Results for 'Ambiguity'

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  1. Religious Ambiguity in Hick’s Religious Pluralism.Amir Dastmalchian - 2009 - International Journal of Hekmat 1:75-89.
    Much has been said on the religious pluralism of John Hick but little attention has been given to a key step in his argument for religious pluralism. This key step is the observation that the universe is religiously ambiguous. Hick himself is ambiguous about what he means by ‘religious ambiguity’. In this essay I will attempt to rectify this ambiguity by analysing the notion of ‘religious ambiguity’ and arguing what interpretation of this term Hick must commit himself (...)
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  2. Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women.Rachel Mckinnon - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, (...)
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  3. Ambiguity Attitudes, Framing and Consistency.Alex Voorhoeve, Ken Binmore, Arnaldur Stefansson & Lisa Stewart - 2016 - Theory and Decision 81 (3):313-337.
    We use probability-matching variations on Ellsberg’s single-urn experiment to assess three questions: (1) How sensitive are ambiguity attitudes to changes from a gain to a loss frame? (2) How sensitive are ambiguity attitudes to making ambiguity easier to recognize? (3) What is the relation between subjects’ consistency of choice and the ambiguity attitudes their choices display? Contrary to most other studies, we find that a switch from a gain to a loss frame does not lead to (...)
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  4. Aristotle's De Interpretatione 8 is About Ambiguity.Susanne Bobzien - 2007 - In D. Scott (ed.), Maieusis: Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 301.
    ABSTRACT: In this paper I show that, contrary to the prevalent view, in his De Interpretatione chapter 8, Aristotle is concerned with a kind of ambiguity, i.e. with homonymy; more precisely, with homonymy of linguistic expressions as it may occur in dialectical argument. The paper has two parts. In the first part, I argue that in the Sophistici Elenchi 175b39-176a5 Aristotle indubitably deals with homonymy in dialectical argument; that De Interpretatione 8 is a parallel to Sophistici Elenchi 175b39-176a5; that (...)
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  5.  97
    Philosophy Without Ambiguity: A Logico-Linguistic Essay.Jay David Atlas - 1989 - Oxford University Press.
    This book expounds and defends a new conception of the relation between truth and meaning. Atlas argues that the sense of a sense-general sentence radically underdetermines its truth-conditional content. He applies this linguistic analysis to illuminate old and new philosophical problems of meaning, truth, falsity, negation, existence, presupposition, and implicature. In particular, he demonstrates how the concept of ambiguity has been misused and confused with other concepts of meaning, and how the interface between semantics and pragmatics has been misunderstood. (...)
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  6. Truth and The Ambiguity of Negation.Teresa Marques - 2010 - In Erich Rast & Luiz Carlos Baptista (eds.), Meaning and Context. Peter Lang. pp. 2--235.
    This article has one aim, to reject the claim that negation is semantically ambiguous. The first section presents the putative incompatibility between truth-value gaps and the truth-schema; the second section presents the motivation for the ambiguity thesis; the third section summarizes arguments against the claim that natural language negation is semantically ambiguous; and the fourth section indicates the problems of an introduction of two distinct negation operators in natural language.
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  7.  5
    A Multiple‐Channel Model of Task‐Dependent Ambiguity Resolution in Sentence Comprehension.Pavel Logačev & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (2):266-298.
    Traxler, Pickering, and Clifton found that ambiguous sentences are read faster than their unambiguous counterparts. This so-called ambiguity advantage has presented a major challenge to classical theories of human sentence comprehension because its most prominent explanation, in the form of the unrestricted race model, assumes that parsing is non-deterministic. Recently, Swets, Desmet, Clifton, and Ferreira have challenged the URM. They argue that readers strategically underspecify the representation of ambiguous sentences to save time, unless disambiguation is required by task demands. (...)
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  8.  40
    Recursive Expected Utility and the Separation of Attitudes Towards Risk and Ambiguity: An Experimental Study. [REVIEW]Sujoy Chakravarty & Jaideep Roy - 2009 - Theory and Decision 66 (3):199-228.
    We use the multiple price list method and a recursive expected utility theory of smooth ambiguity to separate out attitude towards risk from that towards ambiguity. Based on this separation, we investigate if there are differences in agent behaviour under uncertainty over gain amounts vis-a-vis uncertainty over loss amounts. On an aggregate level, we find that (i) subjects are risk averse over gains and risk seeking over losses, displaying a “reflection effect” and (ii) they are ambiguity neutral (...)
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  9. How Much Ambiguity Aversion? Finding Indifferences Between Ellsberg's Risky and Ambiguous Bets.Ken Binmore, Lisa Stewart & Alex Voorhoeve - 2012 - Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 45 (3):215-38.
    Experimental results on the Ellsberg paradox typically reveal behavior that is commonly interpreted as ambiguity aversion. The experiments reported in the current paper find the objective probabilities for drawing a red ball that make subjects indifferent between various risky and uncertain Ellsberg bets. They allow us to examine the predictive power of alternative principles of choice under uncertainty, including the objective maximin and Hurwicz criteria, the sure-thing principle, and the principle of insufficient reason. Contrary to our expectations, the principle (...)
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  10.  42
    Ambiguity Aversion in the Field of Insurance: Insurers' Attitude to Imprecise and Conflicting Probability Estimates. [REVIEW]Laure Cabantous - 2007 - Theory and Decision 62 (3):219-240.
    This article presents the results of a survey designed to test, with economically sophisticated participants, Ellsberg’s ambiguity aversion hypothesis, and Smithson’s conflict aversion hypothesis. Based on an original sample of 78 professional actuaries (all members of the French Institute of Actuaries), this article provides empirical evidence that ambiguity (i.e. uncertainty about the probability) affect insurers’ decision on pricing insurance. It first reveals that premiums are significantly higher for risks when there is ambiguity regarding the probability of the (...)
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  11.  41
    Beyond the Letter: A Philosophical Inquiry Into Ambiguity, Vagueness, and Metaphor in Language.Israel Scheffler - 1979 - Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Ambiguity, vagueness and metaphor are pervasive features of language, deserving of systematic study in their own right. Yet they have frequently been considered mere deviations from ideal language or obstacles to be avoided in the construction of scientific systems. First published in 1979, Beyond the Letter offers a consecutive study of these features from a philosphical point of view, providing analyses of each and treating their relations to one another. Addressed to the fundamental task of logical and semantic explanation, (...)
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  12.  41
    Granny Versus Game Theorist: Ambiguity in Experimental Games. [REVIEW]Jürgen Eichberger, David Kelsey & Burkhard C. Schipper - 2008 - Theory and Decision 64 (2-3):333-362.
    We report on an experiment in which subjects choose actions in strategic games with either strategic complements or substitutes against a granny, a game theorist or other subjects. The games are selected in order to test predictions on the comparative statics of equilibrium with respect to changes in strategic ambiguity. We find that subjects face higher ambiguity while playing against the granny than playing against the game theorist if we assume that subjects are ambiguity averse. Moreover, under (...)
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  13.  25
    The Impact of Governmental Assistance on Insurance Demand Under Ambiguity: A Theoretical Model and an Experimental Test. [REVIEW]Marielle Brunette, Laure Cabantous, Stéphane Couture & Anne Stenger - 2013 - Theory and Decision 75 (2):153-174.
    This article deals with the impact of governmental assistance on insurance demand under ambiguity, i.e., in situations where probabilities are uncertain. First, using a model of insurance demand under ambiguity, we derive theoretical predictions about the impact of several governmental assistance programmes on optimal insurance demand. For example, governmental assistance through a fixed public support scheme implies that partial insurance is always optimal under fair insurance with ambiguity. Second, we present the results of an experiment designed to (...)
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  14.  59
    Hopes and Fears: The Conflicting Effects of Risk Ambiguity.W. Kip Viscusi & Harrell Chesson - 1999 - Theory and Decision 47 (2):157-184.
    The Ellsberg Paradox documented the aversion to ambiguity in the probability of winning a prize. Using an original sample of 266 business owners and managers facing risks from climate change, this paper documents the presence of departures from rationality in both directions. Both ambiguity-seeking behavior and ambiguity-averse behavior are evident. People exhibit ‘fear’ effects of ambiguity for small probabilities of suffering a loss and ‘hope’ effects for large probabilities. Estimates of the crossover point from ambiguity (...)
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  15.  60
    The Price for Information About Probabilities and its Relation with Risk and Ambiguity.Giuseppe Attanasi & Aldo Montesano - 2012 - Theory and Decision 73 (1):125-160.
    In this article, ambiguity attitude is measured through the maximum price a decision maker is willing to pay to know the probability of an event. Two problems are examined in which the decision maker faces an act: in one case, buying information implies playing a lottery, while, in the other case, buying information gives also the option to avoid playing the lottery. In both decision settings, relying on the Choquet expected utility model, we study how the decision maker’s risk (...)
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  16.  10
    Simone de Beauvoir and the Politics of Ambiguity.Sonia Kruks - 2012 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Simone de Beauvoir and the Politics of Ambiguity is the first full-length study of Beauvoir's political thinking. Best known as the author of The Second Sex, Beauvoir also wrote an array of other political and philosophical texts that together, constitute an original contribution to political theory and philosophy. Sonia Kruks here locates Beauvoir in her own intellectual and political context and demonstrates her continuing significance. Beauvoir still speaks, in a unique voice, to many pressing questions concerning politics: the values (...)
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  17.  34
    Betting on Machina's Reflection Example: An Experiment on Ambiguity[REVIEW]Olivier L'Haridon & Lætitia Placido - 2010 - Theory and Decision 69 (3):375-393.
    In a recent article, Machina (Am Econ Rev forthcoming, 2008) suggested choice problems in the spirit of Ellsberg (Q J Econ 75:643–669, 1961), which challenge tail-separability, an implication of Choquet expected utility (CEU), to a similar extent as the Ellsberg paradox challenged the sure-thing principle implied by subjective expected utility (SEU). We have tested choice behavior for bets on one of Machina’s choice problems, the reflection example. Our results indicate that tail-separability is violated by a large majority of subjects (over (...)
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  18.  19
    Ethics, Ambiguity Aversion, and the Review of Complex Translational Clinical Trials.Jonathan Kimmelman - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (5):242-250.
    Clinical trials of novel agents often present several layers of ethical challenge. Because time and resources for ethical and safety review are limited, how investigators, IRBs, and regulators allocate attention to a trial's various safety dimensions itself represents a critical ethical question. In what follows, I use the example of a Parkinson's disease gene transfer trial to show how risks involving unknown probabilities or outcomes (ambiguity), might sometimes draw attention away from risks that involve known probabilities or outcomes. This (...)
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  19.  25
    Ambiguity in Architecture.Christoph Baumberger - 2009 - In G. Ernst, O. Scholz & J. Steinbrenner (eds.), Nelson Goodman: From Logic to Art. Ontos. pp. 293--319.
    Buildings are frequently described as ambiguous and, indeed, they often involve the ambivalence associated with ambiguous symbols. In this paper, I develop a theory of architectural ambiguity within the framework of a Goodmanian symbol theory. Based upon Israel Scheffler’s study of verbal and pictorial ambiguity, I present a theory of denotational ambiguity of buildings which distinguishes four types of ambiguity: elementary ambiguity, interpretation-ambiguity, multiple meaning and metaphor, which proves to be a special case of (...)
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  20.  15
    The Ambiguity of Moral Excellence: A Response to Aaron Stalnaker's “Virtue as Mastery”.Elizabeth M. Bucar - 2010 - Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (3):429-435.
    This response draws on Saba Mahmood's work on Muslim subjectivities in order to consider how Stalnaker's conceptualization of virtue might be applied to non-Confucian sources. I argue that when applied cross-culturally, Stalnaker's revised definition of “skillful virtue” raises normative and metaethical questions about what counts as a skill versus a mere bodily practice, the process by how skill is acquired, and how we can both allow for the ambiguity of skills and continue to make constructive arguments about them.
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  21.  12
    Ambiguity and Metaphor.Alan Bailin - 2008 - Semiotica 2008 (172):151-169.
    We often consider semantic-pragmatic properties of language independently of each other. In actual texts, however, the properties frequently interact. For this reason a robust theory should allow us to account not only for semantic-pragmatic properties in isolation, but also for the ways in which they are combined. This is especially important for the understanding of literary texts because the exploitation of semantic-pragmatic properties is characteristic of literary language. This article argues that it is possible to account systematically for the occurrence (...)
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  22.  73
    Descriptions, Ambiguity, and Representationalist Theories of Interpretation.Philipp Koralus - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 162 (2):275-290.
    Abstract Theories of descriptions tend to involve commitments about the ambiguity of descriptions. For example, sentences containing descriptions are widely taken to be ambiguous between de re , de dicto , and intermediate interpretations and are sometimes thought to be ambiguous between the former and directly referential interpretations. I provide arguments to suggest that none of these interpretations are due to ambiguities (or indexicality). On the other hand, I argue that descriptions are ambiguous between the above family of interpretations (...)
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  23.  37
    Jaffray's Ideas on Ambiguity.Peter P. Wakker - 2011 - Theory and Decision 71 (1):11-22.
    This paper discusses Jean-Yves Jaffray’s ideas on ambiguity and the views underlying his ideas. His models, developed 20 years ago, provide the most tractable separation of risk attitudes, ambiguity attitudes, and ambiguity beliefs available in the literature today.
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  24.  15
    Ambiguity, Trust, and the Responsible Conduct of Research.Frederick Grinnell - 1999 - Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (2):205-214.
    Ambiguity associated with everyday practice of science has made it difficult to reach a consensus on how to define misconduct in science. This essay outlines some of the important ambiguities of practice such as distinguishing data from noise, deciding whether results falsify a hypothesis, and converting research into research publications. The problem of ambiguity is further compounded by the prior intellectual commitments inherent in choosing problems and in dealing with the skepticism of one's colleagues. In preparing a draft (...)
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  25.  23
    Ambiguity Aversion in Multi-Armed Bandit Problems.Christopher M. Anderson - 2012 - Theory and Decision 72 (1):15-33.
    In multi-armed bandit problems, information acquired from experimentation is valuable because it tells the agent whether to select a particular option again in the future. This article tests whether people undervalue this information because they are ambiguity averse, or have a distaste for uncertainty about the average quality of each alternative. It is shown that ambiguity averse agents have lower than optimal Gittins indexes, appearing to undervalue information from experimentation, but are willing to pay more than ambiguity (...)
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  26.  23
    Choices Under Ambiguity With Familiar And Unfamiliar Outcomes.Marcello Basili, Alain Chateauneuf & Fulvio Fontini - 2005 - Theory and Decision 58 (2):195-207.
    This paper considers a decision-making process under ambiguity in which the decision-maker is supposed to split outcomes between familiar and unfamiliar ones. She is assumed to behave differently with respect to unfamiliar gains, unfamiliar losses and customary (familiar) outcomes. In particular, she is supposed to be pessimistic on gains, optimistic on losses and ambiguity neutral on the familiar outcomes. A generalization of the usual Choquet Integral is formalized when the decision maker holds capacities and probabilities. A characterization of (...)
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  27. Beauvoir's Metaphysical Novel: Literature, Philosophy, and Ambiguity.Anna Mudde - 2013 - In Ann Ward (ed.), Socrates and Dionysus: Philosophy and Art in Dialogue. Cambridge Scholars Press.
    In this essay, I explore the ways that Beauvoir’s description of philosophical novels reveals her understanding of consciousness as a particular sort of ambiguity: that which not only gives the world meaning, but which also, necessarily, finds meaning in the world through the values, ideas, and objects given to it by others. It is through the philosophical (metaphysical) novel that Beauvoir finds a medium for the philosophical communication of ambiguity – that is, a medium for writing human being. (...)
     
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  28.  40
    "Before You Formed in the Womb I Knew You": Sex Selection and Spaces of Ambiguity.Anna Mudde - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (3):553 - 576.
    The spaces provided by biotechnologies of sex selection are rich with epistemological, ontological, and ethical considerations that speak to broadly held social values and epistemic frameworks. In much of the discourse about sex sehction that is not medically indicated, the figure of the "naturally" conceived (future) child is treated as a problem f or parents who want to select the sex of their child. As unknown, that child is ambiguous in terms of sex — "it" is both and neither, and (...)
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  29.  24
    Imperfective and Perfective Habituals in Polish: A Bi-Directional OT Account of Variation and Ambiguity[REVIEW]Dorota Klimek-Jankowska - 2012 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (1):31-52.
    This study accounts for the observed patterns of variation and ambiguity in the expression and interpretation of aspect in bare habitual statements in Polish in the framework of Bouma’s ( 2008 ) recent version of stratified bi-directional Optimality Theory (OT).
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  30.  10
    On the Origin of Ambiguity in Efficient Communication.Jordi Fortuny & Bernat Corominas-Murtra - 2013 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 22 (3):249-267.
    This article studies the emergence of ambiguity in communication through the concept of logical irreversibility and within the framework of Shannon’s information theory. This leads us to a precise and general expression of the intuition behind Zipf’s vocabulary balance in terms of a symmetry equation between the complexities of the coding and the decoding processes that imposes an unavoidable amount of logical uncertainty in natural communication. Accordingly, the emergence of irreversible computations is required if the complexities of the coding (...)
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  31.  3
    Persistence of Initial Misanalysis With No Referential Ambiguity.Chie Nakamura & Manabu Arai - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (4):909-940.
    Previous research reported that in processing structurally ambiguous sentences comprehenders often preserve an initial incorrect analysis even after adopting a correct analysis following structural disambiguation. One criticism is that the sentences tested in previous studies involved referential ambiguity and allowed comprehenders to make inferences about the initial interpretation using pragmatic information, suggesting the possibility that the initial analysis persisted due to comprehenders' pragmatic inference but not to their failure to perform complete reanalysis of the initial misanalysis. Our study investigated (...)
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  32.  4
    Hey Little Sister, Who's the Only One? Modulating Informativeness in the Resolution of Privative Ambiguity.Francesca Foppolo, Marco Marelli, Luisa Meroni & Andrea Gualmini - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (7):1646-1674.
    We present two eye-tracking experiments on the interpretation of sentences like “The tall girl is the only one that …,” which are ambiguous between the anaphoric and the exophoric interpretation. These interpretations differ in informativeness: in a positive context, the exophoric reading entails the anaphoric, while in a negative context the entailment pattern is reversed and the anaphoric reading is the strongest one. We tested whether adults rely on considerations about informativeness in solving the ambiguity. The results show that (...)
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  33.  5
    Typical Ambiguity and Elementary Equivalence.Daniel Dzierzgowski - 1993 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 39 (1):436-446.
    A sentence of the usual language of set theory is said to be stratified if it is obtained by “erasing” type indices in a sentence of the language of Russell's Simple Theory of Types. In this paper we give an alternative presentation of a proof the ambiguity theorem stating that any provable stratified sentence has a stratified proof. To this end, we introduce a new set of ambiguity axioms, inspired by Fraïssé's characterization of elementary equivalence; these axioms can (...)
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  34.  95
    The Stoics on Ambiguity.Catherine Atherton - 1993 - Cambridge University Press.
    Stoic work on ambiguity represents one of the most innovative, sophisticated and rigorous contributions to philosophy and the study of language in western antiquity. This book is both a comprehensive survey of the often difficult and scattered sources, and an attempt to locate Stoic material in the rich array of contexts, ancient and modern, which alone can guarantee full appreciation of its subtlety, scope and complexity. The comparisons and contrasts which this book constructs will intrigue not just classical scholars, (...)
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  35.  2
    Beyond the Letter a Philosophical Inquiry Into Ambiguity, Vagueness, and Metaphor in Language.Israel Scheffler - 1979 - Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Ambiguity, vagueness and metaphor are pervasive features of language, deserving of systematic study in their own right. Yet they have frequently been considered mere deviations from ideal language or obstacles to be avoided in the construction of scientific systems. First published in 1979, _Beyond the Letter_ offers a consecutive study of these features from a philosphical point of view, providing analyses of each and treating their relations to one another. Addressed to the fundamental task of logical and semantic explanation, (...)
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  36.  31
    Semantic Interpretation and the Resolution of Ambiguity.Graeme Hirst - 1987 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this particularly well written volume Graeme Hirst presents a theoretically motivated foundation for semantic interpretation (conceptual analysis) by computer, and shows how this framework facilitates the resolution of both lexical and syntactic ambiguities.
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  37.  20
    Representation and Productive Ambiguity in Mathematics and the Sciences.Emily Grosholz - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Viewed this way, the texts yield striking examples of language and notation that are irreducibly ambiguous and productive because they are ambiguous.
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  38.  6
    CSR and the Mediated Emergence of Strategic Ambiguity.Eric Guthey & Mette Morsing - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (4):555-569.
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  39. Incompatibilism and Ambiguity in the Practical Modalities.T. Kapitan - 1996 - Analysis 56 (2):102-110.
  40.  30
    Identity, Causality, and Pronoun Ambiguity.Eyal Sagi & Lance J. Rips - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (4):663-680.
    This article looks at the way people determine the antecedent of a pronoun in sentence pairs, such as: Albert invited Ron to dinner. He spent hours cleaning the house. The experiment reported here is motivated by the idea that such judgments depend on reasoning about identity . Because the identity of an individual over time depends on the causal-historical path connecting the stages of the individual, the correct antecedent will also depend on causal connections. The experiment varied how likely it (...)
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  41.  63
    Ambiguity in Asset Pricing and Portfolio Choice: A Review of the Literature. [REVIEW]Massimo Guidolin & Francesca Rinaldi - 2013 - Theory and Decision 74 (2):183-217.
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  42.  44
    Postcolonial Ambivalence and Phenomenological Ambiguity: Toward Recognizing Asian American Women's Agency.Emily S. Lee - 2016 - Critical Philosophy of Race 4 (1):56-73.
    Homi Bhabha brings attention to the figure of the post-colonial metropolitan subject—a third world subject who resides in the first world. Bhabha describes the experiences of the “colonial” subject as ambivalently split. As much as I find his work insightful, I find problematic Bhabha’s descriptions of the daily life of post-colonial metropolitan subjects as split and doubled. His analysis lends only to the possibility of these splittings/doublings as schizophrenically wholly arising. His analysis cannot account for the agonistic moments when the (...)
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  43.  29
    Statistical Decisions Under Ambiguity.Jörg Stoye - 2011 - Theory and Decision 70 (2):129-148.
    This article provides unified axiomatic foundations for the most common optimality criteria in statistical decision theory. It considers a decision maker who faces a number of possible models of the world (possibly corresponding to true parameter values). Every model generates objective probabilities, and von Neumann–Morgenstern expected utility applies where these obtain, but no probabilities of models are given. This is the classic problem captured by Wald’s (Statistical decision functions, 1950) device of risk functions. In an Anscombe–Aumann environment, I characterize Bayesianism (...)
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    Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition.Jennifer M. Rodd, M. Gareth Gaskell & William D. Marslen‐Wilson - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (1):89-104.
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  45.  29
    Managing Ambiguity in Reference Generation: The Role of Surface Structure.Imtiaz H. Khan, Kees van Deemter & Graeme Ritchie - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):211-231.
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  46. Fallacies Arising From Ambiguity.Douglas N. Walton - 1996
     
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  47.  38
    An Experimental Test of Generalized Ambiguity Aversion Using Lottery Pricing Tasks.Michael Bleaney & Steven J. Humphrey - 2006 - Theory and Decision 60 (2-3):257-282.
  48.  27
    Judged Knowledge and Ambiguity Aversion.Hans-jÜrgen Keppe - 1995 - Theory and Decision 39 (1):51-77.
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  49.  50
    Commonalities in Time and Ambiguity Aversion for Long-Term Risks.Harrell W. Chesson & W. Kip Viscusi - 2003 - Theory and Decision 54 (1):57-71.
    Optimal protective responses to long-term risks depend on rational perceptions of ambiguous risks and uncertain time horizons. Our study examined the joint influence of uncertain delay and risk in an original sample of business owners and managers. We found that many subjects disliked uncertainty in the timing of an outcome, a reaction we term ``lottery timing risk aversion.'' Such aversion to uncertain timing was positively related to aversion to ambiguous probabilities for lotteries involving storm damage risks. This association suggests that (...)
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  50.  32
    A Fine Risk To Be Run? The Ambiguity of Eros and Teacher Responsibility.Todd Sharon - 2003 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 22 (1):31-44.
    Teachers are often placed in a space of tensionbetween responding to students as persons andresponding to students through theirinstitutionally-defined roles. Particularlywith respect to eros, which has becomeincreasingly the subject of strictinstitutional legislation and regulation,teachers have little recourse to a language ofresponsibility outside an institutional frame. By studying the significance of communicativeambiguity for responsibility, this paperexplores what is ethically at stake forteachers in erotic forms of communication. Specifically, it is Levinas's own ambiguousunderstanding of the ethical significance oferos, and what we have (...)
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