Results for 'Amirul Shah Md Shahbudin'

999 found
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  1. Attitudes Towards Business Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Students in Iran and Malaysia.Mehran Nejati, Azlan Amran & Amirul Shah Md Shahbudin - 2011 - International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 6 (1):68.
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  2.  10
    "Hir," zur strukturalen Deutung des Panjabi-Epos von Waris Shah.Peter Gaeffke, Doris Buddenberg & Waris Shah - 1987 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 107 (4):775.
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  3.  7
    Profile In Courage: Dr. L. P. Shah.H. Shah - 2004 - Mens Sana Monographs 2 (1):1.
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  4.  13
    Corporate Governance and Business Ethics.Atul K. Shah - 1996 - Business Ethics 5 (4):225–233.
    “It is this distancing of personal relationships, combined with their replacement by written contractual terms and conditions, which make the discussion of ethics within a corporate institutionalised context highly limited and problematic.’ The challenge is to find means of personalising modern corporations so as to encourage ethical behaviour. Atul K. Shah PhD ACA gained his doctorate from the London School of Economics and is Lecturer in the Department of Accounting and Financial Management, at the University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, (...)
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  5. The Ageing Home-Based Women- Workers in Karachi.Nasreen Aslam Shah - 2015 - Pakistan Journal of Applied Social Sciences 2 (1).
    The word ageing catches our attention as an impression of experience, respect, and knowledge while on the other hand it also expresses an image of weakness, loneliness and loss of power. The two thoughts combined with gender dimension signify that men to some extent and women usually are affected by ageing mostly. The Ageing Home-Based Women-Workers in Karachi is an outcome of a study portraying the challenges faced by old age women workers of the informal sector in Karachi. Prof. Dr. (...)
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  6. Doxastic Deliberation.Nishi Shah & J. David Velleman - 2005 - Philosophical Review 114 (4):497-534.
    Believing that p, assuming that p, and imagining that p involve regarding p as true—or, as we shall call it, accepting p. What distinguishes belief from the other modes of acceptance? We claim that conceiving of an attitude as a belief, rather than an assumption or an instance of imagining, entails conceiving of it as an acceptance that is regulated for truth, while also applying to it the standard of being correct if and only if it is true. We argue (...)
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  7. How Truth Governs Belief.Nishi Shah - 2003 - Philosophical Review 112 (4):447-482.
    Why, when asking oneself whether to believe that p, must one immediately recognize that this question is settled by, and only by, answering the question whether p is true? Truth is not an optional end for first-personal doxastic deliberation, providing an instrumental or extrinsic reason that an agent may take or leave at will. Otherwise there would be an inferential step between discovering the truth with respect to p and determining whether to believe that p, involving a bridge premise that (...)
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  8. A New Argument for Evidentialism.Nishi Shah - 2006 - Philosophical Quarterly 56 (225):481–498.
    When we deliberate whether to believe some proposition, we feel immediately compelled to look for evidence of its truth. Philosophers have labelled this feature of doxastic deliberation 'transparency'. I argue that resolving the disagreement in the ethics of belief between evidentialists and pragmatists turns on the correct explanation of transparency. My hypothesis is that it reflects a conceptual truth about belief: a belief that p is correct if and only if p. This normative truth entails that only evidence can be (...)
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  9.  25
    How Truth Governs Belief.Nishi Shah - 2003 - Philosophical Review 112 (4):447-482.
    Why, when asking oneself whether to believe that p, must one immediately recognize that this question is settled by, and only by, answering the question whether p is true? Truth is not an optional end for first-personal doxastic deliberation, providing an instrumental or extrinsic reason that an agent may take or leave at will. Otherwise there would be an inferential step between discovering the truth with respect to p and determining whether to believe that p, involving a bridge premise that (...)
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  10. How Action Governs Intention.Nishi Shah - 2008 - Philosophers' Imprint 8:1-19.
    Why can't deliberation conclude in an intention except by considering whether to perform the intended action? I argue that the answer to this question entails that reasons for intention are determined by reasons for action. Understanding this feature of practical deliberation thus allows us to solve the toxin puzzle.
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  11. Misunderstanding Metaethics: Korsgaard's Rejection of Realism.Nadeem J. Z. Hussain & Nishi Shah - 2006 - In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics: Volume 1. Clarendon Press. pp. 265-94.
    Contemporary Kantianism is often regarded as both a position within normative ethics and as an alternative to metaethical moral realism. We argue that it is not clear how contemporary Kantianism can distinguish itself from moral realism. There are many Kantian positions. For reasons of space we focus on the position of one of the most prominent, contemporary Kantians, Christine Korsgaard. Our claim is that she fails to show either that Kantianism is different or that it is better than realism. Our (...)
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  12. Clearing Space For Doxastic Voluntarism.Nishi Shah - 2002 - The Monist 85 (3):436-445.
    It is common for philosophers to claim that doxastic voluntarism, the view that an agent can form beliefs voluntarily, is false, and therefore that agents do not have the kind of control over their beliefs required for a straightforward application of deontological concepts such as obligation or duty in the domain of epistemology. The role that the denial of doxastic voluntarism plays in an argument to the effect that agents do not have obligations with respect to belief is simply this.
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  13.  31
    Should Children Decide Whether They Are Enrolled in Nonbeneficial Research?David Wendler & Seema Shah - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (4):1 – 7.
    The U.S. federal regulations require investigators conducting nonbeneficial research to obtain the assent of children who are capable of providing it. Unfortunately, there has been no analysis of which children are capable of assent or even what abilities ground the capacity to give assent. Why should investigators be required to obtain the positive agreement of some children, but not others, before enrolling them in research that does not offer a compensating potential for direct benefit? We argue that the scope of (...)
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  14.  48
    “Doctor, Would You Prescribe a Pill to Help Me …?” A National Survey of Physicians on Using Medicine for Human Enhancement.Matthew K. Wynia, Emily E. Anderson, Kavita Shah & Timothy D. Hotze - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):3 - 13.
    Using medical advances to enhance human athletic, aesthetic, and cognitive performance, rather than to treat disease, has been controversial. Little is known about physicians? experiences, views, and attitudes in this regard. We surveyed a national sample of physicians to determine how often they prescribe enhancements, their views on using medicine for enhancement, and whether they would be willing to prescribe a series of potential interventions that might be considered enhancements. We find that many physicians occasionally prescribe enhancements, but doctors hold (...)
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  15.  14
    Comprehension and Choice Under the Revised Common Rule: Improving Informed Consent by Offering Reasons Why Some Enroll in Research and Others Do Not.Benjamin S. Wilfond, Seema K. Shah, Kathryn M. Porter & Stephanie A. Kraft - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (7):53-55.
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  16.  33
    Death and Legal Fictions.S. K. Shah, R. D. Truog & F. G. Miller - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (12):719-722.
    Advances in life-saving technologies in the past few decades have challenged our traditional understandings of death. Traditionally, death was understood to occur when a person stops breathing, their heart stops beating and they are cold to the touch. Today, physicians determine death by relying on a diagnosis of ‘total brain failure’ or by waiting a short while after circulation stops. Evidence has emerged, however, that the conceptual bases for these approaches to determining death are fundamentally flawed and depart substantially from (...)
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  17.  23
    A Narrative Review of the Empirical Evidence on Public Attitudes on Brain Death and Vital Organ Transplantation: The Need for Better Data to Inform Policy.Seema K. Shah, Kenneth Kasper & Franklin G. Miller - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (4):291-296.
  18.  72
    How Are Visuospatial Working Memory, Executive Functioning, and Spatial Abilities Related? A Latent-Variable Analysis.Akira Miyake, Naomi P. Friedman, David A. Rettinger, Priti Shah & Mary Hegarty - 2001 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130 (4):621.
  19.  55
    The Separability of Working Memory Resources for Spatial Thinking and Language Processing: An Individual Differences Approach.Priti Shah & Akira Miyake - 1996 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 125 (1):4.
  20. Mental Agency and Metaethics.Matthew Evans & Nishi Shah - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 7:80-109.
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  21. Why We Reason the Way We Do.Nishi Shah - 2013 - Philosophical Issues 23 (1):311-325.
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  22. Metaethics and Its Discontents: A Case Study of Korsgaard.Nadeem J. Z. Hussain & Nishi Shah - forthcoming - In Carla Bagnoli (ed.), Moral Constructivism: For and Against. Cambridge University Press.
    The maturing of metaethics has been accompanied by widespread, but relatively unarticulated, discontent that mainstream metaethics is fundamentally on the wrong track. The malcontents we have in mind do not simply champion a competitor to the likes of noncognitivism or realism; they disapprove of the supposed presuppositions of the existing debate. Their aim is not to generate a new theory within metaethics, but to go beyond metaethics and to transcend the distinctions it draws between metaethics and normative ethics and between (...)
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  23. Can Reasons for Belief Be Debunked?Nishi Shah - 2011 - In Andrew Reisner & Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen (eds.), Reasons for Belief. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  24.  23
    Examining the Ethics of Clinical Use of Unproven Interventions Outside of Clinical Trials During the Ebola Epidemic.Seema K. Shah, David Wendler & Marion Danis - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):11-16.
    The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa began in the spring of 2014 and has since caused the deaths of over 6,000 people. Since there are no approved treatments or prevention modalities specifically targeted at Ebola Virus Disease , debate has focused on whether unproven interventions should be offered to Ebola patients outside of clinical trials. Those engaged in the debate have responded rapidly to a complex and evolving crisis, however, and this debate has not provided much opportunity for in-depth (...)
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  25. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology.Mark A. Musen, Natalya F. Noy, Nigam H. Shah, Patricia L. Whetzel, Christopher G. Chute, Margaret-Anne Story & Barry Smith - 2012 - Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 19 (2):190-195.
    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is now in its seventh year. The goals of this National Center for Biomedical Computing are to: create and maintain a repository of biomedical ontologies and terminologies; build tools and web services to enable the use of ontologies and terminologies in clinical and translational research; educate their trainees and the scientific community broadly about biomedical ontology and ontology-based technology and best practices; and collaborate with a variety of groups who develop and use ontologies and (...)
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  26.  25
    The Medical Student Global Health Experience: Professionalism and Ethical Implications.S. Shah & T. Wu - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (5):375-378.
    Medical student and resident participation in global health experiences (GHEs) has significantly increased over the last decade. In response to growing student interest and the proven impact of such experiences on the education and career decisions of resident physicians, many medical schools have begun to establish programmes dedicated to global health education. For the innumerable benefits of GHEs, it is important to note that medical students have the potential to do more harm than good in these settings when they exceed (...)
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  27.  10
    Substantiating the Social Value Requirement for Research: An Introduction.Annette Rid & Seema K. Shah - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):72-76.
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  28.  42
    What Does the Duty to Warn Require?Seema K. Shah, Sara Chandros Hull, Michael A. Spinner, Benjamin E. Berkman, Lauren A. Sanchez, Ruquyyah Abdul-Karim, Amy P. Hsu, Reginald Claypool & Steven M. Holland - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10):62 - 63.
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  29.  66
    On the Provenance of Judgments of Conditional Probability.Jiaying Zhao, Anuj Shah & Daniel Osherson - 2009 - Cognition 113 (1):26-36.
  30.  19
    Involving Communities in Deciding What Benefits They Receive in Multinational Research.David Wendler & Seema Shah - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (5):584-600.
    There is wide agreement that communities in lower-income countries should benefit when they participate in multinational research. Debate now focuses on how and to what extent these communities should benefit. This debate has identified compelling reasons to reject the claim that whatever benefits a community agrees to accept are necessarily fair. Yet, those who conduct clinical research may conclude from this rejection that there is no reason to involve communities in the process of deciding how they benefit. Against this possibility, (...)
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  31.  12
    Precluding Consent by Clinicians Who Are Both the Attending and the Investigator: An Outdated Shibboleth?Anita Shah, Kathryn Porter, Sandra Juul & Benjamin S. Wilfond - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):80-82.
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  32.  35
    Effects of Lying in Practical Turing Tests.Kevin Warwick & Huma Shah - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (1):5-15.
  33.  34
    Refocusing the Responsiveness Requirement.Seema Shah, Rebecca Wolitz & Ezekiel Emanuel - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (3):151-159.
    Many guidelines for international research require that studies be responsive to host community health needs or health priorities. Although responsiveness possesses great intuitive and rhetorical appeal, existing conceptions are confusing and difficult to apply. Not only are there few examples of what research the responsiveness requirement permits and what it rejects, but its application can lead to contradictory results. Because of the practical difficulties in applying responsiveness and the danger that misapplying responsiveness could harm the interests of developing countries, we (...)
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  34. XV-The Limits of Normative Detachment.Nishi Shah - 2010 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 110 (3pt3):347-371.
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  35. Reasoning in Stages.Nishi Shah & Matthew Silverstein - 2013 - Ethics 124 (1):101-113.
    Mark Schroeder has recently presented apparent counterexamples to the standard account of the distinction between the right and the wrong kinds of reasons. We argue that these examples appear to refute the standard account only because they blur the distinction between two kinds of reasoning: reasoning about whether to intend or believe that p and reasoning about whether to take up the question of whether to intend or believe that p.
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  36. Review: Hilary Kornblith, On Reflection. [REVIEW]Nishi Shah & Katia Vavova - 2014 - Ethics 124 (3):632-636,.
  37.  63
    Hidden Interlocutor Misidentification in Practical Turing Tests.Huma Shah & Kevin Warwick - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (3):441-454.
    Response to Floridi et al, 2008/2009. Based on insufficient evidence, and inadequate research, Floridi and his students report inaccuracies and draw false conclusions in their Minds and Machines evaluation, which this paper aims to clarify. Acting as invited judges, Floridi et al. participated in nine, of the ninety-six, Turing tests staged in the finals of the 18th Loebner Prize for Artificial Intelligence in October 2008. From the transcripts it appears that they used power over solidarity as an interrogation technique. As (...)
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  38.  22
    Human Misidentification in Turing Tests.K. Warwick & H. Shah - unknown
    This paper presents some important issues on misidentification of human interlocutors in text-based communication during practical Turing tests. The study here presents transcripts in which human judges succumbed to theconfederate effect, misidentifying hidden human foils for machines. An attempt is made to assess the reasons for this. The practical Turing tests in question were held on 23 June 2012 at Bletchley Park, England. A selection of actual full transcripts from the tests is shown and an analysis is given in each (...)
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  39.  32
    Migration as a Determinant of Marriage Pattern: Preliminary Report on Consanguinity Among Afghans.Abdul Wahab, Mahmud Ahmad & Syed Akram Shah - 2006 - Journal of Biosocial Science 38 (3):315.
    Two sample populations, one refugee and one resident, were studied. The frequencies of consanguineous marriages came out to be 49·8% and 55·4%, respectively, for the refugees and the residents. Caste endogamy was dominant both in the residents and the refugees. The mean coefficient of inbreeding was calculated to be 0·0303 for the refugee population and 0·0332 for the resident population samples. First cousin marriage was the dominant type of marriage in both samples; fathers daughter (FBD) marriage was more frequent among (...)
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  40. Welfare and Rational Care.Nishi Shah - 2004 - Philosophical Review 113 (4):577-582.
    George, feeling stressed and anxious about the criminal investigation into his firm’s accounting practices, decides that it would do him good to get away and take a long, relaxing vacation in Bermuda. According to popular informed-desire accounts of a person’s good, if George would desire to take a vacation to Bermuda upon being made fully aware of what his experience of the vacation would be like and of all the consequences therein, then this course of action would benefit him. This (...)
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  41. Ethical Dilemmas in Medical Humanitarian Practice: Cases for Reflection From Médecins Sans Frontières.Julian Sheather & Tejshri Shah - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (3):162-165.
    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an independent medical humanitarian organisation working in over 70 countries. It has provided medical assistance for over 35 years to populations vulnerable through conflict, disease and inadequate health systems. Medical ethics define the starting point of the relationship between medical staff and patients. The ethics of humanitarian interventions and of research in conflict settings are much debated. However, less is known about the ethical dilemmas faced by medical humanitarian staff in their daily work. Ethical dilemmas (...)
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  42. Bar and Line Graph Comprehension: An Interaction of Top‐Down and Bottom‐Up Processes.Priti Shah & Eric G. Freedman - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (3):560-578.
    This experiment investigated the effect of format (line vs. bar), viewers’ familiarity with variables, and viewers’ graphicacy (graphical literacy) skills on the comprehension of multivariate (three variable) data presented in graphs. Fifty-five undergraduates provided written descriptions of data for a set of 14 line or bar graphs, half of which depicted variables familiar to the population and half of which depicted variables unfamiliar to the population. Participants then took a test of graphicacy skills. As predicted, the format influenced viewers’ interpretations (...)
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  43.  33
    The Importance of a Human Viewpoint on Computer Natural Language Capabilities: A Turing Test Perspective.Kevin Warwick & Huma Shah - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (2):207-221.
  44.  50
    Is It Justifiable to Abandon All Search for a Logic of Discovery?Mehul Shah - 2007 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (3):253 – 269.
    In his influential paper, 'Why Was the Logic of Discovery Abandoned?', Laudan contends that there has been no philosophical rationale for a logic of discovery since the emergence of consequentialism in the 19th century. It is the purpose of this paper to show that consequentialism does not involve the rejection of all types of logic of discovery. Laudan goes too far in his interpretation of the historical shift from generativism to consequentialism, and his claim that the context of pursuit belongs (...)
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  45.  50
    Some Implications of a Sample of Practical Turing Tests.Kevin Warwick, Huma Shah & James Moor - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (2):163-177.
    A series of imitation games involving 3-participant (simultaneous comparison of two hidden entities) and 2-participant (direct interrogation of a hidden entity) were conducted at Bletchley Park on the 100th anniversary of Alan Turing’s birth: 23 June 2012. From the ongoing analysis of over 150 games involving (expert and non-expert, males and females, adults and child) judges, machines and hidden humans (foils for the machines), we present six particular conversations that took place between human judges and a hidden entity that produced (...)
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  46.  25
    The Ethics of Intellectual Property Rights in an Era of Globalization.Aakash Kaushik Shah, Jonathan Warsh & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):841-851.
  47.  34
    The Ethics of Intellectual Property Rights in an Era of Globalization.Aakash Kaushik Shah, Jonathan Warsh & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):841-851.
    Since the 1980s, developed countries, led by the United States and the countries of the European Union, have sought to incorporate intellectual property rights provisions into global trade agreements. These countries successfully negotiated the World Trade Organization's 1994 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which required developing countries to adopt intellectual property provisions comparable to developed countries. In this manuscript, we review the policy controversy surrounding TRIPS and examine the two main ethical arguments articulated in its support (...)
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  48.  21
    The Dangers of Using a Relative Risk Standard for Minimal Risk.Seema Shah - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):22 - 23.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 6, Page 22-23, June 2011.
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  49. Testing Turing's Parallel-Paired Imitation Game.Huma Shah & Kevin Warwick - 2010 - Kybernetes 39 (3).
    The purpose of this paper is to consider Turing's two tests for machine intelligence: the parallel-paired, three-participants game presented in his 1950 paper, and the “jury-service” one-to-one measure described two years later in a radio broadcast. Both versions were instantiated in practical Turing tests during the 18th Loebner Prize for artificial intelligence hosted at the University of Reading, UK, in October 2008. This involved jury-service tests in the preliminary phase and parallel-paired in the final phase.
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  50.  20
    An Integrated Systems Approach is Needed to Ensure the Sustainability of Antibiotic Effectiveness for Both Humans and Animals.Anthony D. So, Tejen A. Shah, Steven Roach, Yoke Ling Chee & Keeve E. Nachman - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s3):38-45.
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