The most expressive account of explanations in neuroscience is currently the causal-mechanistic model formulated by Carl Craver. According to him, explanations in neuroscience describe mechanisms, in other words, it points out how parts organize themselves and interact to engender the phenomenon. Furthermore, neuroscience is unified as scientists from different areas that compose it work together to develop mechanisms. This model was extensively discussed in the last years and several criticisms were raised towards it. Still, it remains as the soundest model (...) for explanations in neuroscience nowadays. This paper is presented as a review of this model, as well as the critiques worked out against it and finishes with a brief consideration of the problem of explanation in neuroscience. (shrink)
A realidade do mundo contemporâneo está marcada, em grande parte, pela fragilidade das opções pessoais, pela velocidade das conexões tecnológicas e pela superficialidade das relações sociais. Nesse contexto encontra-se a educação, que, mediada por uma diversidade de processos pedagógicos, busca contribuir com a formação pessoal e a transformação social. No processo educacional, a mística, como uma energia qualificada, pode aprofundar as singularidades vividas e as sociabilidades vivenciadas, tendo como suporte de entendimento a metáfora das tendas e caminhos. As tendas são (...) entendidas como espaços privilegiados para vivenciar a pertença qualificada, a presença relacional e a participação cooperativa, e os caminhos são movimentos para contemplar a realidade, peregrinar da companhia do outro e encontrar o sentido como horizonte do caminho. Com base nessa relação dialógica, a educação é convidada a seguir caminhos que locomovem nossos corpos e movem novas ações na direção de um projeto educacional mais significativo, bem como descobrindo pela educação que somos capazes de acolher, nas tendas, a ternura e a energia, a interioridade e a exterioridade, a singularidade e a diversidade. Palavras-chave: Educação. Mística. Tendas. Caminhos.The reality of the contemporary world is marked, in great part, by the fragility of personal options, by the speed of technological connections and by the superficiality of social relations. In this context there is education, which mediated by a diversity of pedagogic processes, looks to contribute to the personal formation and social transformation of the individual. In this educational process, the mystic as a qualified energy, can deepen the peculiarities that touch a life and the social experiences through which one passes. Here, we use as a support the tents and paths metaphor. The tents can be comprehended as privileged spaces in which to experience the membership qualified, the relational presence and the cooperative participation, and the paths are movements through which one may contemplate reality, wandering with the company of others and finding a path to the horizon. Based on this dialogic relationship, education is perceived as a tool by which to follow the ways in which our bodies move around and perform new actions in the direction of the most significant educational projects, as well as discovering through this education that we are able to welcome, in the tents, the gentleness and the energy, the interiority and the appearance, the peculiarity and the diversity. Key words: Education. Mystic. Tents. Ways. (shrink)
Abstract The introduction of genetically modified plants into the environment has been marked by different positions, either in favor of or against their release. However, the problem goes well beyond such contradictory positions; it is necessary to take into account the legislation, ethics, biosafety, and the environment in the considerations related to the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). To this end, the Brazilian Committee of Biosafety (CTNBio), a consultative and deliberative multidisciplinary collegiate, provides technical and advisory support to the (...) Brazilian Federal Government. This committee consists of scientists and non-scientists who participate in evaluating the dossiers of companies that are requesting approval by the Brazilian Government; consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate whether commercial approvals of GMOs were associated with the profile of the CTNBio members. Research was based on the minutes taken at CTNBio meetings carried out from 2006 up to 2009, considering law 11.105/2005 and the Constitution of 1988 as legal frameworks, to determine the number of voters in favor of or against releasing genetically modified Bt-maize, Bt-cotton, and herbicide resistant soybeans to be used in Brazilian agriculture. Via the internet, we had access to the curriculum vitae of the CTNBio members through the Plataforma Lattes database of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), where we found their area of expertise. CTNBio members were divided into expert-for, expert-against, non-expert-for, and non-expert-against. Results showed that CTNBio decisions could be based on technical criteria as well as on the policy of the institution that expert-members were representing. Content Type Journal Article Category Articles Pages 1-11 DOI 10.1007/s10806-011-9347-x Authors Glenda Morais Rocha Braña, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioética da Cátedra/UNESCO, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela, Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Laboratório de Genética Toxicológica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Cesar Koppe Grisolia, Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Laboratório de Genética Toxicológica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Journal Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics Online ISSN 1573-322X Print ISSN 1187-7863. (shrink)
Public decisions concerning large projects with detrimental environmental or heritage impacts involve value conflicts which stem from the diverse interests and variety of ways of evaluating the costs and benefits of such projects. They are also framed by institutionalised procedures and practices which favour certain concerns to the detriment of others. This paper aims to contribute towards a better understanding of how these procedures and practices, namely decision support tools such as the Environmental Impact Assessment, tend to shape public decision-making (...) processes in particular ways. It draws on a study of the public controversy surrounding the Foz Tua dam in Portugal, with a focus on the values upheld by the different parties in the controversy and their interplay in the production of justifications, specifically the actors’ positions on values and value conflicts and the restrictions posed by institutionalised public decision-making procedures on the expression and consideration of certain values. (shrink)
El Repertorio bibliográfico sobre Martin Heidegger que se presenta a continuación, reúne la información obtenida de las más de 240 revistas de filosofía disponibles en la Hemeroteca de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. El Repertorio incluye referencias bibliográficas completas de los artículos, reseñas, estudios críticos, traducciones y otros documentos que abordan la obra del importante pensador alemán hasta el año 2010.
This study explored the associations between physical activity anxiety levels, and the perception of satisfaction of basic psychological needs, during Coronavirus Disease 2019 lockdown. Thus, 1,404 participants ranging from 18 to 89 years old completed a questionnaire in the period between 1st and 15th April 2021. The survey included sociodemographic data and the following validated instruments: the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Basic Need General Satisfaction Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to examine variation in (...) anxiety levels and BPN satisfaction according to PA category. Spearman’s Rho correlations coefficients were used to determine the association between anxiety levels and psychological needs. Individuals presenting a higher level of PA revealed lower levels of anxiety-state. Differences between elements from different levels of PA were found for the autonomy, competence, and relatedness psychological needs, suggesting that those who feel their BPN as more satisfied have higher levels of PA. The study found statistically significant correlations between anxiety-state and the satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These findings support the importance that PA has in the anxiety levels during social isolation, emphasizing the importance of multidisciplinary teams in an individual-based approach. (shrink)
O presente trabalho focaliza o fenômeno dos longos litígios em Varas de Família, com o objetivo de discutir a inscrição do judiciário na trama conjugal. Ressalta-se que alguns casais, mesmo após o divórcio, ficam aprisionados numa dinâmica de repetição que atua por meio do litígio, representado nas ..
Nowadays and worldwide, the attention is focused on coronavirus disease, and its consequences on mental health are yet to be fully understood. It is important to capture differences in anxiety levels among populations, groups, and the gender-related variation. Therefore, the present study had two main purposes: to characterize the levels of state anxiety and trait anxiety by examining gender-related, sleep-related, and physical activity-related variations in a nonrepresentative sample of the Portuguese population during the first weeks of lockdown; and to explore (...) the possible relationship between trait anxiety and state anxiety and the possible role of gender as a moderator. This cross-sectional study comprised 1,332 Portuguese adults recruited online during COVID-19 outbreak measures. Participants answered to sociodemographic data and the Portuguese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Gender differences were found in both state anxiety and trait anxiety with females presenting higher values. People reporting doing more physical activity than usual during COVID-19 lockdown presented lower levels of state anxiety. People reporting more satisfaction with the quality of sleep presented lower levels of both state anxiety and trait anxiety. Variation associated with the physical activity level was significantly different among groups in both state anxiety and trait anxiety. When analyzing in more detail separating the levels of physical activity, participants performing moderate and high physical activity showed lower values of state and trait anxiety compared to participants with low physical activity. Participants performing high physical activity also showed lower values of state anxiety compared to participants performing moderate physical activity. Higher levels of trait anxiety were related to higher levels of state anxiety, but this association was not moderated by gender. Interventions aiming to support people psychologically during this outbreak should consider anxiety as well as gender and possible behavioral changes in sleep and physical activity, for example. Health professionals should not only consider the anxiety related to the situation we are living but also address trait anxiety to help overcome COVID-19 psychological consequences. (shrink)
0 0 1 135 717 UERJ 13 2 850 14.0 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false PT-BR JA X-NONE Este artigo analisa alguns trabalhos de arte pública e de vídeo-instalação dos artistas Maurício Dias e Walter Riedweg do ponto de vista dos jogos que fazem com a representação do Outro. O objetivo é discutir como em seus trabalhos as imagens que servem de base para a produção das obras não buscam “captar melhor” aquilo que Outro supostamente seria, mas descolá-lo (...) dos estereótipos que lhe são atribuídos e também criar um domínio onde a alteridade é evidenciada enquanto prática discursiva e de construção social. Nas pistas deixadas pelo pensamento de Bruno Latour, nossa hipótese é que essa negociação dos sentidos da alteridade que aparecerá traduzida na forma de vídeo-instalação só é possível porque a obra pode ela mesma ser considerada como uma espécie de rede que conecta e ao mesmo tempo transforma os diversos elementos que a constituem. (shrink)
This volume explores the linguistic expression of modality in natural language from a cross-linguistic perspective. Modal expressions provide the basic tools that allow us to dissociate what we say from what is actually going on, allowing us to talk about what might happen or might have happened, as well as what is required, desirable, or permitted. Chapters in the book demonstrate that modality involves many more syntactic categories and levels of syntactic structure than traditionally assumed. The volume distinguishes between three (...) types of modality: 'low modality', which concerns modal interpretations associated with the verbal and nominal cartographies in syntax; 'middle modality', or modal interpretation associated to the syntactic cartography internal to the clause; and 'high modality', relating to the left periphery. It combines cross-linguistic discussions of the more widely-studied sources of modality with analyses of novel or unexpected sources, and shows how the meanings associated with the three types of modality are realized across a wide range of languages. (shrink)
Para ocuparnos de las reflexiones butlerianas sobre la guerra y la resistencia a la violencia, nos va a interesar aquí comenzar por la revisión de la crítica feminista que habla también sobre la guerra. A partir de ahí, y de la común coincidencia sobre un proyecto de erradicación de la misma, nos interesarán las elaboraciones de Judith Butler. En torno a ejes como la vulnerabilidad, la precariedad y la inter- dependencia, estas elaboraciones sobre la guerra pueden leerse (...) como una auténtica apuesta en esta pensadora por un replanteamiento de los límites de inteligibilidad de lo humano para abrirlos al proyecto, no imposible, de una convivencia libre de guerra y de violencia. (shrink)
Climate change exposes ecological and socio-economic systems to risks. The identified disparities in knowledge about the social climate system are at the root of the difficulties in perceiving and understanding the diversity of risks related to climate change. The still huge gap between what science and technological innovation can contribute to mitigation and what is unmanageable by humans inevitably requires a continuous process of adaptation. This work is part of the research associated with the European project (under the ERA4CS) 'Citizen (...) Sensing - Urban climate resilience through participatory risk management systems', which proposes to develop a Participatory Climate Risk Management System, a two-way communication system where is part of a participatory risk management system, contributing to adaptive governance. These objectives will be achieved through the creation of a platform that will incorporate information gathered from four pilot studies: Norrköping (Sweden), Porto (Portugal), Rotterdam (The Netherlands) and Trondheim (Norway). Ultimately, the aim is to draw conclusions on how this application can contribute to improving citizens' literacy to cope with climate change adaptation and to raise awareness of this problem, as the involvement of citizens and stakeholders will only be improved if the perception of the risk of climate change is substantially increased. Awareness campaigns about the potential risks associated with extreme events are of great importance. Citizens tend to view climate change as a global phenomenon, ignoring and avoiding taking action until it is directly and seriously affected. (shrink)
Apresenta-se os resultados de projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido entre os anos de 2014-2020 relacionado as narrativas didáticas de história no Brasil, Paraguai e Uruguai e, pertinentes ao conteúdo Guerra Guasu. Embora tenha ocorrido um significativo avanço historiográfico acerca do tema tais narrativas apresentam um perfil tradicional, descritivo e com enfoque nos feitos daqueles tidos como “grandes homens”. No caso, sobretudo, das narrativas brasileiras foram incorporadas distintas categorias de fontes históricas, entretanto os sujeitos subalternizados elencados para esta análise: mulheres, crianças, (...) indígenas e os negros libertos e escravizados continuam invisibilizados pela escrita de uma narrativa didática oficial e que reverbera os cânones do vencedor. (shrink)
Jose Marti contributed greatly to Cuba's struggle for independence from Spain with words as well as revolutionary action. Although he died before the formation of an independent republic, he has since been hailed as a heroic martyr inspiring Cuban republican traditions.
Neste artigo, analisamos a missão diplomática de Bartolomé Mitre no Brasil, em 1872, por meio das páginas do La Nación e do Jornal do Commercio. Em um contexto de fortes tensões e disputas territoriais, o historiador, general e ex-presidente argentino esteve no Rio de Janeiro a fim de garantir o Tratado de Aliança e a desocupação do território paraguaio por forças aliadas. Sua visita tem grande repercussão nas imprensas brasileira e argentina. Assim, conjugamos história, diplomacia e imprensa, pensando seu papel (...) na legitimação das ações diplomáticas e as relações entre políticas externa e interna nas décadas finais do Império. (shrink)
¿Toda regla social es una convención aceptada por un acuerdo de voluntades? A esta pregunta, Ramón Ortega responde negativamente en su libro Compromiso mutuo y derecho: un enfoque convencionalista. Según el autor, el carácter normativo del derecho no estaría justificado por la "vaga, oscura y controvertida noción de aceptación" de Hart, sino por otra, más general: el compromiso mutuo, tomada de la metafísica social de Margaret Gilbert. Pero ¿cuál es la diferencia entre el hecho de que dos o más personas (...) acepten una convención y que exista entre ellas un compromiso mutuo? Pensemos en un famoso y sutil ejemplo tomado de la propia Gilbert: Ana y Miguel caminan uno cerca del otro al salir de un curso. (shrink)