Os seres humanos configuram o espaço de convivência com o outro e em congruência com o meio. Estar presente e compartilhar essa presença com o outro, copresente, implica laços afetivos e sentimentos de pertencimento ao grupo, mas, principalmente, de agir juntos. Este artigo apresenta um recorte da pesquisa “Os espaços híbridos nos processos de ensinar e de aprender: a presença e a copresença no viver e conviver”. A natureza exploratória da pesquisa, por meio da metodologia estudo de caso, se justifica (...) por buscar explorar vários espaços à formação do educador, que se configura em diferentes contextos, através da presença e da copresença, proporcionada pelo hibridismo. Os dados empíricos de natureza qualitativa se referem à participação dos estudantes de graduação e pós-graduação em diferentes situações de aprendizagem. No processo de cooperação, observa-se o agir juntos num hibridismo complexo entre espaço geográfico e espaço digital-virtual. Para ampliar a compreensão acerca da construção do conhecimento em espaços digitais virtuais, precisase viver e conviver com os estudantes. Ou seja, configurar em espaços digital virtuais uma convivência com o outro, que ocorre por meio das diversas formas de interação, comunicação e representação, estabelecendo uma relação dialética, na qual professor e estudante tornam-se coensinantes e coaprendentes do processo formativo. Assim, se torna fundamental ressignificar a concepção de sala de aula, como um espaço de convivência, de produção cultural, que se configura na coexistência e no imbricamento desses espaços, proporcionados pelo uso das Tecnologias Digitais no contexto do hibridismo tecnológico-digital. Palavras-chave: Tecnologia digital. Presença. Copresença. Aprendizagem. Cooperação. (shrink)
The distinction between clinical practice and surgical research may seem trivial, but this distinction can become a complex issue when innovative surgeries are substituted for standard care without patient knowledge. Neither the novelty nor the risk of a new surgical procedure adequately defines surgical research. Some institutions tacitly allow the use of new surgical procedures in series of patients without informing individuals that they are participating in a scientific study, as long as no written protocol or hypothesis exists. Institutions can (...) justify this practice by viewing human research in narrow terms as an activity outlined in a formal protocol. Application of limited definitions, however, erodes patients' rights and risks losing public confidence in how biomedical research is conducted. I propose an operational definition of human research also be recognised. Enforcing more rigid and less ambiguous guidelines of human research may curtail enrolment into some studies, but it will also protect patients from being used as subjects without their knowledge. (shrink)
The ageing society poses significant challenges to Europe’s economy and society. In coming to grips with these issues, we must be aware of their ethical dimensions. Values are the heart of the European Union, as Article 1a of the Lisbon Treaty makes clear: “The Union is founded on the values of respect for human dignity…”. The notion of Europe as a community of values has various important implications, including the development of inclusion policies. A special case of exclusion concerns the (...) gap between those people with effective access to digital and information technology and those without access to it, the “digital divide”, which in Europe is chiefly age-related. Policies to overcome the digital divide and, more generally speaking, e-inclusion policies addressing the ageing population raise some ethical problems. Among younger senior citizens, say those between 65 and 80 years old, the main issues are likely to be universal access to ICT and e-participation. Among the older senior citizens, say those more than 80 years old, the main issues are mental and physical deterioration and assistive technology. An approach geared towards the protection of human rights could match the different needs of senior citizens and provide concrete guidance to evaluate information technologies for them. (shrink)
We extend to the predicate frame a previous characterization of the maximal intermediate propositional constructive logics. This provides a technique to get maximal intermediate predicate constructive logics starting from suitable sets of classically valid predicate formulae we call maximal nonstandard predicate constructive logics. As an example of this technique, we exhibit two maximal intermediate predicate constructive logics, yet leaving open the problem of stating whether the two logics are distinct. Further properties of these logics will be also investigated.
Ethical questions about information and communications technologies have been debated since World War II. Western democracies have had more than 50 years of experience in addressing and organising the ethical, social and legal aspects of scientific and technological developments. However, this expertise, tradition and experience are not enough to manage the most urgent ethical and social issues and contemporary challenges involving ICT. A systematic and institutional organisation of social values in the context of modern ICT tools is needed.This paper focuses (...) on four major areas: developing a specific approach to ethical issues raised by ICT; describing in more detail the age-related digital divide in Europe; identifying technology trends and emerging challenges; and defining the legal framework for inclusion of senior citizens in the digital society. The paper then concludes with a summary of its key points on the basis of which it makes three proposals as a contribution to efforts aimed at overcoming the exclusion of senior citizens from today's Information Society. (shrink)
Resumen El artículo sitúa su reflexión en el tema del ecumenismo, relacionándolo con las propuestas de aggiornamento expresadas por el Vaticano II. Hace también alusión al ámbito de las mudanzas en el seno del protestantismo, de las Iglesias ortodoxas e incluso del cristianismo romano. Además alude a los grandes nombres que trazaron la reflexión teológica en el período de crisis que antecedió al evento –hablamos de aspectos que acabaron incidiendo en los debates conciliares. Siguiendo a Gutiérrez, el artículo destaca tres (...) dimensiones relativas a la búsqueda del diálogo de la Iglesia con el mundo contemporáneo: la urgencia de ser actual, la perspectiva ecuménica y la solidaridad con los pobres. Analiza los “caminos equivocados” que fueron adoptados por la Iglesia en lo concerniente a las propuestas ecumênicas del Concilio: el tomar un “execesivo cuidado” en lo que respecta al mundo moderno, las posiciones de intolerância frente a lo diferente, la comprensión reduccionista del ecumenismo. Hace mención a la exigência de construir relaciones que tengan como bases: la gracia y el amor. Por último, propone la tesis de que “no puede existir un sentido del diálogo, un encuentro entre los seres diferentes, sin la libertad”. Palabras-clave : Iglesia. Vaticano II. Ecumenismo. Diálogo inter-religioso.This article focuses its discussion on the theme of ecumenism, in relation to the catholic proposal of aggiornamento expressed by Vatican II. The text refers to the changes within the Protestantism, the Orthodox churches and also within the Roman Christianity. It also mentions the relevant names that marked theological reflection in those times of crisis prior to the Council. Following the author´s thought, the text highlights three dimensions of the dialogue of the Church with the contemporary world: the urgency in getting things update, the ecumenical perspective and the solidarity with the poor. The article evaluates the "wrong path" taken by the Church in relation to the propositions of the ecumenical council: attitudes of intolerance to the different and the reductionist understanding of ecumenism. It also refers to the need to build relationships whose bases are the grace and love. The article finally expresses the following thesis: "there cannot be a sense of dialogue among different beings without freedom." Keywords : Church. Vatican II. Ecumenism. Inter-religious Dialogue. - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1246. (shrink)
Existential space is lived space, space permeated by our raced, gendered selves. It is representative of our very existence. The purpose of this essay is to explore the intersection between this lived space and art by analyzing the work of the Cuban?born artist Ana Mendieta and showing how her Siluetas Series discloses a space of exile. The first section discusses existential spatiality as explained by the phenomenologists Heidegger and Watsuji and as represented in Mendieta's Siluetas. The second section analyzes the (...) space of exile as a space of in?between?ness and borders. Lastly, the third section discusses temporality as it relates to the space of exile. Through the analysis of Mendieta's Siluetas, and in light of phenomenological accounts of space and the works of Anzaldúa and Mignolo, Ana Mendieta herself is disclosed as well as the space characteristic of those who can no longer be said to have a ?home.? My exploration through my art of the relationship between myself and nature has been a clear result of my having been torn from my homeland during my adolescence. The making of my Silueta in nature keeps (makes) the transition between my homeland and my new home. It is a way of reclaiming my roots and becoming one with nature. Although the culture in which I live is part of me, my roots and cultural identity are a result of my Cuban heritage.1 ??Ana Mendieta Living in a state of psychic unrest, in a Borderland, is what makes poets write and artists create.2 ??Gloria Anzaldúa. (shrink)
Pro-Ana's are young women who proclaim themselves to be proudly anorexic, and they have created a vibrant community online. This article will examine the nature of the Pro-Ana sites, analyzing their discursive community, and discuss the ethical issues surrounding the sites, wherein many have been censured or shut down by commercial website hosting sites, which has raised issues of censorship versus freedom of speech.
We explore the distinctive characteristics of Mexico's society, politics and history that impacted the establishment of genetics in Mexico, as a new disciplinary field that began in the early 20th century and was consolidated and institutionalized in the second half. We identify about three stages in the institutionalization of genetics in Mexico. The first stage can be characterized by Edmundo Taboada, who was the leader of a research program initiated during the Cárdenas government (1934-1940), which was primarily directed towards improving (...) the condition of small Mexican farmers. Taboada is the first Mexican post-graduate investigator in phytotechnology and phytopathology, trained at Cornell University and the University of Minnesota, in 1932 and 1933, respectively. He was the first investigator to teach plant genetics at the National School of Agriculture and wrote the first textbook of general genetics, Genetics Notes, in 1938. Taboada's most important single genetics contribution was the production of "stabilized" corn varieties. The extensive exile of Spanish intellectuals to Mexico, after the end of Spain's Civil War (1936-1939), had a major influence in Mexican science and characterizes the second stage. The three main personalities contributing to Mexican genetics are Federico Bonet de Marco and Bibiano Fernández Osorio Tafall, at the National School of Biological Sciences, and José Luis de la Loma y Oteyza, at the Chapingo Agriculture School. The main contribution of the Spanish exiles to the introduction of genetics in Mexico concerned teaching. They introduced in several universities genetics as a distinctive discipline within the biology curriculum and wrote genetics text books and manuals. The third stage is identified with Alfonso León de Garay, who founded the Genetics and Radiobiology Program in 1960 within the National Commission of Nuclear Energy, which had been founded in 1956. The Genetics and Radiobiology Program rapidly became a disciplinary program, for it embraced research, teaching, and training of academics and technicians. The Mexican Genetics Society, created by de Garay in 1966, and the development of strains and cultures for genetics research were important activities. One of de Garay's key requirements was the compulsory training of the Program's scientists for at least one or two years in the best universities of the United States and Europe. De Garay's role in the development of Mexican genetics was fundamental. His broad vision encompassed the practice of genetics in all its manifestations. (shrink)
O ensaio tem como objeto o estudo das estratégias ficcionais presentes na correspondência da poetisa, missivista e tradutora Ana Cristina César, com o intuito de dar visibilidade aos espaços públicos e privados na literatura da contemporaneidade. Como fonte de pesquisa dos novos limiares existentes entre esses espaços foi escolhida a obra Correspondência incompleta, de 1999. De uma perspectiva historicizada, o ensaio traça o percurso teórico-crítico de definição desses espaços. Analisa alguns exemplos, tomados das cartas, para apresentar o entrecruzamento desses espaços, (...) oferecendo o ponto de vista da literatura. (shrink)
In line with their previous studies dedicated to quantum chemistry (Gavroglu and Simões 1994, 2000; Simões and Gavroglu 1997, 2001), the last joint publication by Kostas Gavroglu and Ana Simões provides the readers not only with a fine-grained, rigorous, and highly valuable book on the history of science but also with stimulating epistemological insights about the way ‘in-between’ disciplines, to use the authors’ turn of phrase, emerge from the convergence of diverging ‘styles’ of research and heterogeneous practices. To make their (...) point, the authors divide their work into four main chapters before drawing epistemological and historiographical conclusions in the fifth and last part of their work. The first chapter entitled ‘Quantum Chemistry qua Physics: The Promises and Deadlocks of Using First Principles’ focuses mainly on German researchers’ contributions in the development of quantum chemistry. In this respect, it highlights four pioneering moments: (1) Walter Heitler and Fritz Lo. (shrink)
Resumen: En este artículo reviso la interpretación de Eduardo Nicol de la teoría de la propiedad de Francisco Suárez. Para ello, presento la posición de Suárez acerca de la propiedad y la propiedad privada atendiendo dos cuestiones fundamentales. La primera es si la propiedad y la propiedad privada son derechos; la segunda es si ambos pertenecen a la naturaleza humana o no. Al final, argumento que la lectura de Nicol es insostenible, pues difícilmente puede admitirse que Suárez defendió algún tipo (...) de comunismo.: In this paper I revisit Eduardo Nicol’s interpretation of Suarez’s theory of property. To this purpose, I present Suárez’s account of property and private property focusing on two main aspects. The first is whether property and private property are rights; the second is whether they belong to the human nature or not. Finally, I argue that Nicol’s reading of Suárez is untenable for it can hardly be accepted that Suárez defended some kind of communism. (shrink)
Animals and Society: An Introduction to Human–Animal Studies by Margo deMello aims to provide a comprehensive review of the emerging discipline known as human–animal studies. The aim of the book is twofold: to serve both as a useful overview of a vast literature for scholars and as an accessible introductory textbook for students. The book is most impressive in its breadth, yet brief entries are sometimes at the expense of a more nuanced discussion, so that both the complexity of human–animal (...) relationships and important scholarly distinctions are overlooked. These concerns aside, Animals and Society is a very enjoyable read and is well suited for people who do not need to engage with the scholarship. -/- . (shrink)
Con Prólogo de José Luis Pinillos, una especialista en Estética, Ana María Leyra, y otra en Filosofía de la Ciencia, Carmen Mataix, han publicado este libro, en el que pretenden aproximar e interrelacionar conceptualmente la ciencia y el arte. Su punto de partida consiste en considerar, citando a Prigogine, que “la ciencia es sobre todo un fenómeno cultural”. Superando la escisión entre ciencia y cultura, las autoras se proponen confrontar el recorrido experimentado por la Estética desde el siglo XIX con (...) las modificaciones habidas en la propia ciencia, sobre todo a partir de la aparición de la mecánica cuántica. Según las autoras, el principio de indeterminación de Heisenberg ha introducido a la ciencia en la vía del fenomenismo, e incluso de un fenomenismo mucho más fuerte que el que en su día propusieron Berkeley o Mach. Las discusiones entre Bohr y Einstein son comparadas, siguiendo de nuevo a Prigogine, con las que mantuvieron Leibniz y Clarke a principios del siglo XVIII. La noción de “realidad” está en el centro del debate entre los científicos, habiéndose introducido nuevas variables, como el tiempo y el sujeto, que hasta el siglo XX habían quedado fuera del contexto científico. Por el contrario, tanto el tiempo como el sujeto “ocupaban con pleno derecho el mundo de la estética, del arte o de la literatura”, temas que ahora tiene que incorporar la reflexión científica. Frente al modelo mecanicista que imperó en la ciencia moderna, las autoras proponen un “modelo estético” para la ciencia contemporánea. (shrink)
At the beginning of the first book of Posterior Analytics, Aristotle‟s feature of demonstrative knowledge involves a certain concept of “necessity”. The traditional interpretation tends to associate this concept with modal necessity, which is found in the Prior Analytics and De interpretatione. The present article aims to show in which way the sixth chapter of book A of Posterior Analytics presupposes a set of essentialist theses that claims to base the necessity of scientific knowledge on predicative relations of essential character. (...) To acknowledge this essentialist background and simultaneously support a modal interpretation of scientific necessity urges us to attribute serious drawbacks to Aristotle‟s theory of demonstration, forcing us to reassess this interpretative tendency. (shrink)