Este artigo pretende analisar as interfaces da produção científica feminina no início do século XX com a constituição do espaço psi no Brasil, utilizando para tanto um artigo do periódico católico "A Ordem" e uma tese da Faculdade de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro. Para sermos mais precisos, nosso recor..
Abstract The introduction of genetically modified plants into the environment has been marked by different positions, either in favor of or against their release. However, the problem goes well beyond such contradictory positions; it is necessary to take into account the legislation, ethics, biosafety, and the environment in the considerations related to the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). To this end, the Brazilian Committee of Biosafety (CTNBio), a consultative and deliberative multidisciplinary collegiate, provides technical and advisory support to the (...) Brazilian Federal Government. This committee consists of scientists and non-scientists who participate in evaluating the dossiers of companies that are requesting approval by the Brazilian Government; consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate whether commercial approvals of GMOs were associated with the profile of the CTNBio members. Research was based on the minutes taken at CTNBio meetings carried out from 2006 up to 2009, considering law 11.105/2005 and the Constitution of 1988 as legal frameworks, to determine the number of voters in favor of or against releasing genetically modified Bt-maize, Bt-cotton, and herbicide resistant soybeans to be used in Brazilian agriculture. Via the internet, we had access to the curriculum vitae of the CTNBio members through the Plataforma Lattes database of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), where we found their area of expertise. CTNBio members were divided into expert-for, expert-against, non-expert-for, and non-expert-against. Results showed that CTNBio decisions could be based on technical criteria as well as on the policy of the institution that expert-members were representing. Content Type Journal Article Category Articles Pages 1-11 DOI 10.1007/s10806-011-9347-x Authors Glenda Morais Rocha Braña, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioética da Cátedra/UNESCO, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela, Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Laboratório de Genética Toxicológica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Cesar Koppe Grisolia, Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Laboratório de Genética Toxicológica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Journal Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics Online ISSN 1573-322X Print ISSN 1187-7863. (shrink)
The way health is conceptualized determines the actions taken to protect and promote it and, in turn, the actors responsible for such actions in an increasingly inter-dependent world. This essay presents a brief description of health policies in Peru during the last ten years in order to analyze the implications of paradigms of medical ethics, human rights and quality of care. These paradigms offer distinct ways of formulating, applying and evaluating health policies and understanding the relationship among different actors at (...) various levels. Building upon other detailed analyses of sexual and reproductive health policy in Peru (Coe, 2004; Miranda and Yamin, 2004), as well as critical appraisals of health services models (Gericke, Kurowski, Ranson and Mills, 2005; Krieger, Northridge, Gruskin, Quinn, Kriebel, Davey Smith, Bassett, Rehkopf and Miller, 2003), this article advocates the importance of construing and promoting health as a human right. (shrink)
Latin American rigorous thought has consisted of a reconstruction of western rigorous thought. This inflexion is not only limited to literary practice, it also, and most importantly, reaches all sciences, and here visibly touches the social sciences. As such, the relation between literature and t..
“ De jure and De facto Rigidity in the General Terms for Natural Kinds”. This paper will argue that one of rigidity’s central problems in general terms for natural kinds, is consequence of not distinguishing between de jure rigid terms and de facto rigid terms on these cases. The paper claims that necessary identity sentences defended by Kripke in Naming and Necessity consider the term’s occurrence to designate a same kind (kinds which share the transworld relation of being one same (...) kind) through two rigidity terms, a de jure one, and a de facto one. This allows to explain the problems that arise from the notion of rigidity in the case of general terms for natural kinds, since it maintains the causal connection requirements, while at the same time it enunciates the identity criterion between these kinds, through the essential property(ies) of the abovementioned kind. (shrink)
Whitehead, in two basic books, considers two different approaches to point-free geometry: the inclusion-based approach , whose primitive notions are regions and inclusion relation between regions, and the connection-based approach , where the connection relation is considered instead of the inclusion. We show that the latter cannot be reduced to the first one, although this can be done in the framework of multivalued logics.
Trata-se de uma reflexão sobre as ameaças aos direitos humanos, sobretudo à dignidade e à liberdade, e à essência humana geradas pelo avanço da biotecnologia. O foco de alerta e resgate da noção de cuidado de si perpassa a perspectiva de futuro de M. Foucault e usa como complemento e desfecho a noção de responsabilidade de H. Jonas para a manutenção da vida e para a realização do sentido do humano e das novas gerações – papel ético por excelência. O (...) texto divide-se em duas partes: a primeira é inspirada em Foucault e a segunda, em Jonas. O leitor é convidado a refletir dentro de uma dupla consideração do tema. PALAVRAS-CHAVE – Dignidade. Direitos humanos. Cuidado de si. Responsabilidade. Futuro. M. Foucault. H. Jonas. (shrink)
Resumen El artículo sitúa su reflexión en el tema del ecumenismo, relacionándolo con las propuestas de aggiornamento expresadas por el Vaticano II. Hace también alusión al ámbito de las mudanzas en el seno del protestantismo, de las Iglesias ortodoxas e incluso del cristianismo romano. Además alude a los grandes nombres que trazaron la reflexión teológica en el período de crisis que antecedió al evento –hablamos de aspectos que acabaron incidiendo en los debates conciliares. Siguiendo a Gutiérrez, el artículo destaca tres (...) dimensiones relativas a la búsqueda del diálogo de la Iglesia con el mundo contemporáneo: la urgencia de ser actual, la perspectiva ecuménica y la solidaridad con los pobres. Analiza los “caminos equivocados” que fueron adoptados por la Iglesia en lo concerniente a las propuestas ecumênicas del Concilio: el tomar un “execesivo cuidado” en lo que respecta al mundo moderno, las posiciones de intolerância frente a lo diferente, la comprensión reduccionista del ecumenismo. Hace mención a la exigência de construir relaciones que tengan como bases: la gracia y el amor. Por último, propone la tesis de que “no puede existir un sentido del diálogo, un encuentro entre los seres diferentes, sin la libertad”. Palabras-clave : Iglesia. Vaticano II. Ecumenismo. Diálogo inter-religioso.This article focuses its discussion on the theme of ecumenism, in relation to the catholic proposal of aggiornamento expressed by Vatican II. The text refers to the changes within the Protestantism, the Orthodox churches and also within the Roman Christianity. It also mentions the relevant names that marked theological reflection in those times of crisis prior to the Council. Following the author´s thought, the text highlights three dimensions of the dialogue of the Church with the contemporary world: the urgency in getting things update, the ecumenical perspective and the solidarity with the poor. The article evaluates the "wrong path" taken by the Church in relation to the propositions of the ecumenical council: attitudes of intolerance to the different and the reductionist understanding of ecumenism. It also refers to the need to build relationships whose bases are the grace and love. The article finally expresses the following thesis: "there cannot be a sense of dialogue among different beings without freedom." Keywords : Church. Vatican II. Ecumenism. Inter-religious Dialogue. - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1246. (shrink)
O artículo constitui uma tentativa de reconstrução da noção de comunidade a partir da literatura na obra de Maurice Blanchot.A comunidade apresenta-se como uma forma original e inovadora de relação social.
In this work we want tosustain two intimately related thesis. The first one sustains that the theory ofthe relativity of Einstein doesnt refute Newtons notion of absolute time. Thesecond one sustain that the Newtonian mechanics and the theory of the rela-tivity are not rival theories, but rather e..
Over the past few years, the Virtual Organization (VO) paradigm has been emerging as an ideal solution to support collaboration among globally distributed entities (individuals and/or organizations). However, due to rapid technological and societal changes, there has also been an astonishing growth in technologies and services for mobile users. This has opened up new collaborative scenarios where the same participant can access the VO from different locations and mobility becomes a key issue for users and services. The nomadicity and mobility (...) introduces additional challenges for managing collaboration in VO environments. This paper focuses on the Identity Management challenge in a Mobile Dynamic VO environment, which is a VO that takes into account nomadicity and seamless mobility aspects as elaborated within the EU funded project Akogrimo (Access to Knowledge through the Grid in a mobile world). The resulting work is the design of the Akogrimo Identity Management system supporting the authentication and authorization process across the different administrative domains of the Mobile Dynamic VO. This design follows the service oriented approach and integrates the different perspectives: that of the network, that of the user and that of the service provider. Such an integration requires facing challenges; both from the architectural and technological viewpoints because different ‘worlds’ (i.e. network and service level) leverage different (and sometimes conflicting) approaches when addressing Identity Management. (shrink)
A formal neuron has been studied mathematically. The spiking behaviour of a single neuron has been considered and the influence of the other neurons has been replaced by an average activity level. Four different kinds of spiking behaviour are predicted by the model: B (bursts), C (continuous), P (periodic) and S (silent) neurons and several real neurons can be classified within these four categories. Some properties of the spiking neuron are calculated: 1) the time between spikes, 2) the spike train (...) length and 3) the silent time. Because these magnitudes can be measured in the laboratory, an experimental validation of the model is proposed. (shrink)
El pensamiento de Unamuno es complejo y problemático. Realizar una lectura de los escritos de este autor, sin tomar previamente en consideración ciertos aspectos, puede resultar estéril y contradictoria. Examinando, a través de textos del propio autor, cómo concibe la “razón”, el “lenguaje”, la “filosofía” y la “realidad”, junto a la descripción de ciertos rasgos de su “personalidad”, queremos mostrar el talante verdaderamente filosófico de Unamuno, tantas veces puesto en cuestión. El presente artículo tiene como objeto exponer algunos puntos clave (...) que pueden servir como indicadores para descubrir la riqueza y profundidad que encierra la obra del filósofo vasco. Palabras clave: Unamuno; Razón; Lenguaje; Filosofía; Realidad. ABSTRACT The philosophical thinking of Unamuno is complex and problematic. Trying to interpret his writings previously taking into consideration certain aspects of his work could result fruitless and contradictory (paradoxical). The analysis of his conception of subjects like reason, language, philosophy and reality in his texts, together with the description of certain traits of his personality lead us to the real philosophical nature of his work, which has been repeatedly questioned by some authors. This paper is going to explain the main aspects of his work, which are the indicators to discover the true nature of the enriching and profound characteristics of the work of this Basque philosopher. Key words: Unamuno; Reason; Language; Filosofia; Reality. (shrink)
Miranda Fricker?s research carefully negotiates the fields of ethics and epistemology, and the places and points where they overlap and intersect. Her 2007 text Epistemic injustice: Power and the ethics of knowing is particularly noteworthy in this regard. It seamlessly integrates these research areas and, in so doing, turns a critical eye on the common assumption that feminist epistemology, characterized by its focus on the role of gender oppression within knowledge practices, is a marginal field of social epistemology. Fricker challenges (...) her readers to consider the thesis that social and feminist epistemologies are more thoroughly interconnected than is traditionally assumed. (shrink)
Resumen Aparecen aquí Miranda y Bolívar con algunas ideas fundamentales, que nos permiten visualizar las consecuencias políticas de sus postulados. Nos proponemos analizar algunos conceptos básicos del período de la independencia, a saber: liberalismo, republicanismo y dictadura, pero enmarcados y relacionados con otros que le fueron afines: centralismo y federalismo. Los defensores de estos últimos elaboraron sus ideas con el propósito de definir formas de gobierno acordes con las nuevas naciones, sin embargo, esas elaboraciones trajeron consecuencias políticas decisivas para afirmar (...) formas autoritarias o democráticas, según los criterios y modelos asumidos. Palabras clave: Miranda; Bolívar; liberalismo; republicanismo; dictadura; centralismo; federalismo. Miranda and Bolívar: Republicanism, Liberalism and DictatorshipMiranda and Bolívar are shown here with some fundamental ideas, which allow us to visualize the political consequences of their postulates. We aim to analyze some basic concepts of the independence period, namely: liberalism, republicanism and dictatorship, framed in and related with others that were akin to them: centralism and federalism. The defenders of the latter concepts elaborated their ideas with the aim to define forms of government suitable to the new nations. However, these elaborations brought about political consequences decisive to strengthen either authoritarian or democratic forms, according to the criteria and models assumed. Keywords: Miranda; Bolívar; liberalism;republicanism; dictatorship;centralism; federalism. (shrink)