Results for 'An Objective Counterfactual Theory of Information'

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  1. An Objective Counterfactual Theory of Information.Jonathan Cohen & Aaron Meskin - 2006 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (3):333 – 352.
    We offer a novel theory of information that differs from traditional accounts in two respects: (i) it explains information in terms of counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities, and (ii) it does not make essential reference to doxastic states of subjects, and consequently allows for the sort of objective, reductive explanations of various notions in epistemology and philosophy of mind that many have wanted from an account of information.
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    Counterfactuals Vs. Conditional Probabilities: A Critical Analysis of the Counterfactual Theory of Information.Hilmi Demir - 2008 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86 (1):45 – 60.
    Cohen and Meskin 2006 recently offered a counterfactual theory of information to replace the standard probabilistic theory of information. They claim that the counterfactual theory fares better than the standard account on three grounds: first, it provides a better framework for explaining information flow properties; second, it requires a less expensive ontology; and third, because it does not refer to doxastic states of the information-receiving organism, it provides an objective basis. (...)
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    An Informational Theory of Counterfactuals.Danilo Fraga Dantas - forthcoming - Acta Analytica.
    Backtracking counterfactuals are problem cases for the standard, similarity based, theories of counterfactuals e.g., Lewis. These theories usually need to employ extra-assumptions to deal with those cases. Hiddleston, 632–657, 2005) proposes a causal theory of counterfactuals that, supposedly, deals well with backtracking. The main advantage of the causal theory is that it provides a unified account for backtracking and non-backtracking counterfactuals. In this paper, I present a backtracking counterfactual that is a problem case for Hiddleston’s account. Then (...)
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  4. Knowledge and the Flow of Information.Fred Dretske - 1981 - MIT Press.
    This book presents an attempt to develop a theory of knowledge and a philosophy of mind using ideas derived from the mathematical theory of communication developed by Claude Shannon. Information is seen as an objective commodity defined by the dependency relations between distinct events. Knowledge is then analyzed as information caused belief. Perception is the delivery of information in analog form for conceptual utilization by cognitive mechanisms. The final chapters attempt to develop a (...) of meaning by viewing meaning as a certain kind of information-carrying role. (shrink)
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  5.  74
    Are Beliefs a Matter of Taste? A Case for Objective Imprecise Information.Raphaël Giraud & Jean-Marc Tallon - 2011 - Theory and Decision 71 (1):23-32.
    We argue, in the spirit of some of Jean-Yves Jaffray's work, that explicitly incorporating the information, however imprecise, available to the decision maker is relevant, feasible, and fruitful. In particular, we show that it can lead us to know whether the decision maker has wrong beliefs and whether it matters or not, that it makes it possible to better model and analyze how the decision maker takes into account new information, even when this information is not an (...)
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  6. Information Structure in Discourse: Towards an Integrated Formal Theory of Pragmatics.Craige Roberts - 2012 - Semantics and Pragmatics 5:1-69.
    A framework for pragmatic analysis is proposed which treats discourse as a game, with context as a scoreboard organized around the questions under discussion by the interlocutors. The framework is intended to be coordinated with a dynamic compositional semantics. Accordingly, the context of utterance is modeled as a tuple of different types of information, and the questions therein — modeled, as is usual in formal semantics, as alternative sets of propositions — constrain the felicitous flow of discourse. A requirement (...)
     
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  7.  54
    Kolmogorov Complexity and Information Theory. With an Interpretation in Terms of Questions and Answers.Peter D. Grünwald & Paul M. B. Vitányi - 2003 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (4):497-529.
    We compare the elementary theories of Shannon information and Kolmogorov complexity, the extent to which they have a common purpose, and wherethey are fundamentally different. We discuss and relate the basicnotions of both theories: Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov complexity, Shannon mutual informationand Kolmogorov (``algorithmic'') mutual information. We explainhow universal coding may be viewed as a middle ground betweenthe two theories. We consider Shannon's rate distortion theory, whichquantifies useful (in a certain sense) information.We use the communication of (...) as our guiding motif, and we explain howit relates to sequential question-answer sessions. (shrink)
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    An Objective Theory of Probability (Routledge Revivals).Donald Gillies - 2010 - Routledge.
    This reissue of D. A. Gillies highly influential work, first published in 1973, is a philosophical theory of probability which seeks to develop von Mises’ views on the subject. In agreement with von Mises, the author regards probability theory as a mathematical science like mechanics or electrodynamics, and probability as an objective, measurable concept like force, mass or charge. On the other hand, Dr Gillies rejects von Mises’ definition of probability in terms of limiting frequency and claims (...)
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  9.  13
    Critical Theory as an Approach to the Ethics of Information Security.Bernd Carsten Stahl, Neil F. Doherty, Mark Shaw & Helge Janicke - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (3):675-699.
    Information security can be of high moral value. It can equally be used for immoral purposes and have undesirable consequences. In this paper we suggest that critical theory can facilitate a better understanding of possible ethical issues and can provide support when finding ways of addressing them. The paper argues that critical theory has intrinsic links to ethics and that it is possible to identify concepts frequently used in critical theory to pinpoint ethical concerns. Using the (...)
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  10.  27
    An Information-Based Theory of Conditionals.Wayne Wobcke - 2000 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 41 (2):95-141.
    We present an approach to combining three areas of research which we claim are all based on information theory: knowledge representation in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science using prototypes, plans, or schemata; formal semantics in natural language, especially the semantics of the `if-then' conditional construct; and the logic of subjunctive conditionals first developed using a possible worlds semantics by Stalnaker and Lewis. The basic premise of the paper is that both schema-based inference and the semantics of conditionals are (...)
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  11.  24
    An Application of Information Theory: Longitudinal Measurability Bounds in Classical and Quantum Physics. [REVIEW]C. D'Antonl & P. Scanzano - 1980 - Foundations of Physics 10 (11-12):875-885.
    We examine the problem of the existence (in classical and/or quantum physics) of longitudinal limitations of measurability, defined as limitations preventing the measurement of a given quantity with arbitrarily high accuracy. We consider a measuring device as a generalized communication system, which enables us to use methods of information theory. As a direct consequence of the Shannon theorem on channel capacity, we obtain an inequality which limits the accuracy of a measurement in terms of the average power necessary (...)
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  12.  38
    An Objective Theory of Statistical Testing.Deborah G. Mayo - 1983 - Synthese 57 (3):297 - 340.
    Theories of statistical testing may be seen as attempts to provide systematic means for evaluating scientific conjectures on the basis of incomplete or inaccurate observational data. The Neyman-Pearson Theory of Testing (NPT) has purported to provide an objective means for testing statistical hypotheses corresponding to scientific claims. Despite their widespread use in science, methods of NPT have themselves been accused of failing to be objective; and the purported objectivity of scientific claims based upon NPT has been called (...)
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  13. An Epistemic Theory of Objective Chance.Richard Johns - manuscript
    A theory of objective, single-case chances is presented and defended. The theory states that the chance of an event E is its epistemic probability, given maximal knowledge of the possible causes of E. This theory is uniquely successful in entailing all the known properties of chance, but involves heavy metaphysical commitment. It requires an objective rationality that determines proper degrees of belief in some contexts.
     
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  14. Theory of Objective Mind: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Culture.Hans Freyer & Steven Grosby - 1999 - Ohio University Press.
    __Theory of Objective Mind__ is the first book of the important German social philosopher Hans Freyer to appear in English. The work of the neo-Hegelian Freyer, especially the much admired __Theory of Objective Mind__, had a notable influence on German thinkers to follow and on America's two greatest social theorists, Talcott Parsons and Edward Shils._ Freyer took what remained valid in G. F. Hegel's work and drew upon the subsequent insights of the early work of Edmund Husserl in (...)
     
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  15.  30
    An Information-Based Treatment of Punctuation in Discourse Representation Theory.Varol Akman - unknown
    Punctuation has so far attracted attention within the linguistics community mostly from a syntactic perspective. In this paper, we give a preliminary account of the information-based aspects of punctuation, drawing our points from assorted, naturally occurring sentences. We present our formal models of these sentences and the semantic contributions of punctuation marks. Our formalism is a simpli ed analogue of an extension|due to Nicholas Asher|of Discourse Representation Theory.
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  16.  84
    An Application of Information Theory to the Problem of the Scientific Experiment.Massimiliano Badino - 2004 - Synthese 140 (3):355 - 389.
    There are two basic approaches to the problem of induction:the empirical one, which deems that the possibility of induction depends on how theworld was made (and how it works) and the logical one, which considers the formation(and function) of language. The first is closer to being useful for induction, whilethe second is more rigorous and clearer. The purpose of this paper is to create an empiricalapproach to induction that contains the same formal exactitude as the logical approach.This requires: (a) that (...)
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  17.  9
    What Makes Customers Discontent with Service Providers? An Empirical Analysis of Complaint Handling in Information and Communication Technology Services.C. Y. Chan Hubert & E. W. T. Ngai - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (S1):73 - 110.
    The effectiveness of complaint handling and service recovery policies in customer retention has been the focus of both scholars and service organizations. In the past decade, Justice Theory has provided the basis of the dominant theoretical framework for complaint management and service recovery. However, it does not explicitly address unfair trade practices, which constitute an ethical issue. Favorable outcomes in complaint handling may not be able to restore the reputation of a company and the potential harm perceived by consumers. (...)
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  18.  4
    Two Views of an Objective Quantum Theory.Yehudah Freundlich - 1977 - Foundations of Physics 7 (3-4):279-300.
    Is the Copenhagen interpretation really a subjective one? What is the special role that observations play in quantum theory? Is there really something peculiar about the projection postulate? Why does the Copenhagenist treat probabilities as properties of individual systems? Is there a measurement problem, and if so, can itin principle be solved within the framework of quantum theory? We offer aconceptual treatment of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics in which these questions are answered and contrast it with (...)
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  19.  11
    An Information-Processing Theory of Mental Imagery: A Case Study in the New Mentalistic Psychology.George E. Smith & Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1980 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:247 - 266.
    A particular research program on mental imagery is defended against certain sweeping methodological criticisms that have been advanced against it. The central claim is that the approach taken in the program is an appropriate response to the problem of doing empirical research in a theoretical vacuum, and that when it is viewed in this perspective, the criticisms are not merely unfounded, they are inappropriate. The argument for this claim is developed by first describing the program and then analyzing the methodological (...)
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  20. An Information-Processing Theory of Anesthesia.Hans Flohr - 1995 - Neuropsychologia 33:1169-80.
    A theory of anaesthesia is presented. It consists of four hypotheses: (1) The occurrence of states of consciousness causally depends on the formation of transient higher-order, self-referential mental representations. The occurrence of such states is identical with the appearance of conscious phenomena. Loss of consciousness will occur, if and only if the brain's representational activity falls below a critical threshold. (2) Mental representations are instantiated by neural cell assemblies. (3) The formation of assemblies involves the activation of the NMDA (...)
     
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  21.  32
    The Counterfactual Theory of Information Revisited.Hilmi Demir - 2012 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (1):183 - 185.
    Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Volume 90, Issue 1, Page 183-185, March 2012.
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  22. Semantic Information and the Network Theory of Account.Luciano Floridi - 2012 - Synthese 184 (3):431-454.
    The article addresses the problem of how semantic information can be upgraded to knowledge. The introductory section explains the technical terminology and the relevant background. Section 2 argues that, for semantic information to be upgraded to knowledge, it is necessary and sufficient to be embedded in a network of questions and answers that correctly accounts for it. Section 3 shows that an information flow network of type A fulfils such a requirement, by warranting that the erotetic deficit, (...)
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  23.  25
    An Outline of a Theory of Semantic Information.Rudolf Carnap & Yehoshua Bar-Hillel - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (3):230-232.
  24.  20
    "An Introduction to Confirmation Theory," by Richard Swinburne; and "An Objective Theory of Probability," by D. A. Gillies.Lee C. Rice - 1975 - Modern Schoolman 52 (4):460-463.
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    An Examination of Information Theory.Yehoshua Bar-Hillel - 1955 - Philosophy of Science 22 (2):86-105.
  26. The Counterfactual Theory of Free Will: A Genuinely Deterministic Form of Soft Determinism.Rick Repetti - 2010 - Saarbrücken, Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
    I argue for a soft compatibilist theory of free will, i.e., such that free will is compatible with both determinism and indeterminism, directly opposite hard incompatibilism, which holds free will incompatible both with determinism and indeterminism. My intuitions in this book are primarily based on an analysis of meditation, but my arguments are highly syncretic, deriving from many fields, including behaviorism, psychology, conditioning and deconditioning theory, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, simulation theory, etc. I offer a (...)
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  27.  9
    Carnap Rudolf and Bar-Hillel Yehoshua. An Outline of a Theory of Semantic Information. Technical Report No. 247. Photo-Offset. Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1952, Ii + 49 Pp.Bar-Hillel Yehoshua and Carnap Rudolf. Semantic Information. Communication Theory, Papers Read at a Symposium on “Applications of Communication Theory” Held at the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London September 22nd-26th 1952, Edited by Jackson Willis, Butterworths Scientific Publications, London 1953, Pp. 503–511.MacKay D. M.. Discussion. Communication Theory, Papers Read at a Symposium on “Applications of Communication Theory” Held at the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London September 22nd-26th 1952, Edited by Jackson Willis, Butterworths Scientific Publications, London 1953, Pp. 511–512.Bar-Hillel Y.. In Reply. Communication Theory, Papers Read at a Symposium on “Applications of Communication Theory” Held at the Institution of Electrica. [REVIEW]Peter Elias - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (3):230-232.
  28.  6
    The Relationship Between Personality Impression Formation and Sex: An Application of Information Integration Theory.Wendy Combest, Katherine Kasten & Juliet Popper Shaffer - 1973 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 1 (1):2-4.
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  29. A Probabilistic Theory of the Coherence of an Information Set.Stephan Hartmann & L. Bovens - 2001 - In BeckermannAnsgar (ed.), Argument & Analysis: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of the Society for Analytical Philosophy. Bielefeld.
     
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  30.  73
    The Inspiration of God and Wolfhart Pannenberg's “Field Theory of Information”.George Medley Iii - 2013 - Zygon 48 (1):93-106.
    This paper will examine the implications of an extended “field theory of information,” suggested by Wolfhart Pannenberg, specifically in the Christian understanding of creation. The paper argues that the Holy Spirit created the world as field, a concept from physics, and the creation is directed by the logos utilizing information. Taking into account more recent developments of information theory, the essay further suggests that present creation has a causal impact upon the information utilized in (...)
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  31.  1
    Brand Myles. Introduction: Defining “Causes.” The Nature of Causation, Edited and with an Introduction by Brand Myles, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Chicago, and London, 1976, Pp. 1–44.Nagel Ernest. The Logical Character of Scientific Laws. The Nature of Causation, Edited and with an Introduction by Brand Myles, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Chicago, and London, 1976, Pp. 77–110. , Pp. 47–78.)Chisholm Roderick M.. Law Statements and Counterfactual Inference. A Reprint of XXI 86. The Nature of Causation, Edited and with an Introduction by Brand Myles, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Chicago, and London, 1976, Pp. 111–121.Goodman Nelson. The Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals. A Reprint of XII 139. The Nature of Causation, Edited and with an Introduction by Brand Myles, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Chicago, and London, 1976, Pp. 123–149.Stalnaker Robert. A Theory of Conditionals. The Nature of Causation, Edited and with an Introduction by Brand Myles, U. [REVIEW]Frank Jackson - 1982 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 47 (2):470-473.
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  32.  1
    Review: Rudolf Carnap, Yehoshua Bar-Hillel, An Outline of a Theory of Semantic Information[REVIEW]Peter Elias - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (3):230-232.
  33. An Objective Theory of Probability.D. A. Gillies - 1976 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):292-295.
     
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  34. ILLIES, D. A.: "An Objective Theory of Probability". [REVIEW]David Miller - 1976 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 27:292.
  35. ILLIES, D. A.: "An Objective Theory of Probability". [REVIEW]M. von Thun - 1975 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 53:267.
     
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  36.  33
    An Interrogative Account of the Dialectical Inquiring System Based Upon the Economic Theory of Information.Raymond Dacey - 1981 - Synthese 47 (1):43 - 55.
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    Judgment Dissociation Theory: An Analysis of Differences in Causal, Counterfactual and Covariational Reasoning.David R. Mandel - 2003 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 (3):419.
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  38.  56
    From Interface to Correspondence: Recovering Classical Representations in a Pragmatic Theory of Semantic Information.Orlin Vakarelov - 2013 - Minds and Machines (3):1-25.
    One major fault line in foundational theories of cognition is between the so-called “representational” and “non-representational” theories. Is it possible to formulate an intermediate approach for a foundational theory of cognition by defining a conception of representation that may bridge the fault line? Such an account of representation, as well as an account of correspondence semantics, is offered here. The account extends previously developed agent-based pragmatic theories of semantic information, where meaning of an information state is defined (...)
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  39.  5
    Understanding the Mind as an Active Information Processor: Do Young Children Have a “Copy Theory of Mind”?Josef Perner & Graham Davies - 1991 - Cognition 39 (1):51-69.
  40.  63
    An Analysis of Information Visualisation.Min Chen & Luciano Floridi - 2013 - Synthese 190 (16):3421-3438.
    Philosophers have relied on visual metaphors to analyse ideas and explain their theories at least since Plato. Descartes is famous for his system of axes, and Wittgenstein for his first design of truth table diagrams. Today, visualisation is a form of ‘computer-aided seeing’ information in data. Hence, information is the fundamental ‘currency’ exchanged through a visualisation pipeline. In this article, we examine the types of information that may occur at different stages of a general visualization pipeline. We (...)
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  41. Gillies, Donald, "An Objective Theory of Probability". [REVIEW]Colin Howson - 1979 - Erkenntnis 14:87.
     
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  42.  6
    Even a Theory-Theory Needs Information Processing: ToMM, an Alternative Theory-Theory of the Child's Theory of Mind.Alan M. Leslie, Tim P. German & Francesca G. Happé - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):56.
  43.  1
    An Objective Theory of Probability.Mark Pastin & D. A. Gillies - 1975 - Philosophical Review 84 (2):270.
  44. Hans Freyer, Theory of Objective Mind: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Culture Reviewed By.Brian Hendrix - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20 (2):105-107.
     
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  45.  7
    Negative Psychoanalysis and Marxism: Towards an Objective Theory of Subjectivity.R. Jacoby - 1972 - Télos 1972 (14):1-22.
  46. An Objective Theory of Emotion.J. S. Gray - 1935 - Psychological Review 42 (1):108-116.
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    Harpers Ferry: An Examination of the Theory of "Objective Conflict" in the Plays of Barrie Stavis.Charles E. Siegel - 1990 - Cardozo Studies in Law and Literature 2 (2):183-200.
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  48.  1
    An Objective Theory of Probability.T. E. Wilkerson - 1974 - Philosophical Books 15 (2):5-7.
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  49. An Objective Theory of Probability.Donald Gillies - 1979 - Erkenntnis 14 (1):87-92.
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  50. Sensitivity to Subtle Social Information in Dysphoric College Students: Evidence for an Enhanced Theory of Mind.K. L. Harkness, M. A. Sabbagh, J. A. Jacobson, N. Chowdrey & T. Chen - 2005 - Cognition and Emotion 19 (1).
     
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