrahi - 2010 - Informal Logic 30 (4):435-456.
    In this paper, I argue that ad hominem arguments are not always fallacious. More explicitly, in certain cases of practical reasoning, the circumstances of a person are relevant to whether or not the conclusion should be accepted. This occurs, I suggest, when a person gives advice to others or prescribes certain courses of action but fails to follow her own advice or act in accordance with her own prescriptions. This is not an instance of a fallacious tu quoque provided that (...)
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  11.  14
    Postponement of Reduction Ad Absurdum and Glivenko’s Theorem, Revisited.Giulio Guerrieri & Alberto Naibo - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-36.
    We study how to postpone the application of the reductio ad absurdum rule (RAA) in classical natural deduction. This technique is connected with two normalization strategies for classical logic, due to Prawitz and Seldin, respectively. We introduce a variant of Seldin’s strategy for the postponement of RAA, which induces a negative translation from classical to intuitionistic and minimal logic. Through this translation, Glivenko’s theorem from classical to intuitionistic and minimal logic is proven.
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  12.  50
    Relevance Reviewed: The Case of Argumentum Ad Hominem. [REVIEW]Frans H. Eemeren & Rob Grootendorst - 1992 - Argumentation 6 (2):141-159.
    This article aims tt providing some conceptual tools for dealing adequately with relevance in argumentative discourse. For this purpose, argumentative relevance is defined as a functional interactional relation between certain elements in the discourse. In addition to the distinction between interpretive and evaluative relevance that can be traced in the literature, analytic relevance is introduced as an intermediary concept. In order to classify the various problems of relevance arising in interpreting, analyzing and evaluating argumentative discourse, a taxonomy is proposed in (...)
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  13.  76
    A Critique of the Right Intention Condition as an Element of Jus Ad Bellum.Greg Janzen - 2016 - Journal of Military Ethics 15 (1):36-57.
    According to just war theory, a resort to war is justified only if it satisfies the right intention condition. This article offers a critical examination of this condition, defending the thesis that, despite its venerable history as part of the just war tradition, it ought to be jettisoned. When properly understood, it turns out to be an unnecessary element of jus ad bellum, adding nothing essential to our assessments of the justice of armed conflict.
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  14. Just Cause and the Continuous Application of Jus Ad Bellum.Uwe Steinhoff - forthcoming - In Larry May May, Shannon Elizabeth Fyfe & Eric Joseph Ritter (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook on Just War Theory. Cambridge University Press.
    What one is ultimately interested in with regard to ‘just cause’ is whether a specific war, actual or potential, is justified. I call this ‘the applied question’. Answering this question requires knowing the empirical facts on the ground. However, an answer to the applied question regarding a specific war requires a prior answer to some more general questions, both descriptive and normative. These questions are: What kind of thing is a ‘just cause’ for war (an aim, an injury or wrong (...)
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  15. Jus Ad Vim and the Just Use of Lethal Force Short of War.S. Brandt Ford - 2013 - In Fritz Allhoff, Nicholas Evans & Adam Henschke (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Ethics and War: Just War Theory in the 21st Century. Routledge. pp. 63--75.
    In this chapter, I argue that the notion which Michael Walzer calls jus ad vim might improve the moral evaluation for using military lethal force in conflicts other than war, particularly those situations of conflict short-of-war. First, I describe his suggested approach to morally justifying the use of lethal force outside the context of war. I argue that Walzer’s jus ad vim is a broad concept that encapsulates a state’s mechanisms for exercising power short-of-war. I focus on his more narrow (...)
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  16.  28
    Argumentum Ad Verecundiam: New Gender-Based Criteria for Appeals to Authority.Michelle Ciurria & Khameiel Altamimi - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (4):437-452.
    In his influential work on critical argumentation, Douglas Walton explains how to judge whether an argumentum ad verecundiam is fallacious or legitimate. He provides six critical questions and a number of ancillary sub-questions to guide the identification of reasonable appeals to authority. While it is common for informal logicians to acknowledge the role of bias in sampling procedures and hypothesis confirmation , there is a conspicuous lack of discourse on the effect of identity prejudice on judgments of authority, even though (...)
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  17. On Not Counting the Cost: Ad Hocness and Disconfirmation.Lydia McGrew - 2014 - Acta Analytica 29 (4):491-505.
    I offer an account of ad hocness that explains why the adoption of an ad hoc auxiliary is accompanied by the disconfirmation of a hypothesis H. H must be conjoined with an auxiliary a′, which is improbable antecedently given H, while ~H does not have this disability. This account renders it unnecessary to require, for identifying ad hocness, that either a′ or H have a posterior probability less than or equal to 0.5; there are also other reasons for abandoning that (...)
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  18.  23
    What’s Wrong with Argumentum Ad Baculum? Reasons, Threats, and Logical Norms.Robert H. Kimball - 2006 - Argumentation 20 (1):89-100.
    A dialogue-based analysis of informal fallacies does not provide a fully adequate explanation of our intuitions about what is wrong with ad baculum and of when it is admissible and when it is not. The dialogue-based analysis explains well why mild, benign threats can be legitimate in some situations, such as cooperative bargaining and negotiation, but does not satisfactorily account for what is objectionable about more malicious uses of threats to coerce and to intimidate. I propose an alternative deriving partly (...)
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  19. What is the Problem of Ad Hoc Hypotheses?Greg Bamford - 1999 - Science & Education 8 (4):375 - 86..
    The received view of an ad hochypothesis is that it accounts for only the observation(s) it was designed to account for, and so non-ad hocness is generally held to be necessary or important for an introduced hypothesis or modification to a theory. Attempts by Popper and several others to convincingly explicate this view, however, prove to be unsuccessful or of doubtful value, and familiar and firmer criteria for evaluating the hypotheses or modified theories so classified are characteristically available. These points (...)
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  20.  32
    Refuting a Standpoint by Appealing to Its Outcomes: Reductio Ad Absurdum Vs. Argument From Consequences.Henrike Jansen - 2007 - Informal Logic 27 (3):249-266.
    Used informally, the Reductio ad Absurdum (RAA) consists in reasoning appealing to the logically implied, absurd consequences of a hypothetical proposition, in order to refute it. This kind of reasoning resembles the Argument from Consequences, which appeals to causally induced consequences. These types of argument are sometimes confused, since it is not worked out how these different kinds of consequences should be distinguished. In this article it is argued that the logical consequences in RAA-argumentation can take different appearances and that (...)
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  21.  39
    The Fallacy of Treating the Ad Baculum as a Fallacy.Don S. Levi - 1999 - Informal Logic 19 (2).
    The ad baculum is not a fallacy in an argument, but is offered instead of an argument to put an end to further argument. This claim is the basis for criticizing Michael Wreen's "neo-traditionalism," which yields misreadings of supposed cases of the ad baculum because of its rejection of any consideration of what the person using the ad baculum, or someone who refers to that use as an "argument," is doing. The paper concludes with reflections on the values that should (...)
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  22.  44
    Searching for the Roots of the Circumstantial Ad Hominem.D. N. Walton - 2001 - Argumentation 15 (2):207-221.
    This paper looks into the known evidence on the origins of the type of argument called the circumstantial ad hominemargument in modern logic textbooks, and introduces some new evidence. This new evidence comes primarily from recent historical work by Jaap Mansfeld and Jonathan Barnes citing many cases where philosophers in the ancient world were attacked on the grounds that their personal actions failed to be consistent with their philosophical teachings. On the total body of evidence, two hypotheses about the roots (...)
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  23.  59
    Locke and Whately on the Argumentum Ad Hominem.Henry W. Johnstone - 1996 - Argumentation 10 (1):89-97.
    This is an exploration of what Locke and Whately said about the Argumentatum ad Hominem, especially in the context of what they said about the other ad arguments, and with a view to ascertaining whether what they said lends support to the understanding of this argument implicit in Johnstone's thesis that all valid philosophical arguments are ad hominem. It is concluded that this support is forthcoming insofar as Locke and Whately had in mind an argument concerned with principles.The essay ends (...)
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  24.  73
    Popper's Explications of Ad Hocness: Circularity, Empirical Content, and Scientific Practice.Greg Bamford - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (2):335-355.
    Karl Popper defines an ad hoc hypothesis as one that is introduced to immunize a theory from some (or all) refutation but which cannot be tested independently. He has also attempted to explicate ad hocness in terms of certain other allegedly undesirable properties of hypotheses or of the explanations they would provide, but his account is confused and mistaken. The first such property is circularity, which is undesirable; the second such property is reduction in empirical content, which need not be. (...)
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  25.  24
    The Ad Baculum Re-Clothed.Alan Brinton - 1992 - Informal Logic 14 (2).
    In several recent articles, Michael Wreen has given a plausible account of the structure of ad baculum argument and argued that it is neither inherently fallacious nor even commonly so. He has also, arguing mainly in terms of examples, attempted to show that a number of common assumptions about the ad baculum are incorrect. Most controversially, he argues that the ad baculum is not essentially dialectical and that it does not essentially involve threatening. I argue that the genuineness of his (...)
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  26.  22
    It's All Very Well for You to Talk! Situationally Disqualifying Ad Hominem Attacks.Erik C. W. Krabbe & Douglas Walton - 1993 - Informal Logic 15 (2).
    The situationally disqualifying ad hominem attack is an argumentative move in critical dialogue whereby one participant points out certain features in his adversary's personal situation that are claimed to make it inappropriate for this adversary to take a particular point of view, to argue in a particular way, or to launch certain criticisms. In this paper, we discuss some examples of this way of arguing. Other types of ad hominem argumentation are discussed as well and compared with the situationally disqualifying (...)
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  27.  71
    The Greek Roots of the Ad Hominem-Argument.Graciela Marta Chichi - 2002 - Argumentation 16 (3):333-348.
    In this paper, I discuss the current thesis on the modern origin of the ad hominem-argument, by analysing the Aristotelian conception of it. In view of the recent accounts which consider it a relative argument, i.e., acceptable only by the particular respondent, I maintain that there are two Aristotelian versions of the ad hominem, that have identifiable characteristics, and both correspond to the standard variants distinguished in the contemporary treatments of the famous informal fallacy: the abusive and the circumstancial or (...)
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  28.  8
    Ad Hominem Arguments, Rhetoric, and Science Communication.Carlo Martini - 2018 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 55 (1):151-166.
    In this paper, I contend that evidence-focused strategies of science communication may be complemented by possibly more effective rhetorical arguments in current public debates on vaccines. I analyse the case of direct science communication - that is, communication of evidence - and show that it is difficult to effectively communicate evidential standards of science in the presence of well-equipped anti-science movements. Instead, I argue that effective rhetorical tools involve ad hominem strategies, that is, arguments involving claims of expertise. I provide (...)
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  29.  39
    Ad Hominem Arguments in Practical Argumentation.Eerik Lagerspetz - 1995 - Argumentation 9 (2):363-370.
    This paper is ultimately about the nature of argumentation in general and about the nature of practical argumentation in particular. (Practical argumentation is the form of argumentation which aims at answering the question: ‘What is to be done?’) The approach adopted here is an indirect one. I analyze one traditional form of argumentive fallacyargumentum ad hominem and try to show that in some argumentative situations it is an intuitively legitimate move. These intuitions can be explained if we accept that practical (...)
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  30.  34
    A função do método de análise na constituição do argumento do cogito nas Meditações: uma leitura do cogito através da reductio ad absurdum.Érico Andrade - 2009 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 54 (2):155-171.
    Considerando que o cogito possa ser tomado, nas Meditações, como uma conclusão de uma demonstração, pode-se avançar a tese de que essa demonstração está consoante ao método analítico, que Descartes reconhece empreender nesse texto. Esse método teria entre as suas funções nas Meditações aquela de apresentar – sob a forma de uma rede de implicações ontológicas – o raciocínio que conduz à certeza da existência. Como cumpre no referido texto determinar a certeza da existência sem tomar como base nenhuma certeza (...)
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  31.  42
    Rule VIII of Descartes’ Regulae Ad Directionem Ingenii.Patrick Brissey - 2014 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 3 (2):9-31.
    On the developmental reading, Descartes first praised his method in the first instance of Rule VIII of the Regulae ad directionem ingenii, but then demoted it to provisional in the “blacksmith” analogy, and then found his discrete method could not resolve his “finest example,” his inquiry into the essence and scope of human knowledge, an event that, on this reading, resulted in him dropping his method. In this paper, I explain how Rule VIII can be read as a coherent title (...)
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  32.  27
    Valid Ad Hominem Arguments in Philosophy: Johnstone's Metaphilosophical Informal Logic.Maurice A. Finocchiaro - 2001 - Informal Logic 21 (1).
    This is a critical examination of Johnstone's thesis that all valid philosophical arguments are ad hominem. I clarify his notions of valid, philosophical, and ad hominem. I illustrate the thesis with his refutation ofthe claim that only ordinary language is correct. r discuss his three supporting arguments (historical, theoretical, and intermediate). And r criticize the thesis with the objections that if an ad hominem argument is valid, it is really ad rem; that it's unclear how his own theoretical argument can (...)
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  33.  4
    Ad Misericordiam Revisited.Miklós Könczöl - 2018 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 55 (1):115-129.
    The paper discusses the nature and functioning of argumentum ad misericordiam, a well-known but less theorised type of argument. A monograph by D. Walton offers an overview of definitions of misericordia, as well as the careful analysis of several cases. Appeals to pity, Walton concludes, are not necessarily fallacious. This view seems to be supported and further refined by the critical remarks of H. V. Hansen, as well as the recent work of R. H. Kimball and A. Aberdein focusing on (...)
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  34.  16
    Ciclo de vida de un concepto en el marco de la cognición ad hoc.Jose V. Hernandez-Conde - 2017 - Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 32 (3):271.
    Recently, Casasanto and Lupyan (2015) have asserted that there are no context-independent concepts: all concepts are constructed ad hoc when they are instantiated. My aim is to show that the ad hoc cognition framework can be characterized by a similarity-based theory of concepts, and that two different notions of concept should be distinguished —which may be identified with two distinct stages of their life cycle (storage and instantiation). This approach brings together virtues from opposing views: (a) invariantist: stored concepts are (...)
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  35.  11
    A Simple Metric for Ad Hoc Network Adaptation.Stephen F. S. F. Bush - 2005 - Ieee Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Journal 23 (12):2272--2287.
    This paper examines flexibility in ad hoc networks and suggests that, even with cross-layer design as a mechanism to improve adaptation, a fundamental limitation exists in the ability of a single optimization function, defined a priori, to adapt the network to meet all quality-of-service requirements. Thus, code implementing multiple algorithms will have to be positioned within the network. Active networking and programmable networking enable unprecedented autonomy and flexibility for ad hoc communication networks. However, in order to best leverage the results (...)
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  36.  7
    Reductio Ad Contradictionem: An Algebraic Perspective.Adam Přenosil - 2016 - Studia Logica 104 (3):389-415.
    We introduce a novel expansion of the four-valued Belnap–Dunn logic by a unary operator representing reductio ad contradictionem and study its algebraic semantics. This expansion thus contains both the direct, non-inferential negation of the Belnap–Dunn logic and an inferential negation akin to the negation of Johansson’s minimal logic. We formulate a sequent calculus for this logic and introduce the variety of reductio algebras as an algebraic semantics for this calculus. We then investigate some basic algebraic properties of this variety, in (...)
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  37.  3
    Nominata dos Avaliadores ad hoc 2016.Paulo Agostinho Nogueira Baptista - 2016 - Horizonte 14 (44):1690-1696.
    Horizonte Nominata of ad hoc evaluators 2016.
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  38. Neue Technik und ad-hoc-Hypothesen vom wissenschaftstheoretischen Standpunkt.Christian J. Feldbacher - 2011 - In Suzana Alpsancar & Kai Denker (eds.), Tagungsband der Nachwuchstagungen für Junge Analytische Philosophie. Tectum. pp. 197--219.
    In diesem Beitrag werden einige wissenschaftstheoretische Thesen u.a. von Paul K. Feyerabend hinsichtlich ad-hoc-Hypothesen untersucht. Es wird dabei gezeigt, dass Feyerabends Empfehlungen dafür, ad-hoc-Hypothesen zu akzeptieren oder abzulehnen, vom Einfluss dieser Hypothesen auf die Entwicklung von Technik abhängen. In einem weiteren Schritt wird angedeutet, dass eine derartige Relativierung auch in gängigen Bestätigungstheorien nahegelegt wird, dass man also gängigen Bestätigungstheorien und Feyerabend zufolge ad-hoc-Hypothesen nur hinsichtlich ihres Einflusses auf die Technikentwicklung akzeptieren oder ablehnen sollte.
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  39. On Common Knowledge and Ad Populum: Acceptance as Grounds for Acceptability.David M. Godden - 2008 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 41 (2):pp. 101-129.
    Typically, common knowledge is taken as grounds for the acceptability of a claim, while appeals to popularity are seen as fallacious attempts to support a claim. This paper poses the question of whether there is any categorical difference between appeals to common knowledge and appeals to popular opinion as argumentative moves. In answering this question, I argue that appeals to common knowledge do not, on their own, provide adequate grounds for a claim’s acceptability.
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  40.  28
    When is It Right to Fight? International Law and Jus Ad Bellum.Alex J. Bellamy - 2009 - Journal of Military Ethics 8 (3):231-245.
  41.  34
    Perelman, Ad Hominem Argument, and Rhetorical Ethos.Michael Leff - 2009 - Argumentation 23 (3):301-311.
    Perelman’s view of the role of persons in argument is one of the most distinctive features of his break with Cartesian assumptions about reasoning. Whereas the rationalist paradigm sought to minimize or eliminate personal considerations by dismissing them as distracting and irrelevant, Perelman insists that argumentation inevitably does and ought to place stress on the specific persons engaged in an argument and that the relationship between speaker and what is spoken is always relevant and important. In taking this position, Perelman (...)
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  42. Reductio Ad Absurdum.Nicholas Rescher - 2002 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
     
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  43. How to Tell When Simpler, More Unified, or Less Ad Hoc Theories Will Provide More Accurate Predictions.Malcolm Forster & Elliott Sober - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):1-35.
    Traditional analyses of the curve fitting problem maintain that the data do not indicate what form the fitted curve should take. Rather, this issue is said to be settled by prior probabilities, by simplicity, or by a background theory. In this paper, we describe a result due to Akaike [1973], which shows how the data can underwrite an inference concerning the curve's form based on an estimate of how predictively accurate it will be. We argue that this approach throws light (...)
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  44.  38
    Ad Hominem Arguments.Douglas Walton - 1998 - University Alabama Press.
    Walton gives a clear method for analyzing and evaluating cases of ad hominem arguments found in everyday argumentation.
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  45.  55
    Because Hitler Did It! Quantitative Tests of Bayesian Argumentation Using Ad Hominem.Adam J. L. Harris, Anne S. Hsu & Jens K. Madsen - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (3):311 - 343.
    Bayesian probability has recently been proposed as a normative theory of argumentation. In this article, we provide a Bayesian formalisation of the ad Hitlerum argument, as a special case of the ad hominem argument. Across three experiments, we demonstrate that people's evaluation of the argument is sensitive to probabilistic factors deemed relevant on a Bayesian formalisation. Moreover, we provide the first parameter-free quantitative evidence in favour of the Bayesian approach to argumentation. Quantitative Bayesian prescriptions were derived from participants' stated subjective (...)
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  46.  51
    Non-Inferential Aspects of Ad Hominem and Ad Baculum.Katarzyna Budzynska & Maciej Witek - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (3):301-315.
    The aim of the paper is to explore the interrelation between persuasion tactics and properties of speech acts. We investigate two types of arguments ad: ad hominem and ad baculum. We show that with both of these tactics, the structures that play a key role are not inferential, but rather ethotic, i.e., related to the speaker’s character and trust. We use the concepts of illocutionary force and constitutive conditions related to the character or status of the speaker in order to (...)
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  47.  45
    The Disguised Abusive Ad Hominem Empirically Investigated: Strategic Manoeuvring with Direct Personal Attacks.Frans H. van Eemeren, Bart Garssen & Bert Meuffels - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (3):344 - 364.
    The main finding of a comprehensive empirical research project on the intersubjective acceptability of the pragma-dialectical discussion rules (Van Eemeren, Garssen & Meuffels, 2009) is that ordinary language users judge discussion moves that are considered fallacious from an argumentation-theoretical perspective as unreasonable. In light of this finding it is remarkable that in everyday argumentative discourse fallacies occur regularly and seem many times not to be noticed by the participants in the discourse. This also goes for the abusive argumentum ad hominem. (...)
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  48. Ad Hominem Arguments and Intelligent Design: Reply to Koperski.Christopher A. Pynes - 2012 - Zygon 47 (2):289-297.
    Abstract Jeffrey Koperski claims in Zygon (2008) that critics of Intelligent Design engage in fallacious ad hominem attacks on ID proponents and that this is a “bad way” to engage them. I show that Koperski has made several errors in his evaluation of the ID critics. He does not distinguish legitimate, relevant ad hominem arguments from fallacious ad hominem attacks. He conflates (or equates) the logical use of valid with the colloquial use of valid. Moreover, Koperski doesn't take seriously the (...)
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  49.  65
    Reconsidering the Ad Hominem.Christopher M. Johnson - 2009 - Philosophy 84 (2):251-266.
    Ad hominem arguments are generally dismissed on the grounds that they are not attempts to engage in rational discourse, but are rather aimed at undermining argument by diverting attention from claims made to assessments of character of persons making claims. The manner of this dismissal however is based upon an unlikely paradigm of rationality: it is based upon the presumption that our intellectual capacities are not as limited as in fact they are, and do not vary as much as they (...)
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    Forms of Authority and the Real Ad Verecundiam.Jean Goodwin - 1998 - Argumentation 12 (2):267-280.
    This paper provides a typology of appeals to authority, identifying three distinct types: that which is based on a command; that which is based on expertise; and that which is based on dignity. Each type is distinguished with respect to the reaction that a failure to follow it ordinarily evokes. The rhetorical roots of Locke's ad verecundiam are traced to the rhetorical practices of ancient Rome.
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