Results for 'Alvaro Turriago-Hoyos'

697 found
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  1.  29
    Virtuousness and the Common Good as a Conceptual Framework for Harmonizing the Goals of the Individual, Organizations, and the Economy.Surendra Arjoon, Alvaro Turriago-Hoyos & Ulf Thoene - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (1):143-163.
    Despite the expansion of the regulatory state, we continue to witness widespread unethical practices across society. This paper addresses these challenges of ethical failure, misalignment, and dissonance by developing a conceptual framework that provides an explicit basis for understanding virtuousness and the common good directed toward the goal of eudaimonia or human flourishing. While much of the literature on virtuousness has focused on the organization, this paper uses a more comprehensive understanding that also incorporates the agent and the economy examined (...)
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  2. Alvaro Ribeiro E a Filosofia Portuguesa Ciclo de Palestras Promovido Pela Fundação Lusíada Ateneu Comercial Do Porto Em 14 E 15 de Maio de 1993 : Bibliografia Geral de Alvaro Ribeiro. [REVIEW]Alvaro Ribeiro & Joaquim Domingues - 1995
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  3.  14
    Ferrer, Eduardo y Pereira, Álvaro , "Profecía y adivinación en las religiones de la Antigüedad". Spal Monografías Arqueología XXIV. Sevilla, Editorial Universidad de Sevilla, 2017, 171 pp. ISBN: 978-84-472-1915-5. [REVIEW]Álvaro Gómez Peña - 2018 - 'Ilu. Revista de Ciencias de Las Religiones 23:366-368.
  4. Homenaje a Guillermo Hoyos. La responsabilidad Del pensar.Guillermo Hoyos Vásquez - 2008 - Ideas Y Valores 57 (136):145-147.
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  5. La Responsabilidad Del Pensar: Homenaje a Guillermo Hoyos Vásquez.Alfredo Rocha de la Torre, Angela Calvo de Saavedra & Guillermo Hoyos Vásquez (eds.) - 2008 - Ediciones Uninorte.
    Esta obra congrega a un grupo de reconocidos filósofos alemanes, argentinos, españoles, venezolanos y colombianos, en torno a la figura del Profesor Dr. Guillermo Hoyos Vásquez. Con aportes en los ámbitos de la fenomenología, la filosofía política y la ética se ofrece al lector especializado, pero también al estudiante de filosofía y al lector interesado en la reflexión filosófica, una serie de escritos de primer orden y de máxima actualidad.
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  6.  20
    Ethical Veganism, Virtue Ethics, and the Great Soul.Carlo Alvaro - 2019 - Maryland: Lexington Books.
    Ethical veganism is the view that raising animals for food is an immoral practice that must be stopped because of the harm it causes to the animals, the environment, and our health. Carlo Alvaro argues the only way to stop that harm is to acquire the virtues that enable us to act justly and benevolently toward animals.
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  7. Inquérito Sobre a Filosofia Portuguesa. Depoimentos de Alvaro Ribeiro [Et Al. Apresentação de Pinharanda Gomes].Álvaro Ribeiro & Jesué Pinharanda Gomes - 1972 - Editora Pax.
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  8.  18
    Homenaje a Guillermo Hoyos.Guillermo Hoyos - 2008 - Ideas y Valores. Revista Colombiana de Filosofía 57 (136):145-147.
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  9.  16
    Homenaje a Guillermo Hoyos Vásquez: La responsabilidad Del pensar.Guillermo Hoyos Vásquez - 2008 - Ideas Y Valores 57 (136):127-134.
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  10.  4
    Homenaje a Guillermo Hoyos. La responsabilidad Del pensar.V. Hoyos - 2008 - Ideas Y Valores 57 (136):133-139.
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  11.  34
    Raw Veganism: The Philosophy of the Human Diet.Carlo Alvaro - 2020 - Routledge.
    Human beings are getting fatter and sicker. As we question what we eat and why we eat it, this book argues that living well involves consuming a raw vegan diet. With eating healthfully and eating ethically being simpler said than done, this book argues that the best solution to health, environmental, and ethical problems concerning animals is raw veganism―the human diet. The human diet is what humans are naturally designed to eat, and that is, a raw vegan diet of fruit, (...)
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  12.  4
    Dante desde la perspectiva filosófica, Friedrich W. J. von Schelling. Traducción y presentación de Álvaro Cortina Urdampilleta. [REVIEW]Álvaro Cortina-Urdampilleta - forthcoming - Anuario Filosófico:151-167.
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  13.  4
    Analogical Comparison Promotes Theory‐of‐Mind Development.Christian Hoyos, William S. Horton, Nina K. Simms & Dedre Gentner - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (9).
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  14.  45
    The Evil God Challenge: Two Significant Asymmetries.Carlo Alvaro - 2020 - Heythrop Journal.
    Several authors have maintained that every argument in support of God, indeed everything that a theist claims about God, can be reversed and used in support of an evil god. The most salient example is the alleged symmetry between theodicies and reverse theodicies: God gave us free will to promote good, evil god gave us free will to promote evil; God allows evil for soul making, evil god allows good for soul destruction; our suffering is compensated for by the eternal (...)
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  15.  73
    Biological Autonomy: A Philosophical and Theoretical Enquiry.Alvaro Moreno & Matteo Mossio - 2015 - Springer.
    Since Darwin, Biology has been framed on the idea of evolution by natural selection, which has profoundly influenced the scientific and philosophical comprehension of biological phenomena and of our place in Nature. This book argues that contemporary biology should progress towards and revolve around an even more fundamental idea, that of autonomy. Biological autonomy describes living organisms as organised systems, which are able to self-produce and self-maintain as integrated entities, to establish their own goals and norms, and to promote the (...)
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  16.  1
    Álvaro García Linera y la Sociología de Pierre Bourdieu. Una Traducción Desde Bolivia y El Marxismo Crítico.Juan Pablo Patriglia - 2022 - Astrolabio 28:415-440.
    El presente artículo tiene por objetivo analizar la lectura y los usos que realiza Álvaro García Linera de la sociología de Pierre Bourdieu. El marco teórico para realizar dicho estudio lo constituye la categoría gramsciana de traducción, referida al ejercicio de trazar equivalencias entre diferentes lenguajes científicos, filosóficos, políticos e históricos. La hipótesis que se sostiene es que García Linera traduce los principales conceptos de la sociología de Bourdieu a partir de un doble movimiento. Primero, a través de su puesta (...)
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  17.  1
    Deism: A Rational Journey From Disbelief to the Existence of God.Carlo Alvaro - 2021 - Washington, DC, USA: Academica Press.
    It is often claimed that belief in God is based on faith, while non-belief is grounded in rationality. This claim is inaccurate. Moral philosopher Carlo Alvaro takes the reader through his philosophical journey—a journey taken with the absolute absence of faith. Through reasoning alone, and with an objective assessment of the classical theistic arguments, Deism takes the reader from disbelief to a particular version of deism. Deism discusses such arguments as the Kalam Cosmological, the asymmetry against the evil-god challenge, (...)
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  18. Ethical Veganism, Virtue, and Greatness of the Soul.Carlo Alvaro - 2017 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 30 (6):765-781.
    Many moral philosophers have criticized intensive animal farming because it can be harmful to the environment, it causes pain and misery to a large number of animals, and furthermore eating meat and animal-based products can be unhealthful. The issue of industrially farmed animals has become one of the most pressing ethical questions of our time. On the one hand, utilitarians have argued that we should become vegetarians or vegans because the practices of raising animals for food are immoral since they (...)
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  19.  22
    Analogy and Abstraction.Dedre Gentner & Christian Hoyos - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):672-693.
    A central question in human development is how young children gain knowledge so fast. We propose that analogical generalization drives much of this early learning and allows children to generate new abstractions from experience. In this paper, we review evidence for analogical generalization in both children and adults. We discuss how analogical processes interact with the child's changing knowledge base to predict the course of learning, from conservative to domain-general understanding. This line of research leads to challenges to existing assumptions (...)
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  20. Lab‐Grown Meat and Veganism: A Virtue‐Oriented Perspective.Carlo Alvaro - 2019 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (135):1-15.
    The project of growing meat artificially represents for some the next best thing to humanity. If successful, it could be the solution to several problems, such as feed- ing a growing global population while reducing the environmental impact of raising animals for food and, of course, reducing the amount and degree of animal cruelty and suffering that is involved in animal farming. In this paper, I argue that the issue of the morality of such a project has been framed only (...)
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  21.  6
    Deskriptive Metaphysik, Transzendentalphilosophie Und Nachkantischer Philosophischer Skeptizismus.Luis Eduardo Hoyos - 2001 - In Ralph Schumacher, Rolf-Peter Horstmann & Volker Gerhardt (eds.), Kant Und Die Berliner Aufklärung: Akten des Ix. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Bd. I: Hauptvorträge. Bd. Ii: Sektionen I-V. Bd. Iii: Sektionen Vi-X: Bd. Iv: Sektionen Xi-Xiv. Bd. V: Sektionen Xv-Xviii. De Gruyter. pp. 490-499.
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  22. Vegan Parents and Children: Zero Parental Compromise.Carlo Alvaro - 2020 - Ethics and Education (4):476-498.
    Marcus William Hunt argues that when co-parents disagree over whether to raise their child (or children) as a vegan, they should reach a compromise as a gift given by one parent to the other out of respect for his or her authority. Josh Millburn contends that Hunt’s proposal of parental compromise over veganism is unacceptable on the ground that it overlooks respect for animal rights, which bars compromising. However, he contemplates the possibility of parental compromise over ‘unusual eating,’ of animal-based (...)
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  23. Missing the Apes of the Trees for the Forest.Carlo Alvaro - 2019 - ASEBL Journal Association for the Study of Ethical Behavior 14 (1):36-38.
    The debate over ape personhood is of great social and moral importance. For more than twenty-five years, attorney Steven Wise has been arguing that animals who have cognitive complexities similar to humans should be legally granted basic rights of au- tonomy. In my view, granting personhood status and other rights to great apes are at- tainable goals. But how should we go about it?
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  24.  73
    A Naturalized Account of the Inside-Outside Dichotomy.Alvaro Moreno & Xabier Barandiaran - 2004 - Philosophica 73:11-26.
    The first form of the inside-outside dichotomy appears as a self-encapsulated system with an active border. These systems are based on two complementary but asymmetric processes: constructive and interactive. The former physically constitute the system as a recursive network of component production, defining an inside. The maintenance of the constructive processes implies that the internal organization also constrains certain flows of matter and energy across the border of the system, generating interactive processes. These interactive processes ensure the maintenance of the (...)
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  25.  21
    Plurality of Explanatory Strategies in Biology: Mechanisms and Networks.Alvaro Moreno & Javier Suárez - 2020 - In Methodological Prospects for Scientific Research. pp. 141-165.
    Recent research in philosophy of science has shown that scientists rely on a plurality of strategies to develop successful explanations of different types of phenomena. In the case of biology, most of these strategies go far beyond the traditional and reductionistic models of scientific explanation that have proven so successful in the fundamental sciences. Concretely, in the last two decades, philosophers of science have discovered the existence of at least two different types of scientific explanation at work in the biological (...)
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  26.  6
    On Fingerprinting of Public Malware Analysis Services.Alvaro Botas, Ricardo J. Rodríguez, Vicente Matellan, Juan F. Garcia, M. T. Trobajo & Miguel V. Carriegos - 2020 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 28 (4):473-486.
    Automatic public malware analysis services provide controlled, isolated and virtual environments to analyse malicious software samples. Unfortunately, malware is currently incorporating techniques to recognize execution onto a virtual or sandbox environment; when an analysis environment is detected, malware behaves as a benign application or even shows no activity. In this work, we present an empirical study and characterization of automatic PMAS, considering 26 different services. We also show a set of features that allow to easily fingerprint these services as analysis (...)
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  27.  1
    Presentación: Lo viviente en las artes visuales y verbales latinoamericanas contemporáneas. Un debate sobre el Antropoceno.Álvaro Fernández Bravo - 2018 - Corpus.
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  28.  6
    HOYOS SÁNCHEZ, Inmaculada : Sobre el amor y el miedo. Tópicos antiguos y enfoques modernos, Madrid, Avarigani Editores.Noé Expósito Ropero - 2018 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 74:209.
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  29.  36
    Cardiovascular Medicine at Face Value: A Qualitative Pilot Study on Clinical Axiology.Adalberto de Hoyos, Rodrigo Nava-Diosdado, Jorge Mendez, Sergio Ricco, Ana Serrano, C. Flores Cisneros, Carlos Macías-Ojeda, Héctor Cisneros, P. G. Barbara & B. J. Gilbert - 2012 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7:14.
    IntroductionCardiology is characterized by its state-of-the-art biomedical technology and the predominance of Evidence-Based Medicine. This predominance makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to deal with the ethical dilemmas that emerge in this subspecialty. This paper is a first endeavor to empirically investigate the axiological foundations of the healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital. Our pilot study selected, as the target population, cardiology personnel not only because of their difficult ethical deliberations but also because of the stringent conditions in which they (...)
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  30.  31
    Lab-Grown Meat and Veganism: A Virtue-Oriented Perspective.Carlo Alvaro - 2019 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 32 (1):127-141.
    The project of growing meat artificially represents for some the next best thing to humanity. If successful, it could be the solution to several problems, such as feeding a growing global population while reducing the environmental impact of raising animals for food and, of course, reducing the amount and degree of animal cruelty and suffering that is involved in animal farming. In this paper, I argue that the issue of the morality of such a project has been framed only in (...)
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  31.  54
    Cardiovascular Medicine at Face Value: A Qualitative Pilot Study on Clinical Axiology.Adalberto de Hoyos, Rodrigo Nava-Diosdado, Jorge Mendez, Sergio Ricco, Ana Serrano, Carmen Flores Cisneros, Carlos Macías-Ojeda, Héctor Cisneros, David Bialostozky, Nelly Altamirano-Bustamante & Myriam Altamirano-Bustamante - 2013 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 8:3.
    Cardiology is characterized by its state-of-the-art biomedical technology and the predominance of Evidence-Based Medicine. This predominance makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to deal with the ethical dilemmas that emerge in this subspecialty. This paper is a first endeavor to empirically investigate the axiological foundations of the healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital. Our pilot study selected, as the target population, cardiology personnel not only because of their difficult ethical deliberations but also because of the stringent conditions in which they (...)
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  32.  43
    Veganism and Children: A Response to Marcus William Hunt.Carlo Alvaro - 2019 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 32 (4):647-661.
    In this paper I respond to Marcus William Hunt’s argument that vegan parents have pro tanto reasons for not raising their children on a vegan diet because such a diet is potentially harmful to children’s physical and social well-being. In my rebuttal, first I show that in practice all vegan diets, with the exception of wacky diets, are beneficial to children’s well-being ; and that all animal-based diets are potentially unhealthful. Second, I show that vegan children are no more socially (...)
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  33.  14
    Žižek, Slavoj. . Slavoj Žižek presenta a Robespierre. Virtud y Terror. . Madrid: Akal. ISBN 978-84-460-2833-8. Número de páginas: 256. [REVIEW]Rafael Andrés Rodríguez Hoyos - 2015 - Universitas Philosophica 32 (65):352.
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  34. The Incoherence of Moral Relativism.Carlo Alvaro - 2020 - Cultura 17 (1):19-38.
    Abstract: This paper is a response to Park Seungbae’s article, “Defence of Cultural Relativism”. Some of the typical criticisms of moral relativism are the following: moral relativism is erroneously committed to the principle of tolerance, which is a universal principle; there are a number of objective moral rules; a moral relativist must admit that Hitler was right, which is absurd; a moral relativist must deny, in the face of evidence, that moral progress is possible; and, since every individual belongs to (...)
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  35.  6
    “El síndrome de Ulises”. Un viaje desde la literatura a lo social.Oscar Robledo Hoyos - 2006 - Polis 13.
    El texto de Oscar Robledo nos transporta hacia un París muy distinto de aquel de las postales, donde convive la miseria del mundo con la opulencia de los “exitosos”. Una ciudad hermosa y brillante, donde polulan también los cuerpos semiproletarizados de los estudiantes latinoamericanos y tantos otros inmigrantes; los mismos que viven en 12 metros cuadrados y que combaten la soledad, el hambre y la precariedad mediante el calor de sus cuerpos y los encuentros sexuales casi frenéticos. Más allá de (...)
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  36.  18
    La discusión sobre el canibalismo Y Los sacrificios humanos en la disputa de sepúlveda con las Casas (1550-1551).Gustavo Zuluaga Hoyos - 2009 - Cuadernos de Filosofía Latinoamericana 30 (100):39-46.
    El propósito de este trabajo es ofrecer un análisis de la discusión sobre el canibalismo y los sacrificios humanos de los indígenas en el contexto de la controversia entre Las Casas y Sepúlveda. Dicho análisis es muy relevante, en tanto que permite observar las raíces más remotas del actual derecho de intervención y de la doctrina de los derechos humanos. Para tal fin, el autor empieza con una rápida descripción de los motivos que condujeron a la disputa de Valladolid, al (...)
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  37. The Problem of the Emergence of Functional Diversity in Prebiotic Evolution.Alvaro Moreno & Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):585-605.
    Since Darwin it is widely accepted that natural selection (NS) is the most important mechanism to explain how biological organisms—in their amazing variety—evolve and, therefore, also how the complexity of certain natural systems can increase over time, creating ever new functions or functional structures/relationships. Nevertheless, the way in which NS is conceived within Darwinian Theory already requires an open, wide enough, functional domain where selective forces may act. And, as the present paper will try to show, this becomes even more (...)
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  38. On What Makes Certain Dynamical Systems Cognitive: A Minimally Cognitive Organization Program.Alvaro Moreno - unknown
    Dynamicism has provided cognitive science with important tools to understand some aspects of “how cognitive agents work” but the issue of “what makes something cognitive” has not been sufficiently addressed yet and, we argue, the former will never be complete without the latter. Behavioristic characterizations of cognitive properties are criticized in favor of an organizational approach focused on the internal dynamic relationships that constitute cognitive systems. A definition of cognition as adaptive-autonomy in the embodied and situated neurodynamic domain is provided: (...)
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  39. Adaptivity: From Metabolism to Behavior.Alvaro Moreno - unknown
    In this article, we propose some fundamental requirements for the appearance of adaptivity. We argue that a basic metabolic organization, taken in its minimal sense, may provide the conceptual framework for naturalizing the origin of teleology and normative functionality as it appears in living systems. However, adaptivity also requires the emergence of a regulatory subsystem, which implies a certain form of dynamic decoupling within a globally integrated, autonomous system. Thus, we analyze several forms of minimal adaptivity, including the special case (...)
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  40. Veganism as a Virtue: How Compassion and Fairness Show Us What is Virtuous About Veganism.Carlo Alvaro - 2017 - Future of Food: Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society 5 (2):16-26.
    With millions of animals brought into existence and raised for food every year, their negative impact upon the environment and the staggering growth in the number of chronic diseases caused by meat and dairy diets make a global move toward ethical veganism imperative. Typi-cally, utilitarians and deontologists have led this discussion. The purpose of this paper is to pro-pose a virtuous approach to ethical veganism. Virtue ethics can be used to construct a defense of ethical veganism by relying on the (...)
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  41.  16
    Alvaro Moreno and Matteo Mossio. 2015. Biological Autonomy: A Philosophical and Theoretical Enquiry.Louisa Jane Holt & Sune Holm - 2017 - Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 32 (3):392.
    Review of Alvaro Moreno and Matteo Mossio. 2015. Biological autonomy: a philosophical and theoretical enquiry.
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  42.  58
    Peace, Democracy, and Education in Colombia: The Contribution of the Political Philosopher Guillermo Hoyos-Vásquez.Enver Torregroza & Federico Guillermo Serrano-Lopez - 2021 - Social Identities 28.
    The purpose of this article is to present the main contributions to peace, democracy, and the philosophy of education in Colombia, made by philosopher Guillermo Hoyos-Vásquez (Medellín, 1935 – Bogotá, 2013). The work of this Colombian philosopher stands out for its important contributions to political philosophy as the vital, supportive, and responsible exercise of thought concerning the public interest. Using Kant’s concept of practical reason, Husserl’s lifeworld [Lebenswelt], and Habermas’s communicative action as starting points, Hoyos-Vásquez succeeded in going (...)
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  43.  55
    Function in Ecology: An Organizational Approach.Nei Nunes-Neto, Alvaro Moreno & Charbel N. El-Hani - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (1):123-141.
    Functional language is ubiquitous in ecology, mainly in the researches about biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, it has not been adequately investigated by ecologists or philosophers of ecology. In the contemporary philosophy of ecology we can recognize a kind of implicit consensus about this issue: while the etiological approaches cannot offer a good concept of function in ecology, Cummins’ systemic approach can. Here we propose to go beyond this implicit consensus, because we think these approaches are not adequate for ecology. (...)
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  44.  16
    El teatro como lugar público. La casa de Dioniso. Un estudio sobre el espacio escénico en la Atenas clásica, de Mauricio Vélez Upegui y Laura Fuentes Vélez . Medellín: Fondo Editorial Universidad EAFIT, 95 p. [REVIEW]Mateo Navia Hoyos - 2017 - Co-herencia 14 (27):301-305.
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  45. Adaptivity: From Metabolism to Behavior.Xabier Barandiaran & Alvaro Moreno - 2008 - Adaptive Behavior 16 (5):325-344.
  46. Autonomy in Evolution: From Minimal to Complex Life.Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo & Alvaro Moreno - 2012 - Synthese 185 (1):21-52.
    Our aim in the present paper is to approach the nature of life from the perspective of autonomy, showing that this perspective can be helpful for overcoming the traditional Cartesian gap between the physical and cognitive domains. We first argue that, although the phenomenon of life manifests itself as highly complex and multidimensional, requiring various levels of description, individual organisms constitute the core of this multifarious phenomenology. Thereafter, our discussion focuses on the nature of the organization of individual living entities, (...)
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  47.  50
    Álvaro Pais, Marsílio de Pádua e o Artigo 68 do Livro Primeiro do Estado e Pranto da Igreja.José Antônio de C. R. De Souza - 2006 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 51 (3).
    Em boa parte do Artigo 68 do Livro Primeiro de seu Estado e Pranto da Igreja, Álvaro Pais, O. Min. (c. 1270-1349) refuta 5 proposições com implicações políticas atribuídas a Marsílio de Pádua (1280-1342). Neste artigo, analisamos a refutação dessas proposições feitas pelo Menorita galego, comparando-as, de um lado, com os textos, efetivamente escritos pelo Médico paduano, que se encontram em sua obra Defensor da Paz (1324) e, de outro, cotejando-o com uma Epistula ad quosdam cardinales, de autoria do mencionado (...)
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  48.  9
    Guillermo Hoyos Vásquez (1935-2013).Leonardo Tovar González - 2013 - Ideas Y Valores 62 (151):299-337.
    El presente trabajo investiga las tesis sobre el poder civil de Alonso de la Veracruz que buscan incorporar en la comunidad política española a los habitantes autóctonos del Nuevo Mundo, tesis que suelen relacionarse con F. de Vitoria y el tomismo español, y que últimamente son consideradas parte del republicanismo novohispano elaborado desde la periferia americana. Se busca demostrar que su propósito era aplicar una teoría de derechos naturales, sin que ello implique participación política de los indios americanos. Se analiza (...)
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  49. Downward Causation at the Core of Living Organization.Alvaro Moreno & Jon Umerez - 2000 - In P. B. Andersen, Claus Emmeche, N. O. Finnemann & P. V. Christiansen (eds.), Downward Causation. University of Aarhus Press. pp. 99--117.
     
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  50. The Impact of the Paradigm of Complexity On the Foundational Frameworks of Biology and Cognitive Science.Alvaro Moreno - unknown
    According to the traditional nomological-deductive methodology of physics and chemistry [Hempel and Oppenheim, 1948], explaining a phenomenon means subsuming it under a law. Logic becomes then the glue of explanation and laws the primary explainers. Thus, the scientific study of a system would consist in the development of a logically sound model of it, once the relevant observables (state variables) are identified and the general laws governing their change (expressed as differential equations, state transition rules, maximization/minimization principles,. . . ) (...)
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